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Ille terrarum mihi praeter omnes 
Angulus ridet, ubi non Hymetto 
Mella decedunt, viridique certat 
Bacca Venafro. 
Ver ubi longum tepidasque preebet 
Jupiter brumas. 

Horace, Cartn. vi, Lib. iiT 

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Nos. 3 Broad and 109 East Bay Streets. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869, by 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the District ( 
Charleston, South Carolina. 



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The first Edition of this volume was prepared during the late war by 
direction of the Surgeon-Greneral of the Confederate States, that the Medical 
Officers, as well as the public, might be supplied with information, which, at 
the time, was greatly needed. I was released, temporarily, for this purpose, 
from service in the Field and Hospital. My connection with the last taen- 
tioned Institutions, as Physician and Surgeon, has extended almost unin- 
terruptedly over a period of twelve years ; so that my opportunities for 
experimental investigations in Therapeutics and practical medicine, has been 

This Edition has been largely added to, and much time and care have 
been expended in its preparation. 

It is intended as a Hand-book of scientific and popular knowledge, as 
regards the medicinal, economical and useful properties of the Trees, Plants 
and Shrubs found within the limits of the Southern States, whether em- 
ployed in the arts, for manufacturing purposes, or in domestic economy, to 
supply a present as well as a future want. Treating specially of our medi- 
cinal plants, and of the best substitutes for foreign articles of vegetable 
origin, my aim has been to spare no exertions, compatible with the limits 
assigned me, to make it applicable as well to the requirements of the Surgeon 
as of the Planter and Farmer ; and I trust that there will still be no diminu- 
tion in the desire of every one to possess a source from whence his curiosity 
may be satisfied on matters pertaining to our useful plants. The Physician 
in his private practice, the Planter on his estate, or, should the necessity 
arise, the Regimental Surgeon in the field, may himself collect and apply 
these substances within his reach, which are frequently quite as valuable as 
others obtained from abroad, and either impossible to be procured or scarce 
and costly. In preparing it, I have also had in view the wants of Emigrants 
and those abroad who wish to be acquainted with respect to the Agricultural 
capacities of this extended section of country. But information scattered 
through a variety of sources must needs be first collected, to be available in 
any practical point of view. 

I have, therefore, inserted whatever I thought would throw light upon 
the vegetable productions of the Southern States, to enable every one to use 
the abundant material within his reach. An excuse will be found for any 
awkward arrangement of the details, in the difficulty of collating, digesting 
and reconciling a multiplicity of statements, some of them contradictory, 
from a variety of authors. I have searched through the various Catalogues 


and systematic works on Botany, and noticed in almost every instance the 
habitat and precise locality of plants, that each one may be apprised of the 
proximity of valuable species. Frequent references to one limited section 
in particular, may be accounted for by the fact that it has been illustrated 
by the labors of at least three Botanists of distinction, Walter, MacBride 
and Eavenel. "Whenever citizens of other States have performed a similar 
work, I have gladly availed myself of it. 

Catalogues of the trees and plants growing in special localities thus become 
of great service, as they indicate precisely where valuable species may be 
procured. Those interested may obtain the localities of many plants found 
in the Southern States by consulting Elliott's Botany, Darby's, and the 
recent work by Chapman, of Florida, " The Flora of the Southern United 
States." Among the Catalogues issued at the South, is one by Dr. Jno. 
Bachman of " Plants growing in the vicinity of Charleston," published in 
the Southern Agriculturist; one by Prof. Lewis R. Gibbes of those found 
in Richland District, S. C; " Plants found in the vicinity of Newbern, N. 
C," by H. B. Croom ; an unfinished paper by W. Wragg Smith, Esq., 
published in the Transactions of the Elliott Society of Charleston ; "A 
Catalogue of Indigenous and Naturalized Plants of North Carolina, by 
Rev. M. A. Curtis, D. D., 1867;" and "A Medico-Botanical Catalogue of 
the Plants of St. John's Berkeley, S. C," by the writer. Also my " Sketch 
of the Medical Botany of South Carolina," published in the Transactions of 
the Am. Med. Association, vol. ii, 1849. The extensive collection in the 
Charleston Museum, by my friend, Mr. H. W. Ravenel, and his several 
publications, might also be consulted with profit. I have availed myself of 
Dr. Chapman's work in ascertaining the names of plants added by botanists 
since the time of Walter and Elliott, and not contained in the Catalogues 
referred to. By the opportune publication of this work, I have been enabled 
to introduce a large number of plants possessed of valuable properties, 
medicinal and economical, which are common to Mexico, the West India 
Islands and the tropical countries. The plants have been arranged after the 
Natural System, adopting, for the most part, the views of Lindley. 

The reference to information contained in books* serves the purpose of 
showing those interested in any Production or Manufacture where fuller 
details, which are too long to insert, can be procured. It will be seen from 
inspecting the list of authorities, that the labor of searching through the 
large number of Medical and other authorities has been very great. My 
chief object has been utility and the desire to benefit our people, and that 
future inquirers, being advised of what has been already accomplished, may 
proceed to more experimental researches. I have not hesitated to draw 
largely from any quarter, appending the name of the author, whenever I 
thought the matter applicable to our condition and requirements. Thus, on 

*"I take this occasion to express my indebtedness to Col. J. B. Moore, of States- 
burg, S. C, for the use of a vahiable library of agricultural and chemical books, and 
for many facilities aflforded me in the prosecution of this work. 


the subject of the Grape, Wine, Sugar, Sorghum, Tannin, Opium, Cotton, 
Tobacco, Tea, Ramie, Esparto Grass, Flax, Mustard, Castor Oil, Oils, Tur- 
pentine, Starch, Potash, Soda, Wood for engraving and for domestic pur- 
poses, Medicinal substances. Agricultural products generally, etc., I have 
been profuse in my selections from a multiplicity of sources. 

I have avoided more than a cursory mention of the Cryptogamic plants. 
Fungi, etc., as the space occupied would be too great. I would refer the 
reader to my paper in the Transactions of the Am. Med. Association, vol. 
vii, on " The Medicinal, Dietetic and Poisonous Properties of the Crypto- 
gamic Plants of the United States," where the subject is treated in exienso, 
and a description of several hundred useful or poisonous species furnished. 

The older as well as the more recent works on the Materia Medica, Thera- 
peutics and Medical Botany — from the Catalogus Plantarum of Johannes 
Ray and the Dispensatory of Trillerus, to Pereira, Wood, Griffith and 
Stille— have been consulted. I have been at the pains to search through the 
former^n order not only to ascertain the virtues once ascribed to our Plants, 
and to contrast these with the results of later investigations, but also to ex- 
hibit the mutations that have occurred in the confidence reposed in many of 
what are at present considered our most approved Therapeutic agents. The 
frequency with which this takes place warns us not to discard, upon a super- 
ficial examination, those popularly considered to be of trivial importance. 
The European authorities have been examined, and from them has been 
obtained much concerning our Medicinal and Economical plants, which is 
either not generally known or not alluded to in our Dispensatories, and 
which might be of essential service to those desirous, not merely of ascer- 
taining what is already understood, but also more thoroughly of investigating 
the hidden qualities of others. 

The investigation necessary for ascertaining and collecting these has 
unfolded a vast fund of facts relative to the virtues of a large proportion, as 
it will be observed, of the Plants, both obscure and well known, amongst us. 

I have availed myself of the 12th Edition of the U. S. Dispensatory, 
recently issued and carefully revised by its able surviving author. That 
complete and extensive work, the Dictionnaire de Matiere Medicale et Thera- 
peutique Generale, by Merat and De Lens, including the Supplementary 
volume, has been freely translated when necessary. I have also examined 
the Agricultural Journals, the Patent Office Reports, the "Rural Cyclo- 
pcedia," edited by Wilson, of Edinburgh ; and have thought it not inadmis- 
sible to glean from the Journals and Newspapers of the day, which occa- 
sionally aflTord the earliest information on the economical resources of a 
country. From these I have been carefully collecting. 

Many topics are, therefore, appropriately introduced which would hardly 
have place in a strictly Medical work. Information of this kind is generally 
referred to under subjects with which it is closely allied. Thus, Potash, 
Ashes and Soap are classed under Hickory and Oak, ("Carya" and "Quer- 
cus,") Soda and Soda Soaps under *' Salsola " and " Fucus," Charcoal under 
Pine and Willow, (" Pinus " and " Salix,") Oils under Bene, (" Sesamum,") 


Starch and Arrowroot under " Maranta " and " Convolvolus," etc., as these 
Plants are characteristically rich in such products. The Index, however, 
will contain full references. 

The mode of action of Medicinal plants infinitely varies ; their selection, 
consequently, for the several purposes required by the Physician, is not, in 
my opinion, a matter of mere accident, the result of guesswork or of popular 
reputation. Each is distinguished by the composition of its principal con- 
stituents ; these are generally astringent principles, narcotics, stimulating 
vegetable oils, cooling, refrigerant acids, bitter tonics, cathartics, etc., etc. 
Some, as the Cinchonacese and the less active anti-periodics, contain princi- 
T)les still more rarely met with and more obscure in their mode of operation, 
which have control in warding off the access of malarial attacks. But once 
in possession of the main active principles furnished by a plant, it is easy to 
see why it gains credit as a remedy in certain classes of disease. This power 
it may share in common with many others, and several properties may be 
combined in various degrees in each, which it is necessary to know, prelim- 
inary to a judicious application of them. Many Plants, for example, are 
reputed efficacious in arresting the profluvise, diarrhoeas and discharges from 
the mucous surfaces generally ; this should excite no surprise when it is 
suspected or ascertained that they contain tannin simply. In some others, 
as in the IJva ursi, for example, the tannin is associated with a stimulating 
diuretic oil, which further adapts it to the relief of chronic renal affections. 
So with those which experience teaches us produce a cathartic, emetic, nar- 
cotic, sedative, irritant, or vermifuge action on the human system. It is 
always in virtue of the well known principles they contain, that they prove 
serviceable and are preferred, and chemical analysis subsequently reveals 
precisely what it is upon which their powers depend. The ignorant, whether 
credulous or incredulous, know only by memory the name of the plant and 
the disease which it is said to suit — as in the manner of charlatans and herb 

Increased attention has, within the past decade, been paid to the produc- 
tion and manufacture of the Concentrated Preparations, Alkaloids, Resin- 
oids, solid and fluid Extracts, etc. We are indebted for many of these to 
the pharmaceutical and chemical skill of Professor Proctor, Dr. Parrish, 
and other competent investigators, and to the researches and publications 
of Prof. Geo. B. Wood. (See Am. Journ. Pharm., Journ. Phillad. Col- 
lege of Pharm., and Am. Pharm. Assoc.) Extensive establishments at the 
North are engaged in their manufacture, and an immense impulsion has 
been given to their use among a large and growing class of physicians and 
practitioners, particxilarly at the North and West. 

I may remind the reader that the knowledge of the very existence of the 
Alkaloids commenced with the discovery and separation of Morphia, by 
Serturner and Seguin, in 1817 ; a modification of the Generic name of the 
plant from which they are first derived, is usually given to them; sometimes 
these are indiscriminately terminated by in or ia, but in order to have uni- 


fortnity, the highest authorities recommend that the former should always 
be applied to the Neutral principle, and the latter to the Alkaloids. They 
are dissolved by water, but sparingly, by acids, alcohol, ether and almost all 
in benzine and chloroform. Tannic acid precipitates them, and is considered 
the best antidote for their injurious effects. 

Dr. Wood refers to the unscientific names used by the so-called Eclectics 
in givine; such appellations as Hydrastin, Iridin or Irisin to Alkaloids, 
Oleo-resins, etc., which should be reserved for the pure active principles 
when they shall have been discovered and separated ; and Parrish objects to 
" the evils growing out of this system of practice," and to " the multiplicity 
of these nondescript principles, which while many of them may be valuable 
medicines, are prepared almost exclusively by a few manufacturers, each 
pursuing his own process and liable to produce varying results ; while under 
an imperfect system of nomenclature all are classed together." This is 
freelj- admitted ; still, even in the impure and comparatively complex state 
in which^hese products are used by them, they are much less bulky than 
powders or decoctions of the plants from which they are obtained ; they arc 
easily administered, and though preparations more scientifically constructed 
are to be preferred and should be used, it must be allowed that by their 
means a certain advance has been made and an impulse given to the em- 
ployment of medicinal agents of vegetable origin, and hence incidentally 
to Medical Botany. Dr. Parrish also in his Practical Pharmacy sustains 
views similar to those I have long held : 

" Injustice to the so-called Eclectic practitioners, it must be admitted that 
they have been instrumental in introducing to notice some obscure medical 
plants which possess valuable properties ; it is to be regretted that their dis- 
position to run into pharmaceutical empiricism should have so long limited 
their usefulness and damaged their reputation." 

It is this tendency of the age, as exhibited even by those who are justly 
considered as irregular and unscientific, coupled with the efforts and capacity 
of our Pharmaceutical Chemists, that we are indebted for the separation and 
use of Leptandrin, H5'drastin, Irisin, Apocinin, Podophyllin, Caulophyllin, 
etc., and a number of others which are being extensively employed both in 
this country and in Europe; and that the plants from which they are pro- 
duced have been transferred during a comparatively recent period from the 
Secondary Lists and from a subordinate position in the Pharmacopoeia and 
the Dispensatory to the Primary List. 

To so great an extent are Leptandrin and Podophyllin employed at the 
North, that they are " leading articles of production with several of the 
largest manufacturing Pharmaceutists in the United States." 

The use of our Indigenous Medicinal Plants is indeed extending with 
rapid strides ; and those unacquainted with or unobservant of what has 
already and is being done, will be astonished at the progress that twenty 
years more of careful investigation of them, aided by minute chemical re- 
search and the experience obtained from clinical observation, will effect. 

In this latitude, however, strange to say, it is rather regarded as a re- 
proach for the educated Physician to be at all addicted to Botanical inves- 


ligations ; or that he should by any unusual assiduity add to the experience 
and observation acquired by him in the pursuit of his profession even the 
outlines of a practical knowledge of either General or Medical Botany, as 
if it leads necessarily to a blind belief in the potency of drugs ; and so he 
must fain suffer the penalties attached to his uncalled for and too adventur- 
ous search in these forbidden fields. Such knowledge, so limited, has not 
been considered essential or appropriate, as it is everywhere else, even to 
the teacher of Materia Medica and Therapeutics ; yet when the Therapeut- 
ist, who is at all informed as a Botanist, hears only the name of a me- 
dicinal preparation of vegetable origin, or that of an Alkaloid or Kesinoid, 
he knows and associates immediately therewith the name, relations, charac- 
ter and properties of the plant from which it is derived, and conversely. 

In a notice by my distinguished friend, W. Gilmore Simms, Esq., of an 
Article in De Bow's Review, by the writer, he refers in discursive language 
to the " resources of the Southern fields and forests, the natural productions 
in brief of the South — her resources in the woods, and swamps, and fields, 
the earth and rocks ; for purposes of need, utility, medicine, art, science and 
mechanics ; hints to the domestic manufacturer ; to the workers in wood and 
earth; and rock and tree ; and shrub and flower; hints, clues, suggestions 
which may be turned to the most useful purposes; not merely as exjiedients 
during the pressure of war and blockade, but continuously, through all time, 
as aff'ording profit, use, interest and employment to our people." 

From an inspection of the large amount of material embraced in this 
volume, it will be seen that our Southern Flora is extraordinarily rich. 

It is the teeming product of every variety of soil and climate, from Ma- 
ryland to Florida, from Tennessee to Texas. The Atlantic slopes with their 
marine growth, the Mountain ridges of the interior, the almost infra-tropi- 
cal productions of Louisiana and South Florida, with the rich alluvia of the 
River courses — all contribute to swell the lists and produce a wonderful 
exuberance of vegetation. The Southern States occupy almost the whole 
of the Temperate Zone in the Western Hemisphere. Under a genial sun, 
and enduring neither extremes of heat or cold, they are rich in natural re- 
sources, and possess a variety of soil and a range of temperature affected by 
the presence of both sea and mountain. 

Their geological features are diversified and somewhat peculiar. The land 
in the Atlantic States at varying distances from the coast rises evenly and 
insensibly to the height of about two hundred and fifty feet above the gen- 
eral tide level, forming a vast plain abounding in cypress swamps and pine 
and oak ridges, and constituting what is known as the Alluvial formations. 
For the most part, quartzose sands and clays cover the surface from the depth 
of from ten to twenty-five feet or more. These overlay vast beds of Tertiary 
marl, the Eocene, Miocene and Post-pliocene sections of which, composing 
the Limestone regions, crop out and expose their rich fossils in several locali- 
ties. The earth of the swamps and marshes that skirt the rivers and creeks 


frequently contains a large proportion of peat. Succeeding the above are 
the Primary formations stretching away to the mountains in the interior. 
The soil of this portion, derived from the disintegration of the granite, 
gneiss, clay-slate, and other metamorphic rocks, as they respectively come 
to the surface, and are subjected to atmospheric influences, presents every 
variety of fertility and barrenness. The geological features of the Penin- 
sula of Florida are exceptional. These divisions are distinguished by their 
characteristic vegetation,* and thus we are presented with geographical and 
climatic influences, which combine to produce a relation between heat and 
moisture peculiarly adapted to the production of a variety of species, com- 
prising many of our most active curative agents. The State of New York, 
which is said to include an area equal to the whole of Great Britain, accord- 
ing to Prof. Lee,f out of a Flora of one thousand four hundred and fifty 
species, contains but one hundred and fifty known to be medicinal. Here, it 
will be observed, in a space at the South considerably smaller in extent, a 
much laTt;er proportion exists. My Sketch of the Medical Botany of S. C. 
embraced a notice of four hundred and ten species, out of about three thou- 
sand five hundred, possessed of medicinal or economic value ; including, 
however, among these, some few exotic or introduced. A single circum- 
scribed locality in the lower section of the same State, but ten miles in 
diameter, furnishes one and one-third more than the whole of New York. 
We can readily perceive what the South at large, with an expanse of terri- 
tory equalling that of Great Britain, France and Germany combined, is 
capable of producing. 

Hence, though the South has been swept as by a whirlwind, and, like one 
of its native pines, scathed and blasted by the lightnings of war, its inherent 
powers of reproduction are almost limitless. Its seasons of spring and 
summer are long ; the navigation of its rivers is scarcely ever interrupted, 
and during the whole year its people may be continuously and industriously 
occupied. Heretofore, they have been almost exclusively confined to the 
labors of the field — in the production and preparation of those seven great 
staple articles of consumption and of export, viz : Cotton, Rice, Sugar, To- 

*"In short, the Flora of the upper verge of the Tertiary is as distinct from that of 
the rest of the State as are the two geoln;:;ical systems which meet there from each 
other." Prof. Tuome3''s Geolog. Rep. of S. C, p. 140. I have i-epeatedly observed 
similar relations affecting a more limited space. 

Throughout the States bordering on the ocean at varying distances from the coast, 
the same geological divisions are found, only differing in breadth and extent, and 
presenting great similarity as respects soil and vegetation. 

Thus I have carefully noted the Flora and face of the country prevailing in Fair- 
field Countv, S. C, and Povrhattan, Va., and have observed a marked resemblance in 
almost every respect. A narrow strip of Long leaf Pine, for example, is found bor- 
dering the southeastern extremities of each of these counties. See Report to Elliott 
Soc. of Charleston. 

f A Catalogue of the Medic. Plants, Indig. and Exot., growing in the State of 
New York. By C. A. Lee, Prof. Mat. Med., etc. New York, 1848. 


bacco, Wheat, Corn and Turpentine, whicli though dethroned as " Kings," 
yet still create or move the commerce of the world and form the wealth of 
States. Now, however, immense Mills and Manufactories must spring up 
to consume the raw material of the most important of these products, which 
is grown at their doors, and which has heretofore been carried elsewhere to 
be returned to us burdened with the cost of transportation and of the labor 
and skill expended upon its conversion into fabrics. 

It will, therefore, be observed how important it is for us to understand 
the Flora as well as the soil of a country ; and as one at least of our staple 
commodities has suflered, we must seek to diversify our industries ; and by 
a more intelligent observation we may discover new products adapted to 
our wants and capable of being produced here. It will be observed that 
most of our useful Plants are not indigenous. Many now in the woods may, 
by careful cultivation, become greatly improved in quality, and tenfold 
more productive — as has already been done with our wild grapes, apples, 
cauliflowers, strawberries, etc., etc. 

Central Botanical Gardens should be established in place of Parks, which 
may be made useful to the industry of man, and are as important to a State 
as Geological Surveys. 

I here introduce a notice of upwards of five hundred substances, possessing 
every variety of useful quality. Some will be rejected as useless, others 
may be found upon closer examination to be still more valuable. The most 
precious of all Textile Fibres and Grains, Silks, Seeds, Fruits, Oils, Gums, 
Caoutchouc, Kesins, Dyes, Fecula, Albumen, Sugar, Starch, Vegetable 
Acids and Alkalies, Liquors, Spirit, Burning Fluid, material for making 
Paper and Cordage, Grasses and Forage Plants, Barks, Medicines, Wood 
for Tanning and the production of Chemical Agencies, for Timber, Ship- 
building, Engraving, Furniture, Implements and Utensils of every descrip- 
tion — all abound in the greatest munificence, and need but the arm of the 
authorities or the energy and enterprise of the private citizen to be made 
sources of utility, profit or beauty. 

Among the Kesources of the South, I had intended to refer to the Phos- 
phates recently discovered and developed, in one section, at least, which 
may contribute so materially to improve the production of our Fields. I 
had prepared a history of them, to be published as an appendix to this volume, 
but the want of space forbids. 

There is a subject, however, which the writer has been long reflecting 
upon, and which he considers one of supreme importance, whether we regard 
the improvement of our Cultivated Crops, or the Fields and Forests of the 
country. If successfully carried out, it will reclaim and render fit for tillage 
vast bodies of lands now lying idle, and greatly improve their sanitary 
condition. It will also make white labor available during the whole year, 
and greatly stimulate immigration. 

I refer to the Drainage of the Marshes and Swamp lands, particularly 


those near the Cities and along the River courses. This, save in particular 
instances, cannot now be done by the separate and isolated efforts of planters 
and farmers, but should be accomplished as a public work by the State. Op- 
erations could be commenced on the inland Swamps, each of which presents 
an independent problem to the Civil Engineer. Along our coasts, at a 
distance of forty miles from the sea, there is a rise of about twenty feet above 
the general tide level, giving a fall of half a foot to the mile, which is 
sufficient. In my own experience, these are capable of thorough and per- 
fect drainage. 

The Engineer Mills, in his Statistics of S. Carolina, published in 1826, has 
presented an elaborate scheme of this kind, by which it was proposed that 
the State should purchase so many slaves, and when the Swamps were 
drained, the lands so improved and increased in value should be sold to the 
Farmers and Planters. 

Enterprises of a similar nature, on an extensive scale, have long since, as 
is generally known, been successfully prosecuted in Holland and in Belgium. 
The Harlaem Meer, drained in 1839, was 4,500 acres in extent, with an 
average depth of thirteen feet. The works were executed by the government 
at an expense of 151. 5s. per acre. The whole of the bed of the lake has 
been brought into cultivation, and the government has been partially repaid 
by the sale of the land. Large tracts of alluvial land have been reclaimed, 
both in Holland and Belgium. The Campine, in Belgium, has been sub- 
jected to a system of both drainage and irrigation. 

Large Bogs in Ireland, the Chat Moss, and the Bogs of Allen have been 
successfully reclaimed by surface ditches and by auger-holes descending to 
the pervious strata below. 

Fens and Morasses in Yorkshire, and in various other counties in England ^ 
have been transformed from barrenness to fertility, and now yield abun- 
dant crops of pasturage. 

In Milan, the system of irrigation is extensively practiced on Meadow 
land, and near Mantua, as in the time of Virgil, the superabundant water 
has been reduced within its proper channels, to the great advantage of the 

The operations by the late East India Company have been brilliant in 
their results, the engineers availing themselves of the huge works of their 
Indian predecessors. Fifty per cent, has been realized.* 

The French in Algiers have succeeded in draining and reducing to suc- 
cessful cultivation the entire plain of the Alemtijo, which was before an 
unhealthy region, and which now produces abundantly all the tropical fruits, 
grains, etc., to supply the demands of the mother country. 

*See, for more practical details, The Rudiments of Hydraulic Engineering, by G. 
R. Burnell, F. G. S., Civil Engineer ; The Art of Draining Districts and Lands, 
and Drainage and Sewage of Towns, by Gr. D. Dempsey, C. E.; and Embanking 
Lands from the Sea, by Jno. Wiggins, F. G. S. J. S. Virtue, London. I insert 
these references on account of the truth of the maxim : "Scire ubi aliquid invenire 
possis, maxima pars scientiee est." The first thing is to know where to get infor- 


The writer has seen the picturesque and fertile Valley of the Chiana ia 
Italy, smiling in peace and plenty, strewn with villas and farmhouses, and 
intersected by the best constructed roads, always so indicative of wealth and 
abundance; yet this beautiful Valley, which now supplies all Tuscany with 
corn, wine and oil, was once a pestilential and almost deserted region, and 
noted in the earliest times for its insalubrity, as evidenced by the striking 
allusion made to it by Dante in the Inferno.* 

This has been accomplished by the skill of Count Fossombroni, who fol- 
lowed the plan recommended by Torricelli in draining the Maremma by 
hydraulic engineering. It is known as the system of Colmates, and consists 
in turning the course of rivers or streams coming from clay-hills, so that 
they deposit the sand and mud with which they are charged, and thus raises 
tbe general level and at the same time causing a fall of the stagnant water, 
converts it into a rich and fertile tract. (Opere Pratiche sopra il Val di 
Chiana, published at Montepulciano ; a copy of which is in the possession 
of the writer.) 

The simplest plans for draining the secondary or inland Swamps, is to run 
a straight central canal, which removes the obstructions caused by logs and 
mud flats, and takes off the main body of water. A canal or drain is also 
cut on each side to receive the water coming in from the surrounding high 
lands. The underground system with Tiles, generally practiced in England 
and on the Continent, is only applicable in this country to a limited extent 
at present. 

The lands throughout a large portion of the South are quite rich 
enough for every purpose, and we need not go to the West or elsewhere 
in quest of better soil. Since emancipation, immigrants from Europe may 
be employed in these public works now proposed. The cutting down the 
trees and exposing the surface to the almost constant action of the sun, will 
subject it to the important agency of evaporation ; the removal of the causes 
of malaria will be the result; and if complete exemption of the sickly por- 
tions of the States from its baneful influences and from periodical fevers, by 
which white labor is made possible, is not secured, the hygienic condition of 
the whole country will, at least, be improved, and the wealth and happiness 
of our citizens generally enormously increased. 

By draining our Swamps, we secure a soil for corn, cane, etc., enriched by 
the vegetable matter accumulated for centuries, and the higher lands are 
released for cotton and other crops. 

Besides, when we drain the Swamps there ensues an interstitial drainage, 
by a process of molecular absorption incessantly acting, which extends for 
miles around, affecting the high lands at a much greater distance than many 

®Qual dolor fora se degli spedali 

T)i Valdichiana, tra'l luglio e'l settembre, 
E di Maremma e di Sardigna i mall 
FoFsero in una fossa tutti insembre. 

Canto xxix, and the Paradiso, e. xiii. 


would suppose, rendering them drier, and allowing pines, oaks and other 
plants to spring up where before only swamp trees and rank grasses grew. 

Islands and isolated sections of country favorably situated, as, for example, 
those adjoining Charleston, and embraced between the Cooper and Ashley, 
the same being true of those lying near other cities, and along our coast, can 
be drained and made rich and habitable even in the warm months. They 
will be occupied by Garden Farms which will supply, not only the cities con- 
tiguous to them, but fill our ships going to the North with fruits, vegetables 
and produce. 

Many of us residing on the Coast are aware of what was accomplished in 
the way of Embankments by our fathers and the earlier settlers of the 
State. They were built for the most part to aid in the cultivation of rice, 
but the femains of these immense banks attest the industry and enterprise 
of our people and are an earnest of what we ourselves may accomplish when 
fostered and aided by the State. 

It is true that much of this work was done Tinder the system of primo- 
geniture, when it was in the power and to the interest of the owner of the 
soil to make lasting improvements, and by so doing look for the permanent 
welfare of his descendants. A diiferent organization of labor and capital 
also enabled the private individual to accomplish more then than now. 
These considerations, however, furnish arguments in support of the same 
being done by the State ; which should, when it becomes necessary, perform 
for its citizens those acts of public utility, the right or the ability to do which 
depended upon systems and institutions which it has, from reasons of policy 
or interest, abolished or destroyed, and being deprived of which, they suffer. 

To carry out the project imperfectly unfolded above, the State or Govern- 
ment may organize a Drainage Commission or Joint Stock Association, 
which will make the financial scheme a feasible and successful one, into the 
details of which I cannot now enter. Its realization is doubtless impossible 
at present ; but viewed in every light as respects the common welfare, it in- 
volves enterprises which are to us and to those coming after us of com- 
manding importance and worthy of the most thoughtful consideration. 

"When the time arrives for its execution, the wisdom and policy of the 
step being apparent, it will establish the distinction of any Administration 
which undertakes it, or the fame of any Statesman who shall have the wit to 
use his influence successfully to achieve it. Finis coronat opus. 


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4 vols. P«fis, 1774. J 

Hortus Amerieanus. By Dr. Barham. 

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Am. Herbal, or Materia Medica. With New Medical ) 
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Flora Scotica. By John Lightfoot. Edinburg. 

Indigenous Botany. By Colin Milne, LL. D., and Alex- 1 
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A New Family Herbal ; or, an Account of Plants and 
their Properties in Medicine and the Arts. By R. J. 
Thornton. London, 1810. 

Lindlej^'s Natural Sj'stem of Botany. With the Uses "1 
of Important Species in Medicine, the Arts, and Domestic > 
Economy. London, 1836. J 

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1790. Sec. edition, 1800. J 

Barton's Med. Botany. 

W. P. Barton's Flora. Philadelphia, 1823. 

Rafinesque's Medical Flora. 

Bigelow's Am. Medical Botany, 4 vols. Boston, 1820. 

Barton's Collection towards the Formation of a Materia ] 
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Medical Botany. With the uses of Important Species "] 
in Medicine, the Arts, etc. By R. E. Griffith. Philadel- [ 

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Illustrations of Medical Botany. By Joseph Carson, ] 
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Cat. Plantarum. 

Gulp. Eng. Phys. 

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Linn. Veg. M. Med. 
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AVhitlaw's New Med. 

Steam's Am. Herbal. 

Fl. Scotica. 

Milne Ind. Bot. 

Thornton's Fam. Herb. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 

Woodv. Med. Bot. 

Bart. M. Bot. 
Bart. Flora. 
Raf. Med. Fl. 
Big. Am. Med. Bot. 

Barton's Collec. 

Griffith's Med. Bot. 

Carson's Illust. Med. 



Sheeut's Flora Carolinceensis ; or, a History, Medical ^ 

and Economical, of the Vegetable Kingdom. Charleston, \ Shee. Flora Carol. 
1806. j 

Elliott's Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and ) j^jj_ jj^^_ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
Georgia. With Medical Notes. Charleston, 1800. J 

Drayton's View of South Carolina. Charleston, 1802. Drayton's View. 

Chalmers History of South Carolina. Chalmer's Hist. S. C. 

Garden's and Lining's Observations, Physical and Lit- | Q^^i\^ and Lin Obs 

iry. i ' ' 

Travels in South and North Carolina. By John Law- | Liwson's S C 
son, Surveyor-General, 1716. J ' 

United States Dispensatory. By Wood and Bache. ] \-\ ^ t);™ 

Philadelphia, 1846. 12th Edition, 1868. J lj. o. i^i..p. 

Thacher's United States Dispensatory. Thaeher's U. S. Disp. 

American Dispensatory. By R. Coxe. Coxe, Am. Disp. 

Bergii Materia Medica. E. regno vegetabili, etc. Stock- ] j^gj-o-ii Mat Med 
holmiaj, 1782. J o > ' • ^ 

Cullen's Materia Medica. Edinburgh. Cullen, Mat. Med. 

Lewis' Materia Medica, 2 vols. London, 1791. Le. Mat. Med. 

Pereira's Materia Medica and Therapeutics, 2 vol- ) Pe. Mat. Med. and 
umes. j Therap. 

Practical Dictionary of Materia Medica. By John Bell, f Tj„ii'g p,.oet Diet 
Philadelphia. ( 

Eberle's Materia Medica and Therapeutics, 2 vols. Phila- ) ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

delphia, 1834. j 

Edwards and Vavasseur's Matiere Medicale. Paris, ] Ed. and Vav. Mat. 
1836. ]■ Med. 

Trousseau et Pidoux, Traite de Therapeutique, et de Ma- [ Trous. ct Pid. Mat. 
ticre Medicale. Paris, 1837. J Med. 

Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics. By H. R. | Frost's Elms. Mat. 
Frost, Prof. M. M. Medical College of South Carolina. J Med. 

Chapman's Therapeutics and Materia Medica, 2 vols. ) Chap. Therap. and 
Philadelphia, 1822. j Mat. Med. 

Bailed and Garrod's Materia Medica. London, 1846. Ball, k Gar. Mat. Med. 

Royle's Materia Medica and Therapeutics. Philadelphia, ) ■Rovlc Mat Med 
1847. 5 J ' • • 

Merat and de Lens' Dietionnaire Univ. de Matiere Medi- ) Mer. and de L. Diet, 
cale. Paris, 1837, tom. vi. \ de M. Med. 

Supplementary volume to the above. Paris, 1846. K Univ de M Med 

Watson's Practice of Physic. Second American Edition, j Watson's Practice 
Philadelphia, 1845. I Physic. 

Stille's Therapeutics and Materia Medica. Philadelphia, 1862-'6. 

Statistics of South Carolina. A View of its Natural, Civil and Military History. 
By Robert Mills, Civil Engineer. Charleston, 1826. 

Southern Agriculturist. Charleston, 1820-'39. So. Agricult. 

Matson's Vegetable Practice. 1839. Matson's Veg. Pract. 

Imp. System Botanical Medicine. By Horton Howard. Imp. Syst. Bot. Med. 

Pharmacopoeias, Journals, Reviews, Monographs, Inaugural Theses, etc., both 
American and foreign. 

The Principles of Agriculture, by' Albert D. Thaer, translated by William Shaw, 
Esq., member of the council of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, etc., 
and C. W. Johnson, Esq., F. R. S. 4th Edition. New York : Bangs, Brother & Co., 

Flora of the Southern United States, containing an abridged description of the 
flowering plants and ferns of Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, 

Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida, arranged according to the natural sj-stem, by A. 
W. Chapman, M. D. The lems by Daniel, C. Eaton. New York, 1800. 

Rural Economy, in its relations with chemistry, physics, and meteorology, or chem- 
istry applied to agriculture, by J. B. Boussingault, member of Institute of France, etc. 
Translated by (Jeorgo Law, Agriculturalist. New York, C. M. Saxton, 1857. 

Saxton's Rural Hand Books. New York, 1852. 

Thornton's Southern Gardener, and Receipt Book. Camden, S. C. 

Enquire Within ; 3,700 facts. New York, 1857. 

The Fruit Gardener. Philadelphia, 1847. 

Downing's Fruit and Fruit Trees of America. New York, 1858. 

The Southern Farmer and Market Gardener, by Prof. F. S. Holmes, Charleston, 

The Art of Manufacturing Soaps and Candles. By P. Kurten. Philadelphia, 
Linsay & Blakiston, 1854-. 

Industrial Resources of the South and West, by J. D. B. DeBow. New Orleans, 

Sorgho and Imphee, the Chinese and African Sugar Canes, by H. S. Olcott. New 
York, 1857. 

lire's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines. From the 4th English edition. 
New York, 1853. 

Chemistry applied to Agriculture, by Count John Antony Chaptal. Boston, 

Chemical Field Lectures, by J. A. Stockhardt. Translated from the German. Cam- 
bridge, 1853. 

Parrish, Practical Pharmacy. Philadelphia, 1859. This work contains informa- 
tion respecting the active principles of plants, oils, acids, etc., with many jiharma- 
ceutical details. 

Positive Medical Agents, a Treatise on the new alkaloid, resinoid and concentrated 
preparations of native and foreign Medical Plants ; by authoritj' of the American 
Chemical Institute. New York, 1854. 

The Art of Tanning and Leather Dressing. By Prof. H. Dussouce. Philadelphia 
and London, 1867. 

A Muck Manual, by Samuel L. Dana. New York, 1858. 

The Fruit Garden. A Treatise by P. Barry. New .York, 1857. 

Practical Treatise on Culture of Grape, by J. Fiskc Allen. New York, 1858. 

Charlton on Culture of Exotic Grape under Glass. New York, 1853. 

Elements of Scientific Agriculture, by S. P. Norton, Professor in Yale College, 
New York, 1854. 

A Manual of Scientific and Practical Agriculture, for the School and the Farm, by 
J. L. Campbell, A. M., Professor Physical Science, Washington College, Va. Phila- 
delphia, 1859. 

The American Grape Grower's Guide, intended especially for the climate of America. 
Illustrated by AVilliam Charlton. New York, A. 0. Moore, 1859. For full description 
of best modes of cultivating the grape. 

Sorgho and Imphee, the Chinese and African Sugar Canes. Manufacture of sugar 
syrup, alchohol, wines, beer, cider, vinegar, starch, and dye stuffs, with translations 
of French Pamphlets, etc., etc., and drawing of machinery, by H. S. Olcott. New 
York, A. 0. Moore, 1857. 

Patent Oflice Reports, Agriculture, 1848, '51, '53, '54, '55, '5(5, '57, '58. 

Rural Chemistr}', by Edward Solly, F. L. S., Honorary Member of Royal Agricul- 
tural Society, England. Philadelphia, Henry C. Baird, 1852. 

The Rural Cyclopaedia, or a General Dictionary of Agriculture, and of the Arts, 
Sciences, Instruments, and Practice necessary to the Farmer, etc. Edited by Rev. 
Jno. M. Wilson. In four volumes. Edinburgh, 1852, A. Fullarton. 

General Directions for Collecting and Drying Medicinal Substances, with a list of 
Indigenous Plants. From the Surgeon-General's office, 1862. Richmond. A pam- 

Tobacco Culture. Practical details from the selection and preparation of the Seed 
and Soil to harvesting, curing, and marketing the crop. Plain Directions, as given 
by fourteen experienced cultivators. New York, 1867-8. 

Essays on Cultivation of Flax Seed and Castor Beans. Published by the St. Louis 
Seed and Oil Co., 1868. 

A Catalogue of Indigenous and Naturalized Plants of the State of North Carolina, 
by Rev. M. A. Curtis, D. D. Raleigh, 1867. This contains over a hundred edible 
Mushrooms, designated by italics. Mr. Curtis will soon publish Illustrations of these 

I have not enumerated the numerous authorities I had examined with reference to 
the Medicinal and Economical properties of the Cryptogamic Plants, Fungi, and others 
of this class. 

The following works, published in England, may be referred to in ease any are 
desirous of consulting them : 

Miller's Gardener's Dictionary, Marshall on Planting, Nichols' Planter's Calendar, 
Ponty's Profitable Planter, Phillips' Shrubbery, Treatise on Planting in the Lil)rary 
of Useful Knowledge, Loudon's Encyclopasdia of Plants, Accum on the Adulterations 
of Food, Babbage on the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Thompson's Veg- 
etable Chemistry, Knapp's Technology, Willich's Domestic Encyclopaedia. See, also, 
Treatise by Dr. J. Harris, of Mass., on Insects injurious to Vegetation, and Townsend 
Glover's papers on same subject in Patent OflRce Reports. 

^^®*" Those interested in obtaining foreign seeds, plants, etc., can obtain them by 
applying to James Carter & Co., and Butler and McCuUoch, of London ; William 
Thompson, of Iswich, England ; and Vilmorin, Andreux & Cie., Paris, France. 

Dr. Pai-rish in his " Practical Pharmacy," says that the cultivation of medicinal plants 
in this country, for sale, as such, is mainly confined to the beautiful valley in Colum- 
bia, Co., N. Y., where it is pursued by the Shakers and by Tilden & Co. " This dis- 
trict seems specially adapted to the purpose, and like the celebrated Physic gardens of 
Mitcham, England, furnishes a great variety and in large quantity." " For an inter- 
esting account," he adds, "of the Physic gardens of Mitcham, see Am. J. Pharm. 
v. XXIIL, p. 25 ; for some details in regard to the N. Lebanon gardens, where every 
kind of medicinal preparation from native and medicinal plants, are prepared on an 
extensive scale, see the same Journal, v. XXIIL, p. 386." 

The gathering of the Sumac leaves so extensively and profitably pursued in Va. 
(1868), and to which I had invited attention as an original suggestion in the first Edi- 
tion of this Book (see Sumac), is well worthy of imitation as an industrial pursuit by 
a large number of people residing in other States, and I therefore give prominence to 
it by the above reference. 






All leaves, flowers, and herbs should be preferably gathered 
in clear, dry weather, in the morning, after the dew is exhaled. 

The roots of medicinal plants, although more advantageously 
gathered at certain periods, to be hereafter specified, do not lose 
their medicinal virtues in consequence of being dug in mid- 
summer. It is probable that most of those imported are thus 
collected by savages or ignorant persons, when the plant is in 
full leaf, it being then more easily recognized. 

Plants, Annual, should be gathered at the time when their 
vegetation is most vigorous, which is generally from the time 
they begin to flower until their leaves begin to change. 

Plants, Biennial, should, in most instances, be gathered in 
the second season of their growth, and about the time of 

EooTS OF Annuals are to be gathered just before the time of 

EooTS OF Biennials are to be gathered after the vegetation 
of the first year has ceased. 

EooTS OF Perennials are to be gathered in the spring, before 
vegetation has commenced. Eoots should be washed, and the 
smaller fibres, unless they are the part employed, should be 
then separated from the body of the root, which, when of any 
considerable size, is to be cut in slices previous to being dried. 

Bulbs are to be gathered after the new bulb is perfected, and 
before it has begun to vegetate, which is at the time the leaves 

decay. Those which are to be preserved fresh should be buried 
in dry sand. 

Barks, whether of the root, trunk, or branches, should be 
gathered in the autumn, or early in the spring. The dead 
epidermis or outer bark, and the decayed parts, should be 
i-emoved. Of some trees (as the elm) the inner bark only is 

Leaves are to be gathered after their full development, before 
the fading of the flowers. The leaves of biennials do not attain 
their perfect qualities until the second year. 

Flowers should, in general, be gathered at the time of their 
expansion, before or immediately after they have fully opened ; 
some — as the Eosa Gallica — while in bud. 

Aromatic Herbs are to be gathered when in flower. 

Stalks and Twigs should be collected in~autumn. 

Seeds should be collected at the period of their full maturity. 


Medicinal products of the vegetable kingdom (as plants, roots, 
etc.) should be dried as rapidly as is consistent with their per- 
fect preservation, but not subjected to extreme heat. 

Those collected in the warm months and during dry weather 
may, except in a few instances, be dried by their spontaneous 
evaporation, in a well ventilated apartment; some — as roots 
and barks — may be exposed to the direct rays of the sun. 

In spring and autumn, and in damp, foggy, or rainy weather, 
a drying-house should be resorted to ; the temperature to range 
from 70° to 100° F. There should be an aperture above for the 
escape of warm, moist air. 

Fibrous Eoots may be dried in the sun, or at a heat of from 
65° to 80° F. in the drying-room. 

Fleshy Eoots should be cut in transverse slices, not exceed- 
ing half an inch in length, and during the drying process should 
be stirred several times to prevent their moulding. 

Bulbs must have the coarse outer membrane peeled off". In 
other respects they are to be treated like fleshy roots. 

Barks, Woods and Twigs readily dry, in thin layers, in the 
open air. 

Leaves, after separation from the stalks, should be strewed 
losely over hurdle-frames, and their position changed twice a 
day, until they become dry. When very succulent, they require 
more care to prevent their discoloration. For thin, dry leaves, 
the heat need not exceed 70° F. ; for the succulent, it may 
gradually be raised to 100° F. 

Annual Plants and Tops. — If not too juicy, thesemay be 
tied loosel}^ in small bundles, and strung on lines stretched 
across the drj'ing-room. 

Flowers must be dried carcfull}^ and rapidly, so as to pre- 
serve tlTeir color. Thej^ should be spread loosely on the hurdles, 
and turned several times by stirring. When flowers or leaves 
owe their virtues to volatile oils, gi'cater care is necessary. 

A carefully pressed specimen of the stem, leaf, and flower of 
each medicinal substance collected, whether it be bark, root, or 
herb, should be obtained and forwarded with each collection, 
for the purpose of aiding in its identification. The above is from 
" General Directions" and List of Plants — a pamphlet issued 
from Surgeon-General's Office, 1862. Consult, also, XJ. S. Dis- 

The two following papers, contributed by the writer to a 
Periodical during the war, are introduced befoi'e entering upon 
the systematic portion of the Work, because they contain 
information, in a condensed shape, which may be practically 
useful : 

brief notice op easily procurable medicinal plants, to be 

collected by soldiers while in service in any 

part op the southern states. 

My attention having been occupied with the subject of the 
substitutes for imported Medicines, I have thought that if some 
hints were given the Surgeons and Assistant Surgeons in the 
field, with respect to the useful properties of a few articles 
(easily attainable in every part of the country), it would 

greatly lessen the use of the more expensive medicines. One 
man detailed from each company, or from a regiment, could 
obtain a full supply of each substance fresh, for the use of the 
Surgeon, and this at less trouble and expense than if it was 
procured by the Medical Purveyors, to be distributed to the 
regiments. I will mention some of these substances. They 
are familiar to all, but still without special recommendation, 
they are likely to escape attention : 

Sassafras (Laiirus). — Whilst engaged in active duties as Sur- 
geon to the Holcombe Legion, whenever a soldier suffered 
from measles, pneumonia, bronchitis, or cold, his companion or 
nurse was directed to procure the roots and leaves of Sassafras, 
and a tea made with this supplied that of Flax Seed or G-um 
Arabic, The leaf of the Sassafras contains a great amount of 

Bene {Sesamum). — The leaves of the Bene may be used in camp 
dysentery, in colds, coughs, etc., in place of Gum Arabic or 
Flax Seed. One or two leaves in a tumbler of water imparts 
their mucilaginous properties. 

Dogwood {Cormis Florida'). — During the late war, the bark has 
been employed with great advantage in place of quinine in fe- 
vers — particularly in cases of low forms of fever, and in dysen- 
tery, on the river courses, of a tj^hoid character. It is given as 
a substitute for Peruvian barks. In fact, in almost any case 
where the Cinchona bark was used. 

Thoroughwort, Bone-set (Eupatorium perfoUatum). — Thorough- 
wort, drank hot during the cold stage of fever, and cold as a 
tonic and antiperiodic, is thought by many physicians to be 
even superior to the Dogwood, Willow, or Poplar, as a sub- 
stitute for quinine. It is quite sufficient in the management of 
many of the malarial fevers that will prevail among troops dur- 
ing the Avarm months ; and if it does not supply entirely the 
place of quinine, will certainly lessen the need for its use. These 
plants can be easily procured in every locality. 

Tulip Bearing Foplar {Liriodendron) and the Willow bark sup- 
ply remedies for the fevers met with in camp. The Cold infu- 
sion is given. 

Sweet Gum (Liquidamhar Styraciflua) . — The inner bark con- 
tains an astringent, gwnmy substance. If it is boiled in milk. 

or a tea made with water, its astringency is so great that it will 
easily check diarrhoea, and associated with the use of other 
remedies, dysentery also. The leaf of the gum, Avhen green, I 
have also ascertained to be powerfully astringent, and to con- 
tain as large a proportion of tannin as that of any other tree. 
I believe that the Grum leaf and the leaf of the Myrtle and 
Blackberry can be used wherever an astringent is required ; 
cold water takes it up. They can, I think, be also used for tan- 
ning leather, when green, in place of oak bark. 

Blackberry Root {JRuhus). — A decoction will check profuse 
diarrhoeas of any kind. The root of the Chinquapin (Gastanea) 
is also astringent. 

Gentian. — Our native tonics are abundant. Several varieties 
of Gentian, Sabbatia, etc., may be added to those mentioned. 
The Pipissewa, or Winter Green (Chimaphila), is both an aro- 
matic tonic and a diuretic, and therefore selected in the conva- 
lescence from low fevers followed by dropsical symptoms. These, 
the numerous aromatic plants, etc., are not intended to take the 
place of other medicines, which can be obtained and are re- 
quired. It is not intended that a blind or exclusive reliance 
should be placed in them — but they were recommended to sup- 
ply a great and pressing need. 

Holly (Ilex Opaca'). — The bai'k of the holly root chewed, or a 
tea made with it, yields an excellent bitter demulcent, very use- 
ful in coughs, colds, etc. The bitter principle is also tonic. The 
Holly contains bird-lime. 

Wild Jalap (Podophyllum Peltatiim. — If this can be found it 
can be used as a laxative in place of rhubarb or jalap, or 
wherever a purgative is required. Every planter in the South, 
ern States can produce the opium, mustard, and flax seed that is 
needed for home use. 

Swamp Dragon, (Saururus Cernuus), — The roots of this plant, 
growing abimdantly in the swamps and marshes along the sea- 
board, boiled and mashed, furnish an easily procurable and high- 
ly soothing material for poultices — admirably adapted to the 
wants of large bodies of men in camps, as well as of negroes on 
our plantations. 

Potash, pearlash, and soda are easily procurable from the 
ashes of certain plants. Our Salsola Kali, growing on the sea 


coast, is rich in soda. Consult Index for references to more de- 
tailed information. 


In ansM'cr to an inquirj^ of a correspondent, I gave the names 
of several Trees growing at the South as probably suited for the 
purposes of the wood engraver. To these I will now add those 
noticed by subsequent correspondents, and also call attention to 
two or three other Trees with wood of great fineness and density 
of structure, which may be tested as substitutes for the wood 
heretofore imported from the North; and which are also likely 
to prove serviceable whenever a wood of hai'd, line grain is 
required by the manufacturer. 

Iron Wood, Horn Beam (Ostrya Virginica, Ell. Sk.) — It has 
often been employed by turners, and wrought into mill-cogs, 
wheels, etc. The wood is tough and white, and will prove an 
important acquisition to those interested in machinery, or in the 
construction of implements, tools, etc. 

White Beech, {Fagxis sylvatica). — Diffused. This wood is very 
hard, is capable of receiving a high polish, and should be prized 
by cabinet makers and turners for manufacturing purposes. 

Sioeet Birch, Cherry Birch, Mountain Mahogany (Betula lenta, 
Jjinn.) — Grows in the mountains of South Carolina and G-eorgia, 
possesses a fine grain, and also susceptible of a beautiful polish. 
The Red Birch {Betula. nigra) grows in our swamps in the lower 
country. The Black Birch is said by Lindley to be exceedingly 

White Oak {Quercus alba). — One of the best of the Oaks, with 
the Live Oak, likely to be employed wherever great durability 
is desirable ; these, with the Walnut and Maple, are well known. 

Dog Wood {Cormis Florida). — Much used on our plantations 
wherever a wood of firmness of texture is required. 

Persimmon (JDiospyros Virginiana). — A very hard wood — in 
the natural family of plants found under what is known as the 
Ebony tribe. 


The Holhj (Ilex opaca), the Apple and Pear are very much 
esteemed by many; perhaps harder than an}^ of those cited. 
These may be more particularly adapted to the purposes of the 
wood engraver. 

The Calico Bush, Ivy Bush, {Kaiinia latifoUa). — Grows in our 
middle districts. Wood hard and dense. 

Mountain Laurel, Bay (Rhododendron maximuni) — Found in 
our mountains ; said to resemble the Kalmia, and quoted by a 
writer as adapted to the j^urposes of the engraver. 

Iron Wood. — Another tree named from its supposed firmness 
(Bumelia Lycioides Ell. Sk.) 1 have collected it in Charleston, 
and forty miles from the ocean. 

Yellow Locust Tree, False Acacia (Rohinia pseudoaccacice, L.) — 
In mountains and in lower districts. The grain is fine and 
compact ; the wood, on account of its durability, is much used 
for treenails in ship building. 

Leather Wood {Lirca palustris). — Grows in Georgia ; is both 
hard and pliable. 

Arbor Vitoi (Thuja occidentalis). — Grows in the mountains. 
The wood said by Michaux to be the most durable whicli our 
forests produce. 

The soft woods are : the Cedar, the Cypress, the Black Spruce, 
or Fir (Finns nigra, Alton), the Finns strobus (growing in the 
mountains), and the Spruce tree of our low country swamps 
which might well supply the place of Northern pine. All these, 
with the Willow (Salix nigra'), are used for the timbers and 
spars of boats. The last is both soft and durable. Mr. Elliott 
says, in his Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina, that the 
wood of the Eed Mulberry (Morus rubra) is preferred in the 
building of boats to that of any other, except the Red Cedar. 

The wood of the Black Gum (Nyssa aquatica), particular!}'- 
the portion near the ground, is peculiarly white, spongy, and 
light. It has great elasticity, and a specific gravity almost low 
enough to adapt it, in the opinion of the writer, to be used as a 
substitute for the bark of the Cork tree. The Sycamore is a 
very light wood, and the Catalpa also. 


The Poplar is well known for its qualities of softness and 
lightness. The Maple less so. The Pride of India is light and 
durable, and susceptible of polish with a pretty grain under 
varnish, adapting it to the purposes of the manufacturer. But 
these do not resist water when submerged, as do the softer 
woods first mentioned, viz : the Cypress, Cedar, or the Palmetto, 
which is characteristically soft, porous, and elastic. 



mt\txn Jielte antr Jfomb, 




Sub-Class I. POLYPETAL^. 


Eanunculace^. (Croio-Foot Tribe.) 

The plants belonging to this order are generally acrid, 
caustic, and poisonous. It contains some species, however, 
which are innocuous. The caustic principle is volatile, and 
neither acid nor alkaline. 

crispa, Linn.) Not of Ell. Sk., which is the C. cyllndrica, T. 
and Gray. Grows in damp, rich soils, and in swamps in the 
low country of South Carolina; vicinit}- of Charleston, Dr. 
Bachman. Newborn, Croom. J^. C. Curtis. Fl. May. 

Mer. and de. L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 311; U. S. Disp. 1244; 
Shec. Flora Carol. 418. This plant is substituted for the C. 
erecta, mentioned by Storck, and is employed in secondary 
syphilis, ulcers, porrigo, etc.; given internally, with the pow- 
dered leaves applied to the sore. It acts also as a diaphoretic 
and diuretic. Merat says it possesses the properties of the C. 
vitalba, which is a dangerous vegetable caustic, used as a substi- 
tute for cantharides, and applied to rheumatic limbs, and in 
paralysis and gout. The decoction of the root is alterative and 
purgative ; and is also said to be valuable in Avashing sores and 
ulcers, in order to change the mode of their vitality, and to 


make them cicatrize. Shecut remarks that "the Spanish or 
blistering flies are very fond of the Clematis crlspa, and it would 
be well for medical gentlemen in the country to propagate the 
plant about their residences, in order to secure a constant 
succession of these valuable insects." See Potato, " Convol- 
vulus." The American species are deserving of particular 
attention, and I would invite further investigation of them. 
The taste of the flower and seed vessel of the Clematis is 
exceedingly pungent, and the juice irritates the skin, as I have 
myself experienced. 

vlonia, L.) Grows in middle and upper districts of South 
Carolina. Elliott. N. C, Curtis. Fl. July. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 489 ; Griffith's Med. Bot. 86 ; U. S. Disp. 
1244. This, and the following, have also a caustic property, 
and arc emploj^ed internally as diuretics and sudorifics in 
chronic rheumatism ; and externally, in the treatment of erup- 
tions, and as vesicants. Shecut says that a yellow^ dye may be 
extracted from both leaves and branches; the latter are sufti- 
ciently tough to make withs and fagots. The fibrous shoots 
may be converted into paper, and the wood is yellow, compact, 
and odoriferous, furnishing an excellent material for veneering. 

giniana, Linn.) Grows in rich soils; vicinity of Charleston. 
N. C. FL July. Wood and Bache, U. S. Disp. 1244 ; Griffith, 
Med. Bot. 80. See C. viorna. 

WOOD AISTEMONE, {Anemone 7iemorosa, L. Banunculus phrag- 
mltes.') Mountains of South Carolina. N. C, Fl. April. 

Bull. Plantes Ven. de France ; Linn. Veg. M. Med. 109 ; Fl. 
Scotica, 287 ; Chomel, Plantes Usuelles, ii, 376 ; Diet, des Sc. 
Med. Ixv, 194 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. i, 292 ; U. S. 
Disp. 1228. It is said to be extremely acrid — even small doses 
prodvicing a great disturbance of the stomach ; employed as a 
rubefacient in fevers, gout, and rheumatism, and as a vesicatory 
in removing corns from the feet. It is reported to have proved 
a speedy cure for tinea capitis, and the flowers have been used 
in violent headaches ; Linnaeus says that the plant produces a 
discharge of urine, attended with dysentery, in cattle which 
feed on it. It contains a principle called anemonln. 


Most of the species of Anemone, says Wilson, Eural Cyc, 
are acrimonious and detersive. " An infusiou of Anemone is 
said to remove woman's obstructions, and to increase her milk ; 
the bulbous roots when chewed are said to strengthen the gums 
and preserve the teeth ; a decoction of the roots is said to 
cleanse corrosive ulcers, and heal inflammation in the eyes; the 
flowers, boiled in oil, are said to have the property of thickening 
the hair, and Anemone ointment is said to be a good eye-salve, 
and a useful application to ulcers and external inflammations," 
all which I introduce for what it may be worth. No doubt the 
oil furnished by it imparts some property to the plant, and, like 
tannin in all the astringent plants, accounts for the slight 
medicinal effect which results from their use. An improved 
knowledge will, one day, determine the exact position in value 
of the whole vegetable kingdom, but for a while we must be 
contented with (he publication of much that is vague and 
uncertain. The unexpected discoveries of Ipecacuanha, Cin- 
chona, Yeratrum vii'ide, etc., warn us not to discard, upon a 
superficial examination, all those popularly considered as of 
trivial importance. 

T TVFRWO"RT J Hepatica triloba, Chaix. ) G-rows in light 
* I Anemone hepatica, Linn. J soils, upper dis- 
tricts, and in Georgia and North Carolina. Collected by Mr. 
Eavenel at the Eutaw battle-groimd, St. John's, Berkley; sent 
to me also from Abbeville district. 

U. S. Disp. 368; Raf Med. Fl. i, 238; Lind. Nat. Syst. 81. A 
tonic and astringent, supposed by some to possess deobstruent 
virtues. It has been used to a considerable extent in hemopty- 
sis and chronic cough ; but Wood says it has fiillen into neglect. 

DIAN DYE; GOLDEN SEAL, {Hydrastis Canadensis, W.) 
GroAvs in rich soils, among the mountains of North and South 
Carolina and Georgia. Fl. May. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. 6 ; Bart. M. Bot. ii, 21 ; Yeg. Mat. Med. ii, 17 ; 
Eaf Med. Fl. i, 251; Griffith, Med. Bot. 82." It has a narcotic 
smell ; used in this country as a tonic. The I'oot was known to 
the Indians, from the brilliant yellow color which it yields. This 
appears to be permanent, and might be applied in the arts. 
Martin, in the Trans. Phil. Soc. 1783. in his Observations on the 


Dyes used by the Aborigines, states, from his own experience, 
that it was found serviceable in coloring silks, wool and linen. 
With indigo, it yielded a rich green. Griffith mentions it as a 
powerful bitter tonic, much used in the West as a wash in chronic 
ophthalmia. In its fresh state, supposed to be narcotic. Tinc- 
ture, decoction, or powder employed. Dose of powder, thirty to 
sixty grains. Dr. Norcum, of Edenton, informs me that the in- 
fusion is used successfully in gonorrhoea. 

The American Chemical Institute and Tilden & Co., pre- 
pare from this plant two princijDles, one resinous, Hydras- 
tina, which is laxative and tonic, given in doses of one to 
five grains ; the other an alkaloid Hydrastine or Hydras- 
tina, the latter soluble in alcohol, water and ether, whilst the 
first is only sparingly soluble. Hydrastine is given in the same 
doses. In over dose it is said to produce almost identical effects 
with sulph. of quinine, viz : a sense of tightness, buzzing and 
ringing in the ears, reducing the pulse and producing sedation. 
In ordinaty doses it is tonic and astringent and it is claimed to 
have great power in intermittent fever. It is often prescribed 
with Podophyllin. This plant yields herherina abundantly, 
which Dr. Wood thinks should be examined for its antiperiodic 
properties — U. S. Disp. 12th ed., Am. J. Pharm., April 1861. 
Am. J. vSc. and Arts Jan. 1862 and July 1863. It is now placed in 
the primary list U. S. Disp. The following summary of the quali- 
ties of this plant is given by Dr. Wood : While all admit its tonic 
properties, it is considered by different practitioners as aperient, 
alterative in its influence on the mucous membranes, cholagogue, 
deobsti'uent in reference to the glands generally, diuretic, anti- 
septic, etc. It has been employed in dyspepsia and other affec- 
tions requiring tonic treatment, in jaundice and other functional 
disorders of the liver, as a laxative in constipation and piles, 
and as an alterative in various diseases of the mucous mem- 
branes, as catarrh, chronic enteritis, cystorrhoea, lucorrhoea, gon. 
orrhcea, etc., being used in the latter complaint internally and 
locally. By some it is used as one'of the best substitutes for 
quinia in intermittents. As an injection in gonorrhoea Dr. 
McCann, of Martinsburg, Ohio, made a decoction in the pro- 
portion of a drachm of the dried root to a pint of water, and in- 
jected a syringe full three times a day. The plant is used in the 
form of decoction, infusion tincture and extract. The Eclectics 


give their hydrastin in doses of three to five grains. See also a 
vohime entitled "Positive Medical Agents, New York.' 

(Caltha palustris, L. Var. parnassifolia, T. & G.) Cedar Swamps, S. 
C, (Pursh) ; Chap. Flora. The flower buds are pickled for use as a 
substitute for capers. The juice of the fresh roots is acrid and 
caustic, but according, to Linnaeus, by drying, grinding and 
washing the roots, furnish a very palatable bread. A syrup 
prepared from this plant is a popular remedy for coughs. Dar- 
Hngton's Flora Cest. The Colt's Foot of the U. S. Disp. is Tussi- 
lago farfara. 

CELERY LEAYED CROW FOOT, {Ranunculus sceleratus, 
L. T. and Gray). Grows in bogs ; abundant around Charleston. 
New^bern, Croom. Fl. May. 

Bull. Plantes Ven. de France, 143 ; Dem. Elem de Bot. Light- 
foot's Fl. Scotica, 295 ; U. S. Disp. 584 ; Mer and de L. Diet, de 
M. Med. 620, and the Supplem. 1846, 620 ; Dioscorides, lib. vi, c. 
iv ; Orfila, Toxicol, Gen. ii, 90 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. iii, 65 ; Grif- 
fith, Med. Bot. 84. 

The juice possesses remax"kable caustic powers, raising a blis- 
ter if applied topically, and often in doses of two drops exciting 
fatal inflammation along the whole track of the alimentary canal. 
vSome, however, say that this property is not constant, as it is of 
a volatile nature, and is dissipated by heat. According to Merat, 
the Bedouins use it as a rubefacient, and it is applied in sciatica, 
forming a substitute for canthai'ides. Annal. Univ. de Med. 1843. 
It has been administered with success in asthma, icterus, dy- 
suria, rheumatism, pneumonia and fixed pains. When it acts as 
a vesicant, it has not the disadvantage of producing strangury. 
Bigelow says the volatile principle may be collected by distilla- 
tion and preserved in closely-stopped bottles. Tilebein relates 
that the distilled water is excessively acrid, and on cooling, de- 
posits crystals, which are almost insoluble in any menstruum. 
Precipitates are caused by muriate of tin and acetate of lead. 
The boiled root may be eaten. 

Ranunculus repens, Linn. ) Grows in shady woods, and among 

" nitidus, Ell. Sk. j the mountains. Fl. Aug. 

U. S. Dis. 584. This has also a rubefacient and epispastic 
operation. Big. Am. Med. Bot. iii, 65, Yery similar to the 
above in its mode of action. 


TALL LARKSPUE; {Delphinium exallatum, Ait.) Mts. of 
North Carolina and Northward. 

Dr. Wood says that the seeds have been used, for a similar 
purpose with those of the Larkspur — a tincture made by mace- 
rating an ounce of them in a pint of dilute alcohol, being used in 
doses of ten drops, gradually increased, in eases of spasmodic 
asthma and dropsy. U. S. Disp. 

LARKSPUE, N. C. ; {Delphinium consolida, L.) Becoming natu- 
ralized. The plant has astringent properties, the seeds are 
acrid, and its flowers yield a fine blue dye. 

My friend, Dr. Carmichael, of Fredericksburg, Ya., informs nie 
that the tincture of the plant is destructive to insects, and use- 
fully applied to the heads of children infested with them. It 
possesses an active principle called Delphinia. Am. J. Ph. v, i„ 
and xi, viii. W. Wick obtained aconitic acid from the expressed 
juice — Journ. de Pharm., Julliet, 1854, and U. S. D., 12th ed. 
In his Statistics of South Carolina, Mills says that from the ex- 
pressed juice of the petals with a little alum, a good blue may 
be obtained. 

BLACK SNAKEEOOT; COHOSH, (Cimicifuga racemosa, 
Torrey ; Actcea racemosa, L. & Willd). Grows throughout the 
Southern States. PI. July. 

Limiffius, Yeg. Mat. Med. 102 (see Actcea). The root is used 
in the debility of females attendant upon uterine disorder ; and, 
in its action, is thought to have a special affinity for this organ. 
It has also a decided effect upon some nervous affections, espe- 
cially chorea. See Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. vi, 20, and Dr. 
Young's notice of it in the Am. Journal Med. Sc. v, 310. "We 
have administered this medicine in chorea with complete suc- 
cess, after the failure of purgatives and metallic tonics ; and 
have also derived the happiest effects from it in cases of convul- 
sions recurring periodically, and connected with uterine disor- 
der." Wood, U. S. Disp. The powdered root is employed, a 
teaspoonful three times a day. It is a stimulating tonic, in- 
creasing the secretion of the skin, kidnej's and lungs. Merat, 
in the Diet, de Mat. Med., adds the authority of Dr. Kirkbride in 
support of the efficacy of this plant in chorea, who advises that 
a purgative be premised, when it may be given for several days, 
and then discontinued, to be resumed again ; frictions should at 
the same time be made upon the surface with the tincture. See 

the Supplem. 1846, to the Diet. de. M. Med. cit. sup. Dr. Hil- 
dreth has found this plant, in combination with iodine, very ad- 
vantageous in the early stages of phthisis. Am. Journal Med. 
Sc. Oct. 1842. The decoction is the most useful form ; one ounce 
of the bruised root is boiled in a pint of water, of which a half 
pint to one pint may be taken during the day. Dr. Physick 
also had known it to cure cases of chorea ; and Merat and de L., 
in the 1st vol. of op. cit. p. 67 (See Actcect), say that it partakes 
of the properties of A. hrachipetala. According to Chapman, it 
produces tree nausea, with abundant expectoration, succeeded 
by nervous trembling, vertigo, and a remarkable slowness of the 
pulse. Dr. Garden administered the tincture for phthisis. Lon- 
don Med. Journal, li, 245. Dr. N. S. Davis uniformly found it to 
lessen tke force and frequency of the pulse, to soothe pain and 
allay irritability. Trans. Am. Med. Assoc. 1, 352. Hildreth had 
also observed its influence on the circulation. Barton employed 
it as an astringent, which property it owes to the gallic acid it 
contains. He also gave it in putrid sore throat. In New Jer- 
sey, a decoction of the root is said to cure itch ; and in North 
Carolina, it is given as a drench for cattle, in the disease called 
murrain. Shec Flora Carol. 91 ; Carson's Illust. Med. Bot. i, p. 
9, 1847. See anal, in Am. Journal Pharm. vi, 20, 1843 and 
xxxiii, 396. According to Mr. Tilghman, it contains gum ; 
starch ; sugar ; resin ; wax ; tannin ; gallic acid ; salts of potassa ; 
lime ; magnesia j iron, etc. The ethereal extract contains most 
of its virtues. The Eclectics prepare from this plant a resin 
which they call cimicifugin, from a saturated tincture of the root 
precipitated by water — used in anomalous nervous disorders and 
puerperal hypochondriasis. Dose, a grain. See, also, Jones, in 
the Journal de Pharm. x, 670 ; and Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. 
vi, 14 ; Grriffith, Med. Bot. 92. He remarks that its greatest ef- 
ficacy has been exhibited in rheumatism, in the form of a tinc- 
ture ; the power of the root appearing to depend on the volatile 
oil and bitter resin, both of which are soluble in alcohol, and 
partially so in water. Dr. Tully, Mat. Med. p. 1358, uses it as 
an ecbolic to excite the uterine organs. He says : "It never 
narcotizes the child." Dr. D. A. Morse, of Ohio, in Med. Eep. 
recommends it as a nervous sedative of great value, and to pro- 
cure sleep after physical exertion. He often combines it with 
quinine. Bates in Journ. of Mat. Med,. 18G7, 


BANEBEERY; WHITE COHOSIL; (Actcea alba, Big.; Actcea 
pachypoda, Ell.) Eocky Woods, Mts. of South Carolina ; North 

Mr. F. Stearns in his accounts of the Medicinal plants of Mich- 
igan, speaks of the rhizoma of this plant as being- violently pur- 
gative. (Proc. of Am. Pharm. Assoc, 1858, j). 240). U. S. Disp. 
12th ed. 

YELLOW EOOT, {Zanthorrihza apiifolia. L'Her.) Upper, 
and mountainous districts. North Carolina; Fl. April. 

U. S. Disp. 745 ; Bart. Med. Bot. ii, 203 ; New York Med. Ee- 
pos. 291; Lind. Nat. Syst. 6; Griffith, Med. Bot. 95 ; Elliott's 
Bot., Med. note i, 376 ; Stokes, Med. Bot. ii, 194. 

The bark possesses pure bitter tonic properties, closely analo- 
gous to those of Colombo and quassia. Dr. P. C. Barton thinks 
it a more powerful bitter than the former of these. It was given 
by Dr. Woodhouse in doses of forty grains in dyspepsia ; a de- 
coction is also employed. The shrub contains a gum and resin, 
both of which are intensely bitter. Alchohol is the best men- 
struum. Its tinctorial powers were known to the Indians. It 
yields plentifully a coloring matter, a drab being imparted by it 
to wool, and rich yellow to silk; without a mordant it does not 
affect cotton or linen ; with Prussian blue it strikes a dull olive 
green color. It yields the alkaloid berberina. 

TWIN LEAF, (Jeffersonia diphylla. Pers.) Eich shady 
woods, Tennessee. 

The decoction of this plant is used by the vegetable practi- 
tioners and Indian doctors as a diui-etic in dropsy, and as an ex- 
ternal application to sores, ulcers, etc. 

To the above meagre outlines published in the first edition of 
this work, the 12th ed. U. S. Disj). contains the following addi- 
tional particulars. The plant has been analyzed by Mr. E. S. 
Wayne, of Cincinnati, and found to contain albumen, sugar, 
lignin, pectin, a fatty and a hard resin, and a peculiar acrid princi- 
ple resembling polygalic acid, in which it is supposed that the vir- 
tues of the root reside. The root is said to be emetic in large 
doses, tonic and expectorant in smaller, and not unlike seneka, 
as a substitute for which it is sometimes used. (Am. J. Pharm. 
XXYII). According to Prof Mayer, of New York, the rhizome 
of the plant contains a small quantity of berberina and another 


alkaloid which is white, and in large proportion, as may be in- 
ferred, adds Dr. Wood, from the reactions noticed by Mr. Bentley, 
of London; the pectin of Mr. Wayne he considers to be saponin. 
Am. J. Pharm. March, 1863. 

LEMON; DUCK WEED, {Podophyllum ijeltatuvi. L.) Diffused in 
rich woods ; graws in Abbeville and Sumter districts ; collected 
in St. John's Berkley ; vicinity of Charleston, Bach. ; Newbern. 
I saw it at Porsmouth, Virginia. It should be distinguished from 
the "may-apple," or may-pop of our corn fields. (See Passi- 
flora). Fl. March. 

Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 749 ; Bell's Pract. Diet. ; Drayton's View S, 
C. 73 ; Royle Mat. Med. 573 ; Frost's Elems. 137 ; Eb. Mat. Med. 
i, 205 ; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. i, 514 ; U. S. Disp. 556 ; Big. 
Am. Med. Bot. ii, 34 ; Bart. Med. Bot. i, 9 ; Journal Phil. Coll. 
Pharm. iii, 873 ; Med. Eecord, iii, 332 ; Ball and Gar. Mat. Med. 
193; Zchoepf, M. M. 86; Mer. and de L. Diet, de Mat. Med. v. 
207 ; Chap. Mat. Med. and Therap. 209 ; Coxe, Am. Disp. 478 ; 
Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 

Bigelow says it is a sure and active cathartic. " We hardly 
know any native plant that answers better the common purpose 
of jalap, aloes, and rhubarb." The Shakers prepare an extract, 
which is much esteemed as a mild cathartic. By the experi- 
ments of Dr. Burgon, in the Am. Med. Eecorder, it is useful in 
combination with calomel; ten grains of the latter with twenty 
of the podophyllum. In bilious affections it usually supersedes 
the necessity of an emetic previous to a cathartic ; and by this 
means two desirable effects are produced by one agent. Big. 
Appendix, iii, 187 ; GriflSth, Med. Bot. 116. It has been recom- 
mended in drojjsy, from the abundant evacuations which it pro- 
duces. According to Staples, it contains resin and starch ; and 
Dr. Hodgson has given the name podophylline to the peculiar 
substance it contains. See Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm.; Carson's 
lUust. of Med. Botany, pt. i. An officinal extract is prepared, 
given in doses of 5 to 15 grains. The leaves are purgative, and 
sometimes produce nausea in irritable stomachs ; the fruit is eat- 
able. It was employed by the Cherokees as an anthelmintic ; a 
few drops poured into the ear are said to restore the power of 
hearing. The plant has also been found to afford speedy relief 


in incontinence of urine. Dr. McBride made great use of it dur- 
ing his practice in St. Jolin's Berkley, S. C; he said that it an- 
swers all the purposes of officinal jalap, " producing copious 
liquid discharges with no griping." The powered root is applied 
as a dressing for ulcers ; it is said to restrain excessive granula- 
tions, sprinkled over the surface. In a communication to me 
from Dr. Douglass, of Chester District, S. C, his correspondent, 
Mr. McKeown, considers the root too drastic as a purge ; he adds 
that the powdered root, mixed with equal parts of resin, acts as 
a powerful caustic, and is used by farriers for escharotic pur- 
poses. I have employed this plant among negroes as a substi- 
tute for jalap and the ordinary carthartics, and find that it an- 
swers every purpose, being easily prepared by the person having 
charge of them. Thirty grains of the root in substance were 
given, or an infusion of one ounce in a pint of water, of which a 
wineglassful three times a day is the dose; employing the Pop- 
lar bark, Liriodendron tidipifera, as a substitute for quinine dur- 
ing the stage of intermission of all mild cases of intermittent 
fever. I would invite the particular attention of planters to the 
extensive use of these medicines upon their plantations. I have 
caused them to be used on one on which upward of a hundred 
negroes resided, and I found that dui"ing a jjeriod of seven 
months, including the warm months of summer, they were used 
in all cases, and apparently fulfilled every indication. No detailed 
statement of these could be obtained, as it was administered by 
one of their own number; but large quantities of them were 
required. The plant, from the examinations of Mayer, Hodgson, 
Marsch, and Lewis, is shown to yield berberina and saponin. The 
resin podophyllm, is purgative in doses of two or three grains, 
and is largely emploj'ed by some practitioners. See also U. S. 
Disp.; Journ. Phil. Col. Pharm. 1863, July and iii. 273, Am. J. Ph. 
XIX. 165, and March, 1863. 

Dr. Josej)h Parrish (Practical Pharmacy, 2nd edition, page 
190), cites Podophyllin as the most popular and widely, known 
of the whole class of " eclectic concentrated medicines," and 
he furnishes the processes for its preparation by F. D. Mill 
& Co., of Cincinnati (see also. Am. J. Pharm. XXIII. 329); 
according to Dr. Parrish's experiment the roots yield 3| per cent, 
of Podophyllin. In small doses ^ to 1 grain, it is said to operate 
as an alternative and chologogue. It is claimed for this remedy 


that it is a regulator of almost all the secretions, tending to re- 
store them to normal activity and that it is a complete substitute 
for mercury even to the extent in some cases of producing 
ptyalism. Its efficacy is greatly increased by trituration with 
four to ten times its weight of sugar of milk. Caulophyllin 
combined with it is said to materially lessen its painful and disa- 
greeable effects. A compound of Podophjdlin with ten parts of 
Leptandrin and ten parts of sugar, is much esteemed as an alter- 
ative in dyspepsia, hepatitis, etc.; see King's Eclectic Disp., Par- 
rish. Op. cit. The Extract and resin are often used with mercury 
and other cathartics. Dr. Wood says that in minute doses fre- 
quently repeated Podophyllum has been thought to diminish the 
frequency of the pulse and relieve cough, and for these effects 
has been given in hajmopysis, catarrhs and other pulmonary 
affections. Op. cit. The soft pulp contained within the rind of 
the fruit has a very peculiar musky taste, which is relished by 
many persons. The pulp is squeezed into a wineglass, and wath 
the addition of a little old Maderia and sugar, it is said to be 
equal to the golden granadilla of the tropics. Am. Farmer, vol. 
14 ; Farmer's Encyc. I have observed in the lower districts of 
South Caroliua, that the fruit generally drops before it becomes 
fully matured. I have never been able to find. any ripe seeds. 

PAPAVEEACE.E. {The Poppy Tribe?) 

Narcotic properties generally prevail thi'oughout this order. 
Seeds are universally oily — seldom narcotic. Europe is the 
principal seat of the papaveracese ; but several species included 
under it are found in North America, beyond the tropic. Most 
of them are annuals, the perennials being chiefly natives of 
mountainous tracts. 

OPIUM POPPY, (Papaver Somniferuni). Thaer, in his Prin- 
ciples of Agriculture, in speaking of the cultivation of the poppy 
as an oil-bearing plant, says : " The color of the flower is unim- 
portant. The seed is either white or black. Some persons think 
that the black-seeded variety is more productive, others give the 
preference to the white in this respect. The white seed is the 
more agreeable to the taste, as likewise the oil expressed from it. 
That variety of poppy is preferred whose heads or capsules when 
ripe assume a slightly bluish tinge. The structure of the cap- 
sules is of more consequence ; for there is a variety in which the 


envelope of the capsule dehisces spontaneously when ripe, so 
that the seed is easily shed; and another, in which the seed re- 
mains enclosed within the capsules, which must be opened in 
order to extract it." " The poppy may become one of the most 
profitable crops, if we have the means of disposing of the seed, 
or if we knew how to extract the oil. By proper cultivation it 
may be made to produce from nine to ten bushels of seed per 
acre, and one bushel yields twenty-four pounds of good oil. This 
oil, especially the first portion, which is cold-pressed, and mixed 
in the mill with slices of apple, is doubtless the purest kind of 
oil for the table, and the most agreeable that is known. It is 
inferior to none, excepting the finest Nice or Lucca oil. It is 
preferable to the second-rate oil of those places, and the peculiar 
taste of olive oil may be imparted to it by the addition of a 
small quantity of that oil of superfine quality." Principles of 
Agriculture, 457. ■» 

The oil of the poppy is bland, and not narcotic. " It is used 
both for food and light, and is considered a fifth more valuable 
than that of the colza. The cakes remaining after the expres- 
sion of the oil are valuable for the fattening of swine ; and the 
stalks for fuel. The ashes which remain after burning it are of 
the best kind of manure. If the seed be pressed in a mill used 
for the colza, or other oil, the greatest attention must be paid 
to cleaning it. The oil expressed in cold weather is much supe 
rior in quality to that obtained in warm weather, and the two 
must not be mixed." " Henry Colman's European Agriculture," 
vol. ii, 538, Boston, 1849. See his " Eeport on Flemish Agricul- 
ture, for method of growing the Poj)j)y, Colza, Flax, Hemp, Hop, 
Mulberry, Beet, Olive, Grape," etc.; also " Thaer's Treatise on 
Agriculture." See Bene (^Sesamiim) for oils and their expres- 

In Thornton's Family Herbal a very full and interesting 
account can be read of the cultivation of poppy in England, 
with the successful production of opium in considerable quan- 
tity. Forty pounds were made in one season by one person. 
Boys and girls were employed in incising the bulbs and gather- 
ing the gum. 

A variety of the "common" or "opium poppy" (P. somni- 
ferum), indigenous to the warm" and temjjerate parts of Europe 
and Asia, has been introduced, and a brief notice is contained 


in Patent Office Report, 1855, p. xxi: "It has proved itself sus- 
ceptible of easy cultivation on very rich soils. It is well adapted 
to the climate of the Middle and Southern States. The flowers 
of the 'white poppy' (Papaver s. alba), the variety with which 
the experiment was made, may be either entirely white or red, 
or may be fringed with purple, rose or lilac, variegated and 
edged with the same colors, but never occur blue or yellow, nor 
mixed with these colors, each petal being generally marked at 
the bottom with a black or piirple spot. The seeds are black in 
the plants having purple flowers, and light-colored in those 
which are white ; although the seeds of the latter, when of 
spontaneous growth, are sometimes black. The largest heads 
which are employed for medical or domestic use, are obtained 
from th» single flowered kind, not only for the purpose of ex- 
tracting opium, but also on account of the bland, esculent oil 
that is expressed from the seeds, Avhich are simply emulsive, 
and contain none of the narcotic principle. For the latter pur- 
pose, if no other, its culture in this country is worthy of atten- 
tion. Certainly it is an object worthy of public encouragement, 
as the annual amount of opium imported into the United States 
is valued at upward of $407,000." If this was true some years 
since, how much more essential to us is its production now 
(1862), when gum opium and morphine are so very difficult to 
obtain. Mills, in his Statistics of South Carolina, states that 
opium was extracted from the poppy in South Carolina, and 
that seven grains were obtained from each plant. Occupied in 
researches upon these subjects during the month of June (1862), 
under the order of the Surgeon-General, I was enabled to col- 
lect, in a few days, more than an ounce of gum opium, appa- 
rently of very excellent quality, having all the smell and taste 
of opium (which I have administered to the sick), from speci- 
mens of the red poppy found growing in a garden near State- 
burgh, S. C. I have little doubt that all we require could be 
gathered by ladies and children within the Southern States, if 
only the slightest attention was paid to cultivating the plants in 
our gardens. It thrives well, and bears abundantly. It is not 
generally known that the gum which hardens after incising the 
capsules is then ready for use, and may be prescribed as gum 
opium, or laudanum and paregoric may be made fi'om it with 
alcohol or whiskey. 


The popp3^, it is said, produces better when planted in the fall. 
"With my present experience (June, 1863), I would say that this 
was essential in the climate of South Carolina and Georgia. It 
should be planted early in Sej)tember ; the plants are not killed 
during the winter, they thrive in the early spring, and the cap- 
sules are ready for incision in May. I find that the vitality of the 
seeds are not destroyed by the manipulations to which the cap- 
sules are subjected. Several attempts by the writer to obtain the 
poppy by planting several acres successively in April and May 
failed, the seeds not getting up. From a " garden square " planted 
in October, 1862, I obtained in May, 1863, from two gatherings, 
5 drachms and 30 grains of gum opium, weighed after the mass 
had dried one month, of excellent quality judging by the 
smell and color. The experiment was hardl}^ a fair one, as the 
second recolte was delayed too long. Twice the amount might 
have been collected. The land should be rich and finely worked j 
the seeds were not sown lightly. 

Mr. Farmer, of Walterboro', S. C, reports through Surgeon 
Linning (June, 1863), that he also has succeeded in procuring 
enough for the use of his plantation. The writer has little 
doubt from the present beginnings that opium will become one 
of the ordinary stajDles of the country, as the plant thrives well 
as a volunteer. It should be remembered that poulty eat the 
young plants with avidity. 

I quote the following from paper cited above : 

The successful cultivation of the plant, however, requires the 
provision of good soil, ap2)ropriate manure, and careful manage- 
ment. The strength of the juice, according to Dr. Butler, of 
British India, depends much upon the quantity or moisture of 
the climate. A deficiency even of dew prevents the proper flow 
of the j)eculiar, narcotic, milky juice which abounds in every 
part of the plant, while an excess besides washing off this milk, 
causes additional mischief by separating the soluble from the 
insoluble parts of this drug. This not only deteriorates its 
quality, but increases the quantity of moisture, which must 
afterward be got rid of The history of the poppy, as well 
as that of opium — its inspissated juice — are but imperfectly 
known. The oldest notices of this plant are found in the works 
of the early Greek physicians, in which mention is also made of 
the juice ; but opium does not appear to have been so generally 


employea as in modern times, as the notices respecting it would 
would have been numerous and clear. In the manufacture of 
opium in Persia or India, the juice is partially extracted, together 
with a considerable quantity of mucilage, by decoction. The 
liquor is strongly pressed out, suffered to settle, clarified with 
the white of eggs, and evaporated to a due consistence — yield- 
ing a fifth of the weight of the heads of extract, which possesses 
the virtues of opium in a very inferior degree, and is often em- 
ployed to adulterate the genuine opium. The heads of the 
poppies are gathered as they ripen ; and, as this happens at dif- 
ferent periods, there are usually three or four gatherings in a 
year. The milky juice of the poppy in its more perfect state, 
which is the case only in Avarm climates, is extracted by incis- 
ions matle in the capsules, and simj)ly evaporated into the con- 
sistence in which it is known to commerce, under the name of 

In Turkey, the plants during their growth are carefully wa- 
tered, and manured if necessary ; the watering being more 
profuse as the period of flowering approaches, and until the 
heads are half grown, when the operation is discontinued, and 
tlie collection of the opium commences. At sunset longitudinal 
incisions are made upon each half-ripe capsule, not sufficiently 
deep to penetrate the internal cavity. The night dews favor 
the exudation of the juice, which is collected in the morning by 
scraping it from the wounds with a small iron scoop, and dejios- 
iting the whole in an earthen pot, where it is worked in the sun- 
shine with a wooden spatula, until it acquires a considerable 
degree of thickness. It is then formed into cakes by the hands, 
and placed in earthen pans to be further exsiccated, when it is 
covered with the leaves of the poppy, or some other plant. 

In obtaining gum opium, the capsules are cut longitudinally 
only through the skin, though some advise that it should be 
done from below upward. I find longitudinal incisions the most 
economical. This is generally done late in the afternoon, the 
hardened gum being scraped off early next morning. Boys or 
girls can easily attend to this. If the capsules are cut only on 
one side, the same operations may be repeated on the other side, 
and a fresh supply of opium obtained. A knife with three or four 
edges, cutting about the twelfth or fourteenth part of an inch, 
is sometimes used. If the incision is too deep the juice passes 
within the poppy head. 


Prof. Alston, of Edinburgh, long ago, says Thornton, ascer- 
tained that ojDium of good quality could be obtained in Great 
Britain, " having all the color, consistence, taste, smell, faculties, 
phenomena," etc., of opium. It has been calculated by Mr. 
Ball that more than fifty pounds of opium may be collected 
from one statute acre. Mr. Jones, in 1794, in the County of 
Middlesex, England, presented twenty-five pounds of opium to 
the Society of Arts, made by himself, which was ascertained by 
chemical examination, to be equal to the imported drug. The 
reader interested in the culture of the poppy, can find in Thorn- 
ton's New Family Herbal, p. 516, a pretty full statement of the 
method of culture, the collection of the gum, etc., employed by 
Mr. Jones. In Love's report to the Society, he says : " Having 
a tap root, their size will, consequently, be proportioned to the 
depth of earth they are enabled to penetrate. Hence the ne- 
cessity of land that will admit of deep jjloughing. The fineness 
of the surface, too, is very essential. As the seed is small, and 
the plants on their first coming up so exceedingly tender, the 
bush harrow should alwa3\s be used after those which are com- 
monly employed." They should be so cultivated that the 
gatherer may not disturb the plants in collecting the juice. Mr. 
Jones is also in favor of autumnal sowing, planting in the month 
of September, by which means the plants attain suflicient size 
to endure the cold of winter; these were also found to produce 
more opium than those planted in March. The scarifications 
are described, Thornton's Herbal, 517, but any one can devise 
a knife for the purjiose. In the Proe. of Am. Ph. Assoc, 1866, 
a specimen of Virginia opium exhibited contained 4 per cent, of 
morphia and 3.5 per cent, (approximatelj^) of narcotina. 

Mr. John Commins, of Charleston, has endeavored (1867) to 
extract the gum more economically from the whole plant, leaves, 
stalks and capsules, but it has been found impracticable. Papa- 
ver dubium^ Corn poppy, introduced, grows in lower North Caro- 
lina, Curtis' Cat. 

THOPtN APPLE; YELLOW THISTLE, {Arge?none Mexicana, 
Linn. J). C. Prodrom.) Charleston District, grows around 
buildings in rich spots ; vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern, N. C. 
Fl. July. 

Mer. and de L. Diet. Univ. de M. Med. i, 395 ; Journal de 
Pharmacie xiv, 73 ; Bull. des. Sci. Med. de Mer. viii, 210 ; De 


Cand. Essai, 116. The oil is said by some to be as active as 
that of the Croton tigliuni ; see the Supp. to Mer. and do L., 
1846-57, In Brazil, the leaves are employed as a cataplasm for 
driving off ulcers. The infusion is used in Mexico for its marked 
sudorific powers ; the juice is found serviceable in chronic mala- 
dies of the skin. In Java, they employ it in inveterate cuta- 
neous diseases, and as a caustic in chancres. Lind., in his Nat. 
Syst. Bot. 8, says that the seeds are narcotic, and are smoked 
with tobacco ; Gardener's Mag. vi, 315. It is administered in 
the West Indies as a substitute for ipecacuanha, and the juice 
of the plant is considered by the native doctors of India as a 
valuable remedy in ophthalmia, either dropped in the eye or 
nibbed on the tarsus ; it is also considered purgative and deob- 
struent. • Ainslie, M. Med. Ind, 243 ; Prince Maximil. Travels, 
214; Aublet, Hist. Guiane. Merat, in the Supplem., 1846, says 
that, in Brazil, in the Isle of France, and in India, the oil is 
regarded as a purgative, not unlike castor oil, but more active — 
not, however, being attended with griping ; thirty drops were 
found equivalent to the ounce of castor oil. They applied it in 
tinea capitis, and as an external application in headache occa- 
sioned by exposure to the rays of the sun. See Dr. Schort's 
examination of it. Dr. Muddie asserts that it induces anodyne 
effects ; so much so, as to relieve, in an instant, the pains of 
colic. Med. Bot. Soc. London, 1830 ; Griffith's Med. Bot., 129. 
The plant abounds in a viscid, milky, acid juice, Avhich, exposed 
to the air, becomes yellow, resembling gamboge. The flowers 
are said by DeCandolle, Essai, to be employed in Mexico as a 
hypnotic. A thorough examination of this plant might well 
repay the labor bestowed upon it. It is, apparently, native, 
says Chapman, in South Florida. " Its seeds are said to yield a 
narcotic substance as powerful as opium. A milky, glutinous 
juice flows from the whole plant ; turns by exposure to the air 
into a fine bright yellow; and when reduced to the consistence 
of a firm gum, is not distioguishable from gamboge, and has, we 
believe, been brought into the market under the name of that 
drug. It has similar properties to gamboge, both as a medicine 
and as a pigment ; and it has been administered in very small 
doses in cases of dropsy, jaundice, cutaneous eruption, and 
some other diseases." Wilson, Rural Cyc. 

I collected a large number of the seeds of this plant near 


Charleston, and experimented with the oil and tincture, but 
with no definite results. A long paper on the medical proper- 
ties of the Mexican Poppy can be found in the Charleston Medi- 
cal Journal, among the extracts. I cannot, at present, cite the 
volume, but it was during the editorial management of Dr. Cain 
and myself. The tincture was particularly recommended for the 
relief of colic and pain. 

In the 12th Ed. TJ. S. Disp. M. Lepine is quoted as stating that 
the oil of the seeds has a cathartic property, and may be used in 
the arts (Journ. de Pharm. Julliet, 1861), and that according to 
Dr. W. Hamilton, that the seeds unite an anodyne and soporific 
with the cathartic property. In the hands of Dr. Afliecle, of 
Jamaica, they have proved useful given in emulsion in flatu- 
lent colic, in the dose of about 8 grains, repeated every half 
hour, till three doses were taken. The pain was relieved and 
the bowels opened. (Pharm. Journ. xii. 642.) 

PUCCOOK ; BLOODEOOT, (Scmguinaria Canadensis, Linn. 
Ell. Sk.) Diff'used; vicinity of Charleston ; Abbeville, Richland, 
and Fairfield Districts ; collected in St. John's, N. C, Fl. March. 

Drayton's View of S. C. 72 ; Bell's Pract. Diet. 404 ; Eberle, 
Mat. Med. 95 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. 8 ; U. S. Disp. 627 ; Eoyle, Mat. 
Med. 273; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 722; London Med. 
Chirurg. Trans, vol. i, Bart. M. Bot. i, 30; Ann. Lyceum Nat. 
Hist. New York, ii, 250 ; New York Med. and Phys. Journal, i. 
No. 2 ; Am. Journal Med. Sci. N. S. ii, 506 ; Journal Phil. Coll. 
Pharm. iii, 95 ; Ball and Gar. Mat. Med. 208 ; Big. Am. Med. 
Bot. i, 75; Schoepf, Mat. Med. 85 ; Barton's Collec. 28; Trans. 
Lond. Med. Soc. i, 179 ; Thacher's Disp. 331; Cutler, Mem. Am. 
Acad, i, 455; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 208; Bull, des 
Sci. Med. Fer. vi, 71 ; Edinb. Med. Journal, vii, 217 ; Shec. Flora 
Carol. 153 ; Carson's lUust. Med. Bot. i, 18, 1847. The root is 
narcotic, emetic and purgative in large doses ; stimulant, 
expectorant, and diaphoretic, tonic in small. Dr. Dana found a 
found a peculiar principle in it, called sanguinarina (Ann. Lyceum 
Nat. Hist. New York). According to the experiments of Dr. 
Donney, of Maryland, in his inaugural Thesis, twenty-grain 
doses of the root induced nausea and vomiting, attended with 
heat of stomach, acceleration of pulse, and sometimes slight 
headache ; the leaves are said to be endued with similar powers. 
" The seeds exert a marked influence on the nervous system, 


occasioning torpor, languor, disordered vision, and dilatation of 
pupil." Dr. Bard, of New York, confirms this in his Inaugural 
Diss. It is an acrid narcotic, producing vomiting, and given in 
all diseases of the mucous membranes; employed in catarrh, 
typhoid pneumonia, croup, hooping-cough, and in ari-esting the 
progress of phthisis, and also in inflammatoiy rheumatism and 
jaundice. It was known to Schoepf ; and Merat states that it 
was serviceable in gonorrhoea. Dr. Israel Allen, of New York, 
says it acts with all the good effects of digitalis, in affections of 
the lungs — the infusion being preferred in these, as the tincture 
does not afford the active principle sufficiently strong; he adds, 
also, that it powerfully promotes diaphoresis in inflammatory 
rheumatism. Bigelow mentions it as an acrid narcotic, in small 
doses lessening the frequency of the pulse, somewhat analogous 
in its operation to that of digitalis — this, however, being its 
secondary effect. In still smaller doses, it is a stimulating tonic. 
The powdered root, snuffed up the nose, is powerfully sternuta- 
tory; it is applied as an escharotic to fungous flesh ; and several 
polypi, of the soft kind, were cured by it in the hands of Dr. 
Smith, of Hanover. Mill says in his Statistics of S. C, publish- 
ed in 1826 : " It is a deobstruent, and excellent in jaundice, old 
coughs, and bilious habits ; the root powdered and mixed with a 
small quantity of calomel, and used as a snuff, has cured the 
polypus in the nose." Dr. Shanks, of Tennessee, also destroyed 
a gelatinous polypus with sanguinaria, after extraction had 
twice failed. Am. Journal Med. Sci. Oct., 1842. The decoction 
has also been used as a wash to ill-conditioned ulcers. Dr. 
McBride employed this plant to some extent, in his practice in 
St. John's Berkley, S. C, in jaundice, in doses of two to six 
grains of the root. He did not trust to it exclusively, but found 
it most effectual in those cases characterized by torpor of the 
liver, attended with colic and yellowness of the skin. See his 
letter to Dr. Bigelow. He gave, too, with success, in hydrotho- 
rax, the tincture in doses of sixty drops, three times a day, 
increased until nausea followed its employment. Eberle, in his 
work on Diseases of Children, p. 97, says that the powdered 
root is an excellent escharotic in ulceration of the umbilicus. 
Griffith's Med. Bot. 127. It is observed by some that the seeds 
are more narcotic than the root, inducing sj-mptoms resembling 
those produced by stramonium. The dose of the powder as an 


emetic, x-xx grs. ; as a stimulating expectorant, iii-v grs. ; or 
an infusion of one-half ounce of the root to one pint of water — 
dose, a tablespoonful ; of the tincture, it is one-half a drachm ; 
a larger quantity acts as an emetic. The tincture is made by 
adding two ounces of the bruised i-oot to one pint of alcohol. 
Macerate fourteen days. It is expectorant and alterative. Dr. 
Donney says the leaves are administered in veterinary practice 
in Maryland, to produce sweating, and to facilitate the shedding 
of hair in the Spring. Dr. Griffith is- convinced of its efficacy 
in this resj)ect, and he has also given the fresh root mixed with 
the food, at intervals, to destroy hots in horses — one or two 
roots proving sufficient. In a toramunication from Dr. Isaac 
Branch, of Abbeville District, S. C., he informs me that he has 
for many years employed the decoction of the root in croup ; 
he prefers it to any other single remedy ; and, by persisting in 
it till emesis is produced, he is of the opinion that it prevents 
the formation of the diphtheritic membrane. Fi-om his own 
experience, he considers it a specific in the early stages of the 
disease, preferring, for infants, the infusion to the tincture, as 
the difficulty of exciting vomiting frequently renders it necessary 
to give more of the alcohol than would be prudent. He finds it 
convenient, when called to a case of croup, to add to thirty 
grains of the powdered, or bruised root, a teacupful of boiling 
water, allowing it to steep for ten or fifteen minutes over the 
fire, when it may be given in teaspoonful doses, frequently re- 
peated, until vomiting is induced ; if the patient is relieved, 
continue it in doses short of the emetic point, every houror two, 
increasing it in frequency and amount should the symptoms 
require it. Dr. B. is of the opinion that it owes its value to 
three qualities combined: an acrid, an emetic and a deobstruent 
property — the latter acting on the glandular system. It 
possesses, also, the peculiar advantage of not producing bad 
effects by accumulation ; a teacupful not debilitating any more 
than a smaller quantity, and neither inducing prostration, 
which, in the disease in question, is an important consideration. 
If the patient's skin is hot and dry, the addition of a few grains 
of ipecacuanha is advised. The experience of Dr. Branch cor- 
roborates that of others respecting the value of the tincture, in 
doses of ten to fifteen drops, given three or four times a day, as 
an expectorant in chronic cough. In emetic doses, it proves a 


useful promoter of expectoration in pneumonia. The decoction 
of the root, taken in small doses, may be u^ed wherev^er a 
nauseant and expectorant is required, and will aid in prevent- 
ing the advance of colds, croup, pneumonia, etc. The juice of 
the root was used by the Indians as a red pigment, and it has 
been applied to the arts. Dr. Douney says that the sulph. of 
alumina will partially fix the color in woolen stuffs, and the 
murio. sulph. of lead in cotton and linen. The stain, applied to 
the unbroken skin, is not indelible. Lawson, in his account of 
Carolina, says, that the Puccoon is Batschia canescens {Jjithos- 
permum canescens), growing in upper districts. See Pursh's 
Flora and Groom's Catalogue. 

The above was contained in my report on Med. Botany of 
S. C, published in 1849. Since that period, I have used the 
Tincture of Sanguinaria largely during five years attendance 
upon the Marine Hospital, and in private practice. I employ 
no vegetable substance so constantly, as an addition to cough 
mixtures, and as an alterative and tonic, when I think the 
functions of the liver not sufficiently active. We must avoid 
adding too much of the tincture to any mixture, lest it convert 
it into a nauseant or emetic. I can only say that it has proved 
a highly satisfactory agent in my hands as a tonic, alterative, 
and expectorant. (See Boneset, (Eupatorium perfol. latum'), 
for combinations of that and Sanguinaria in pneumonias and 
Formulae at the end of this vohtme.) 

Dr. J. B. Ancrum, of Charleston, informed me in 1867, that 
he had repeatedl}^ found benefit from the local application of 
the powdered root to scrofulous ulcers, administering it also 
internally in doses of a few grains several times a day. From 
a suggestion made to him by a soldier dui'ing the late war he 
used it internally with much satisfaction in scurvy, and the 
powdered root was used in making a gargle, and was also 
given internally. 

I have repeatedly employed the tincture with advantage in 
Jaundice, giving an occasional mercurial at night; thus avoiding 
the prostration which is so marked a feature of this disease as 
is often the case when managed exclusively by mercury. 

In the 12th ed. of the U. S. Disp. 1866, Dr. Mothershead 
paper (from Wood's Quarterl}^ Eetrosp. 280) is quoted, where he 


speaks in the strongest terms of its efficacy as an excitant to 
the liver given in alterative doses. 

Prof. Wood says in reference to Sanguinaria : The late Dr. 
Wm. Tully found it in large doses to produce vertigo, dilatation 
of the pupil, a haggard expression of the face, nausea, dimin- 
ished frequency and irregularity of the pulse. Prof. E. P. 
Thomas, of Philadelphia, who experimented with it on himself 
and others, in medicinal doses, using both the alkaloid and its 
salts, gave the following statement of its powers : In doses 
varying "from one-twelfth to one-eighth of a grain it acted as 
an expectorant without disturbing the stomach. One-sixth or 
one-fourth of a grain given every two or three hours generally 
produced nausea and sometimes vomiting. Half a grain in 
solution, given at intervals of ten minutes, almost invariably 
vomited after the second or third dose. Under the influence of 
one-eighth or one-sixth of a grain given every three or four 
hours, for two days or more, the pulse was generally reduced 
from five to fifteen beats in the minute. He found no alterative 
effect, and none of any kind directly upon the liver (Proc. of 
A. M. Med. Assoc, 1863) U. S. Disp. 

A fluid extract is prepared, of which the dose as an emetic is 
from ten to twenty minims. 

FUMITOEY, (Fimaria officinalis, Linn. Hook. FI. Bo.) Natu- 
ral, says Elliott, on John's Island, and at Mr. MiddleLon's on 
Ashley Eiver. Not in Curtis' Cat. 

This plant received great attention in former times, and was 
almost universally employed. Pliny speaks of it, lib. 25, c. 13. 
According to Hoffman and Boerhaave, the juice taken in large 
doses is diuretic and laxative. Great confidence was placed in 
its virtues by Cullen. Mat. Med. ii, 77. In the Dem. Elem. de 
Bot., it is refei'red to as a diuretic and detersive aperient, 
employed as a purifier of the blood in scrofulous and cutaneous 
diseases. It was administered in amenorrhoea, loss of appetite, 
and hj'pochondriacal affections ; Fl. Scotica, 379. Boerhaave 
frequently prescribed it in jaundice and bilious colics. Thorn- 
ton, in his Fam. Herb. 628, asserts that he had experienced its 
value in cutaneous diseases. Its acrimonious property is vola- 
tile ; hence, it should be given in whey. Mer. and de L. Diet. 


do M. Med. iii, 310 ; Fl. Med. iv, 153. "A marked bitter, which 
increases on being dried." A popular depurative remedy, 
which augments the action of the organs, and therefore useful 
in the diseases specified. Merat says, it was very generally 
allowed to be a specific in elephantiasis, acting without any 
evacuation or appreciable effect. Barbier, M. Med. 381 ; U. S. 
Disp. 1254. An extract of the expressed juice, or a decoction, 
throws out upon its surface a copious saline efflorescence. "The 
plant indeed abounds in saline substances." Griflath, Med. Bot. 
118. It is still employed in France ; given in the form of 
decoction, extract, syrup, or expressed juice. 

In observing the enormous amount of potash said by Ure to 
exist io^the ashes of this plant (fourth London edition, 1853), I 
can now well understand some of the statements made above, 
which I had published several years since in my report to the 
American Medical Association. It is another evidence of the 
light thrown upon any subject by facts gathered from different 
sources and by independent inquirers. See article "Potash." 
Wormwood, artemisia, tobacco, corn and rice stalks, etc., contain 
potash in large proportion. The two first mentioned in enor- 
mous amount relatively. 

NELUMBIACE^. {Nelumbo Tribe.) 
WATEK CINQUEPIN ; POND-NUTS, (Nelumbium luteum, 
W.) Fla. and northward, not common ; Chap. N. C. The 
fruit is a nut, the size of a cinquepin, of a sweetish flavor, and 
edible. It grows abundantly in the Santee canal. 

NYMPHS ACE^. {The Water Lily Tribe.) 
This order is generally considered anaphrodisiac, sedative, 
and narcotic. Their stems are bitter and astringent ; they 
contain a considerable quanty of fecula, and, after repeated 
washings, are capable of being used for food. 


phcca odorata, Ait. Kew. and Ph.) Diffused in lower country of 
South Carolina ; N. C. Eoots immersed. Newborn. Fl. April. 
XJ. S. Disp. 1280; Mat. Yeg. Pract. 201; Thompson's Steam 
Pract.; Big. Am. Med. Bot. 132 ; Cutler, Am. Trans, i, 456. "An 
anaphrodisiac." The root possesses a high degree of astrin- 
gency, containing, according to Dr. Bigelow, tannin and gallic 


acid. It is a popular remedy in bowel complaints ; and is used 
as an astringent in gleet, fluor albus, etc. It also forms an 
excellent demulcent poultice for ulcers. Mer. and de L. Diet, 
de M. Med. iv, 643 ; Bull. des. Sci. Med. iii, 74. Ainslie, in bis 
Mat. Med. Ind. ii, 381, says that, in India, they prepare with it 
a refreshing liniment for the head. Thompson employed this 
plant in the steam practice, and Matson recommends it as a 
gargle in sore throats, 


We insert this order, the properties of which are unknown, 
merely to introduce the non-medicinal, but very remarkable 
plant, the 

VENUS FLY-TKAP, (Dioncea muscipula, Ellis, L.) General 
C. C. Pinckney informed Mr. Elliott of the only locality of this 
interesting plant in South Carolina, viz.: on the margin of the 
Santee Eiver, between Lynch's Ferry and the sea, particularly 
at Collins' and Bowman's bridges. Newbern. Fl. May. Its 
leaves possess great sensibility, and are prehensile: closing up 
and confining insects and any foreign body which comes in 
contact with it. See Curtis, in Bost. Journal Nat. Hist, i, p. 
123, the article " Sarracenia " infra, and authors. "Mir- 
aculum naturfe ! folia triloba, radicalia, ciliata, sensibilia, 
conduplicanda, insecta incarceranda. Ellis, Epist. ad Linnoium. 
Croom's Cat. 

MAGNOLIACEiE. {The Magnolia Tribe.) 
This order is characterized by the possession of a bitter tonic 
taste, and fragrant flowers ; the latter generally producing a 
decided action upon the nerves. 

glauca, L.) Diffused in damp pine lands. Charleston ; New- 
bern. N. C. Fl. June. 

Big. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 67 ; Bart, i, 77 ; U. S. Disp. 442 ; Pe. 
Mat. Med. ii, 733 ; Royle, Mat. Med. 248 ; Ball and Gar. 189 ; 
Michaux, N. Am. Sylvia, ii, 8; Kalm's Travels, i, 205; Hum- 
phries, Med. Comment, xviii ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 
iv, 193; Marshall's Arbust. 83; Bart. Mat. Med. 46; Price, 
luaug. Diss. Phil. 1812 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. 18 ; Am. Herbal, 200 ; 


Griffith, Med. Bot, 97. It is a stimulant, aromatic tonic, with 
considerable diaphoretic powers. The leaves, steeped in brandy, 
or a decoction of them, are valuable in pectoral affections, 
recent cold, etc. The tincture, made by macerating the fresh 
cones and seeds, or bark of root, in brandy, which best extracts 
its virtues, is much used as a popular remedy in rheumatism, 
and in intermittent fevers ; and, according to Barton, in inflam- 
matory gout. Lindley refers to it as a valuable tonic, but it is 
said to be destitute of tannin or gallic acid. The bark of the 
root, according to Griffith, was employed by the Indians to 
fulfil a variety of indications; the warm decoction acts as a 
gentle laxative, and subsequently as a sudorific, whilst the cold 
decoction, powder of, or tincture, is tonic. These have proved 
very beneficial in the hands of regular practitioners in the 
treatment of remittents of a typhoid character. It is supposed 
by many residing in the lower portions of South Carolina that 
this tree prevents the water of bogs and galls from generating 
malaria. It certainly seems that the water is much clearer in 
which the bay tree grows.* It is stated in a Journal, 1863, 
that Mr. Kerr, of Wilmington, N. C, has made good writing 
ink by boiling in water the bark of the bay or dwarf magnolia. 
Pillars for staircases of the color of mahogany are made of the 
red bay, an excellent material for inner work of houses, furni- 
ture, etc., as I have seen at Col. Singleton's, Clarendon, S. C. 
Its grain is so fine and bears so good a polish, says Mills in his 
Statistics of South Carolina, that it is used for catinet purposes. 
It also dies a beautiful black color. 

*In that old work on Herbs, entitled the " English Physician," by Nicho- 
las Culpepper, gentleman, " Student in Physic and Astrology," I have met 
with a great deal concerning the employment of herbs in medicine ; but, 
from the absence of Botanical terms, it is impossible to ascertain, in many 
cases, what species are intended. In order to show the surprisingly super- 
stitious credence then attached to the influence of Astrology, in determining 
the virtues of, and the times proper for gathering plants, and also the 
diversity of qualities attributed to them, I will extract a portion of what 
Culpepper says of the " Bay Tree :" " Government and Virtues. — That it is 
a Tree of the Sun, and under the celestial Sign Leo, and resisteth Witch- 
craft very potently, as also all the evils old Saturn can do to the body of 
man, and they are not a few ; for it is the speech of one, and I am mistaken 
if it were not Mezaldus, that neither Witch nor Devil, Thunder nor Light- 
ning, will hurt a man in the place where a Bay Tree is. Galen said that 
the leaves or bark do dry and heal very much, and the berries more than 
the leaves ; the bark of the root is less sharp and hot, but more bitter, and 
hath some Astrictsion withal, whereby it is efl'ectual to break the stone, and 
good to open the obstructions of the liver, spleen, and other inward parts, 

MAGNOLIA, (Magnolia grandijlora, L.) This mafijiiificcnt 
troc g-rows {ibiuuhuitly along the scu-coast, and in the streets of 
Charleston. Found sparingly in St. John's Berkley, tbrty-fivo 
miles from the ocean ; grows in Georgia, also, in North Carolina. 
Fl. May. 

Mer. and de L. Diet. dc. M. Med., iv; 193 ; Pe. Mat. Med. and 
Therap. ii, 734 ; U. S. Disp. 444. The medicinal and chemical 
properties of these plants are supposed to be identical. See M. 
glauca. Mr. Proctor, in his analysis, Am. Journal Pharm. xiv. 
95, and viii, 85, found iii this species volatile oil, resin, and a 
crystallizablo principle analogous to the liriodendrine of Prof. 
Emmett, obtained from the L.tuUpifera gYO\\mg\\i the Southern 
States (vide L. tulip.) Merat says that in Mexico the seeds are 
employed with success in paralj^sis. l/oc. cit. sup. 

CUCUMBER TREE, {Magnolia acuminata, Linn. Mich.) 
Mountainous districts ; grows in Georgia, also, in North Caro- 
lina. Fl. July. 

U. S. Disp. 443 ; Mx. N. Am. Sylvia, ii, 12 ; Lind. Nat. Syst 
16. Lindley speaks particularly of the cones of this species 
being employed in the form of a spirituous tincture in rheumatic 
affections. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 193 ; GrifKth, 
Med. Bot. 98. Used as a prophylactic in autumnal fevers. 

which bring the Dropsy, Jaundice, etc. The Berries are very effectual 
against all poison of venomous creatures, and the sting of Wasps and Bees, 
as also against tho pcstiK-iui', and other inlVotious diseases, and tlioroforo 
put into sundry Treacles for tlie purpose. They, likewise, procure women's 
courses, and seven of tliem given to a woman in Sore Travel of child- 
birth do cause a speedy delivery, and expel the after-birth, and therefore 
are not to be ttikcn by such as have not gone their time, lest they procure 
abortion, or cause labour too soon. They wonderfully help all cold and 
rheumatic distillations from the Brain to the Eyes, Lungs, or other parts, 
and being made into an Electuary with Honey, do help the Consumption, 
Old Coughs, Shortness of Breath, and thin Bheums, as also the Megrim. 
They mightily expel the wind, and provoke urines, help the mother, and 
kill' the worms. The Leaves also work the like effects; a bath of the de- 
coction of the Leaves and Berries is singularly good for women to sit in 
that are troubled with the mother, or the diseases thereof, or the stopping 
of their courses, or for the diseases of the bladder, pains in the bowels by 
wind, and stopping of urine; a decoction, etc., settleth the palate of the 
mouth in its place. The Oil made of the Berries is very comfortable. All 
Cold, Griefs of tho Joints, Nerves, Arteries, Stomach, Belly, or AVomb, 
and helpeth Palsies, Convulsions, Cramps, Aches, Tremblings, and Numb- 
ness in any part, weariness also, and pains that come by sore travelling. 
* * * x- Pains in the Ears are also cured by dropping in some of the 
Oil, or by receiving into the Ears the fume of the decoction of the Berries 
through a funnel. It takes away the marks of Bruises ; it helpeth also the 
Itch, Scabs, and Weals in the Skin," etc. 

Tho wood irt BoA, fino fi;riiiiiod, and miKooptihlo of jt brilliant 
])()lirth. It in Honiotinios Hawed into l)oardH, and used in the in- 
terior of wooden houses. 

The flowers of most nia<^noIias exluilo a 8tron<^ aromatic 
fragran(!o; the l)ark of all possesses a coinltination of l)itter and 
hotly aromatic properties, without astringency, and that of 
many acts as a powerful medicine, in a similar way to Peruvian 
l)ark and Winter's l)ark. Wilson's Rural C^c. 

UMBRELLA TllKK, \ ^mo^^f^ umbrdia, Lam. 

{Miujnoha tripdala, Linn, and Kll. Sk. 

l»are, (ii-ows on the seacoast in rich soils; Newborn, N. C. 

Fl. June. 

U. 8. Disp. 443. It has a warm, aromatic odor, and is 

possessed of similar properties with the above. Mx. N. Am. 

Sylvia, ii, 19; Jjind. Nat. Syst. 16. According to T)e Cand. and 

Merat, Diet, do M. Med. iv, 193, it acts so powerlully on the 

nerves as to induce sickness and headache. 

LON(; LEAVED MAGNOLIA, {ATngnolia rnacrophylla. 
Mx. and Ell. 8k.) Crows on the mountains of South Carolina 
and North Carolina. It possesses tho most magnificent foliage 
and flowers of any of our forest trees ; the former are a foot or 
two in length ; and the latter one foot in diameter. For its 
medicinal properties, see M. glauca. See, also, Griffith's Med. 
Bot. 98, and Ell. 8k, of Bot. of S. C. 

ANISE SKED TREE, {UUdam Floridanum and parvifiorum). 
Th(!se plants have tho smell of anise seed, and should bo ex- 
amined. Griffith says tho bark may bo used as a substitute for 

tulipifera, L.) Grows in swami)s; diffused. Collected in St. 
John's, Charleston district ; Columbia; Newborn, North Caro- 
lina. Kl. June. 

Eberle, Mat. Med. ii, 308; U. 8. Disp. 432; Rush, in Trans. 
Phil. Coll. Phy. 1798 ; Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 743 ; younger Michaux 
on Forest Trees of North America; Clayton, Phil. Trans. 8 ; 
Carey's Am. Museum, 12; Barton's CoUec. Form. Mat. Med. 14; 
Thachor's U. 8. Disp.; Big. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 107; Barton, i, 
92; Ball. Gar. Mat. Med. 190; Mer. and de L. Diet, do M. Med. 
iv, 130; Chimie, Ixxx, 215; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot.; 


Eogers' Inaug. Diss. 1802. This plant is tonic, diuretic and 
diaphoretic, and is generally considered one of the most valua- 
ble of the substitutes for Peruvian bark. It has been employ- 
ed as a warm sudorific in the treatment of chronic rheumatism 
and gout ; and Bigelow thinks it valuable as a stomachic. It 
was administered by Dr. Young and himself, combined with 
laudanum, in hysteria, and the former says that in all the mate- 
ria medica be does not know of a more certain, speedy, and 
effectual remedy for that disease. See his letter to Governor 
Clayton. " He has never known it to fail in a single case of 
worms." Am. Museum, xii ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 98. Eafinesque 
says the seeds are laxative, and the leaves are used as an exter- 
nal application for headache ; they are washed and applied to 
the forehead. Merat states that it is useful in phthisis, and he 
also refers to its vermifuge properties ; employed in relaxed 
states of the stomach (reldchemens) and in the advanced stages 
of dysentery ; this is corroborated by Thacher. Anc. Journal de 
Med. Ixx, 530 ; J. C. Mayer, Mem. on L. tulipifera, in the Mem 
de I'Acad. de Berlin, 1796 ; Euch. Mem. sur le tulipier, Tilloch's 
Magazine; Hildebrande, Essai sur un nouveau succedane du 
quinquina in Ann. de Chim. Ixvi, 201 ; Carminati sur les pro- 
prietes medicinales de I'ecorce de tulipier. Its analysis, etc., in 
the Mem. of Eoy. Inst. Lombardy, iii, 4; in the Supplcm. to 
Mer. Diet. 1846, 436. M. Bouchardat advises, as the most pre- 
ferable mode of exhibiting it in fevers, the wine made with the 
bark in equal parts of alcohol, to which he adds of white wine 
seven or eight times the amount of the alcoholit; infusion. Bull, 
de Therap. xix, 246 ; S. Cubicre's Hist. Tulip. Paris, 1800 ; see 
Tract, of Bouchardat in Ann. de Therap. 75, 1841. 

Dr. J. P.Emmet, in his Analysis in the Phil. J. Pharm. iii, 5, 
announced the discovery of a new principle in it — liriodendrine. 
This is solid, brittle and inodorous at 40°, fusible at 180°, and 
volatile at 270° It is soluble in alcohol, thought to be analo- 
gous to camphor, and to the principle found in the Magnolia 
grandifiora, and to consist of a resin and a volatile oil; hence the 
alcoholic tincture is preferable. The powdered bai-k in syrup 
is given to children who are liable to convulsions from worms, 
to pi'omote their expulsion, and to strengthen the tone of the 
digestive organs. The bark should be pulverized and bottled. 
I have employed a strong infusion of the bark and root of this 


plant as an anti-intermittent, among a number of negroes, and 
am much pleased with its efficacy. See the wild Jalap {Po- 
dophyllum peltatiwi,) in conjunction with which it was usually 
given. In Virginia, the decoction of the bark, with that of the 
Cornus Florida (dogwood) and the Pmios verticillatus, is given 
to horses aifected with the hots. The poplar bai-k powdered is 
a valuable remedy as a tonic for hoi'ses. An infusion may be 
given to a horse, or the bark placed in his trough to be chewed. 
It gives tone to the digestive organs when they are "off their 
feed," in veterinary or jockey parlance. This tree I notice in 
unusual abundance along the line of railroad from Kingville to 
Columbia, S. C; also in Spartanburg district, S. C, on the banks 
of streams. Dose of bark xx-xxx grs. It is a stimulant tonic, 
slightly , diaphoretic. The infusion or decoction is made in the 
proportion of an ounce to a pint of water; dose one or two fluid 
ounces. Dose of the saturated tincture a fluid drachm. The 
wood is durable when not exposed to the weather — it is light, 
smooth, fine grained, and flexible; employed for various me- 
chanical purposes — for carving and ornamental work ; for 
making carriage and door panels, chairs, cabinets, etc. See 
also Mx. Forest Trees of America. 

ANONACE.^. (The Papaw Tribe.) 

The plants of this order generally possess a powerful aromatic 
taste and smell in all the parts. 

") Uvaria triloba, T. and G-ray. 
PAPAW; CUSTAED APPLE, VAnona triloba, Jjmxx. 

3 Asimina triloba, Ell. Sk. 

Grows in rich soils along streams. I have observed it in Fair- 
field and Spartanburg districts, South Carolina, and collected it 
in St. John's ; Mr. Elliott says it is found at Beck's ferry, Sa- 
vannah river, and North Carolina. Fl. May. 

Diet, de Mat. Med par Mer and de L. tom. i, 311. The rind 
of the fruit of the A. triloba of Linn, possesses a very active 
acid; pulp sometimes employed as a topical application in ul- 
cers. Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 69. "Juice of unripe fruit is a pow- 
erful and efiicient vermifuge; the powder of the seeds answers 
the same purpose ; a principal constituent of the juice is fib- 
rin — a product supposed peculiar to animal substances and to 
fungi." " The tree has, moreover, the property of rendering the 


toughest animal substances tender by causing a separation of 
the muscular fibre — its very vapor even does this ; newly killed 
meat suspended over the leaves, and even old hogs and poultry, 
when fed on the leaves and fruit, become ' tender in a few 
hours!' " Lind. loc. cit. The sap of the Papaw tree, {Carica •pa- 
paya), which is extracted from the fruit by incision, is white 
and excessively viscous. In a specimen from the Isle of France, 
Yauquelin found a matter having the chemical properties of ani- 
mal albumen, and lastly, fatty matter. Boussingault. This 
tree can be found in manj" parts of the South and I would in- 
vite examination into these very curious properties. For an 
excellent description of the Papaw, see Hooker in the Bot. 
Magazine, 808. At Pittsburgh, a spirituous liquor has been 
made fi-oni the fruit. Michaux notices that the celluhir integu- 
ment of the bark, and particularly that of the roots, exhales in 
summer a nauseous odor so strong as to occasion sickness if re- 
spired in confined air. Am. Sylva. 

UMBELLIFEE.E. {The Umbelliferous Tribe.) 

This order is nearly related to the Eanunculace{\>, and is gene- 
rally found in cold countries, and on the mountains of tropical 
regions. The plants belonging to it are often poisonous, some 
virulently so ; others are nutritive and wholesome ; of the for- 
mer, the hemlock is an example ; of the latter, the celery and 

PENNY WOET ; WATEE GEASS, {Hydrocotyle umbelldta, 
L.) Grows in bogs and wet marshes ; collected in St. John's ; 
vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern, N. C Fl. May. 

Mer and de L. Diet. deM. Med. tom. iii, 560. Employed with 
great efficacy in Brazil against hypochoudriacism. According 
to one author, the root is so valuable in diseases of the kidney 
as not to be replaced by any other medicines. It is emetic, 
diuretic and vulnerary. I see no mention of it in the English 
or American works. 

SANICLE ; BLACK SNAKEEOOT, (Sanicula MaryJandica, 
L.) Diftused, grows in shady spots ; collected in St. John's ; 
vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern, N. C. Fl. July. 

Mer. and de h. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 201. The Indians used it 
as we do sarsaparilla in syphilis, and also in diseases of the 


In the 12th Ed. U. S. Disp. 1866, the author states that the 
root has an aromatic taste, and has been used as a domestic 
remedy in intermittent fever, and that Dr. J. B. Zabriskie has 
found it highly effectual in chorea. He considers it most 
efficient in substance, and he gives the powder to children of 
eight or ten years old, in the dose of half a drachm three times 
a day. Am. J. Med. S. C. ; N. S. xii, 374. 

BUTTON SNAKEROOT, {Eryngium aquaticnm, L. K 
Yuccoefolium of Mx.) Damp pine lands ; diffused ; collected in 
St. John's ; Charleston ; N. C. Fl. July. 

Coxe, Am. Disp. 268; Ell. Bot. i, 343; Barton's Collec. i, 3; 
Frost's Elems. 280; U. S. Disp. 318 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. iii, 145 ; Shec. Flora Carol, art. Button snakeroot, 310, 545. 
The decoction is diaphoretic, expectorant, and sometimes emetic. 
Elliott says it is preferred by some physicians to the seneka 
snakeroot. Barton, in his Collections, states that it is allied to 
the contrayerva of the shops. This plant is possessed of un- 
doubted diuretic powers, and in combination with the 7m 
versicolor (blue flag), was much employed by Dr. McBride, of 
South Carolina, in dropsy. (See I, versic.) Great use is fre- 
quently made of them in popular practice. Shecut in his Flora 
Carol. 310, states that the decoction and tincture are given with 
benefit in pleurisies, colds, and most of the inflammator}'- 
diseases of the mucous passages. It is also said to act as an 
escharotic — keeping down fungus flesh, and preventing mortifi- 
cation. The root, when chewed, sensibly excites a flow of 
saliva. The £J. aromaticum, au aromatic species, grows in East 
and South Florida; Baldwin in Chapman's Flora. The E. 
maratimum, of England, penetrates the soil to the depth of 
twenty feet. 

FEVER WEED, {Eryngium foetidum, L.) Elliott is doubtful 
whether this plant comes within the limits prescribed to us; it 
has, however, been noticed by writers as a S. C. species, and 
Michaux found it in Florida. T. and Gray are of the opinion 
that it is not a native of the United States. Vicinity of 
Charleston, Bachman ; not in Curtis' Cat. Shec. Flora Carol. 
54. ''An admirable febrifuge." Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. iii, 145 ; Aublet, i, 284. Rotboll says it is a sedative, 
alterative, and febrifuge. Sprengel, Hist. de. la Med. v, 467; 
Lind. Species, PL 336. Not included in Chapman's Flora. 


uncinatum, L.) Shady banks of streams among the mountains 
of the Southern States, and northward ; also, Aconitum reclina- 
tum, Gray. Mountains of N. C. 

Most of the Aconites, particulai'ly those with blue flowers, 
are highly poisonous. This species should be carefully experi- 
mented with, as it may be made to supply the tincture of 
aconite and aeonitia for medicinal and chemical purposes. The 
active principal is " the most virulent poison known, not ex- 
cepting prusic acid, as prepared by Moison, of London. 1-50 
of a grain has endangered life." Wilson's Eural Encyc. Chris- 
tison states that this species is possessed of an intense acrimony. 
See also works on Materia Medica. " The 1-100 part of a grain 
has produced a feeling of numbness, weight, and constriction, 
which has lasted a whole day." The tincture of aconite is moi'e 
manageable, and is useful as an external anaesthetic in frontal 
neuralgia, local pains, etc. The writer has used it largely in 
this way whilst in charge of the Marine Hospital, Charleston, 
and with chloroform and glycerine to relieve the itching in 
prurigo and camp itch (1868). No remedy, save chloroform, 
equals it when applied locally for the relief of pain. The 
tincture ma}" be combined with oil and chloroform, as a liniment 
in rheumatism. See Puff Ball {Lycoperdon), the dust of which 
is said to be a good anesthetic agent. 


(Cicuta maculata, L. AYalt. Fl., Carolina). Grows in bogs and 
inundated laud; collected in St. John's; Charleston; Newbern, 
N. C. Fl. Aug. 

U. S. Disp. 1242 ; Barton's Collec. 1846 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, 
de M. Med ii, 282 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. i, 125; Schoepf, M. Med. 
36; Stockbridge, N. England Journal, iii, 334; Mitchell, Ely, 
and Muhlenburg, Med. Eepos. xvii, 303; Stearns, Am. Herbal, 
li2. The leaves, flowers, and seeds are resolvent, powerfully 
narcotic, sedative, and anodyne. It resembles conium in its 
effects, and is used as a substitute for it. " It relieves pain from 
cancer more powerfully than opium;" employed in ill-condi- 
tioned ulcers, gleets, painful uterine discharges, venereal ulcers, 
epilepsies, and convulsions ; it promotes perspiration and urine, 
and, externally applied, disperses hard tumours. It is closely 


analogous to the European species, the C. virosa; Bigelow says 
identical with it. The dose of the leaves in powder is one to 
two grains three times a day, in infusion, or one grain of the 
extract, increasing it as the system becomes tolerant. This 
plant has repeatedly occasioned the death of those mistaking it 
for others. An active emetic, to which an infusion of galls may 
be added, will generally give relief. The vegetable acids, lemon 
juice, and vinegar, neutralize its effects ; and strong tea and 
coffee are the best antidotes for the stupor which follows its 

Dr. Stearns, in his account of the plants of Michigan (Proc. 
Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1858, 253) states that Dr. Norton, of 
Minnesdla, highly recommends it as a specific in nervous and 
sick headache. By a chemical analysis. Dr. J. B. Young found 
in the seeds a volatile oil, a principle supposed to be identical 
with conia, etc. (Am. J. Pharm. xxvii, 294), U. S. Disp. 12th Ed. 

CELERY, (Apium graveolens). Ex. cult. Milne, Ind. Bot. 420. 
The fresh roots, observes Dr. Lewis, when produced in their 
native water soil, are supposed to partake of the ill quality of 
those of the hemlock kind, and to be particularly hurtful to 
epileptic and pregnant women. So that we have here a strik- 
ing evidence of the excellence of the Natural System, as it may 
be remembered that, in describing the characteristics of this 
order, this plant was alluded to as forming an exception. 

PARSLEY, (Apium petroselinum). Ex. cult. Leaves aromatic 
and slightly diuretic, and used as such. A recent Journal 
contains the following: Two physicians of Paris have published 
a very important memoir, the object of which is to make known 
the immense resources which the healing art may draw from 
the seed of the Parsley. This common indigenious plant pos- 
sesses incontestible febrifuge properties ; the decoction of its 
seeds may be substituted for that of Cinchona, and the active 
principal which has been drawn from it, and which they desig- 
nate under the name of Apiol, is equivalent to Quinine in the 
treatment of local intermittent fevers. 

The U. S. Disp. 12th Ed. refers to the substances apiin and apiol 
furnished by the seeds and root of this plant, and also states that 
the juice of the fresh herb has been employed as a substitute for 
quinine — and the seeds also, according to M. M. Jozet and 


Homolle, yield apiol and act on the system very much like quinine 
producing in tlie dose of about 15 grains cerebral excitation, and 
in increased doses causing a species of intoxication with giddi- 
ness, wasted sights and sounds, etc. In temperate latitudes 
it cured intermittents in the proportion of 86 per cent. It 
has also been employed as an emraenagogue in dose of four 
grains morning and evening. (Journ. de Pharm. June, 1861.) 
It is sometimes given in capsules of gelatin. 

x>rc<TT/-kr))ci -iTT-r^-orv ) Discopleura capillacea, D. C. and T. and 
BISHOP S WEED, | ^.^..^^f ^^^^^. ^^^^.^^ of Walter. 

Grows in damp soils. Fl. July. N. C. Shec. Flora Carol. 136- 

^iT A m-oTj T> A -oaATTT* ) Siuiii nodiflorum, Walt, and Ell. Sk. 
WATEE PARSNIP, | jj;^iQsciadium of Koch. 

" Probably introduced; abundant around Charleston." Ell. 

Thornton's Fam. Herbal, 297; Eay's Cat. Plantarum, 213 ; 
Diet, de M. Med. It is recommended in cutaneous eruptions. 
Withering relates the case of a young lad}', who was cured of a 
very obstinate attack by taking three large spoonfuls of the 
juice twice a day; "and I have repeatedly seen," says Thorn- 
ton, "two ounces administered every morning with the greatest 
advantage." It is not nauseous, and children take it readily, 
mixed with milk. When it is prepared in this way it is not 
disagreeable, and does not affect the head, stomach, or bowels. 
U. S. Disp. 1296. The juice has also been employed in scrofu- 
lous swellings of the lymphatic glands, and is considered 
diuretic. Mer. and de L. Diet. 369 ; Bull, des Sc. M. de Ferus. 
xviii, 420 and xx, 421. 

FENNEL, (^Fceniculum officinale). Introduced from Europe ; 

The seeds of Fennel are well known ; emploj-ed in flatulent 
colic for their carminitive and stimulant properties. The oil of 
fennel is also used for the same purpose, and to correct the taste 
of medicine. See authors. 

COW PARSNIP; MASTERWORT, {Heracleum lanatum, 
Mx.) Mountains of North Carolina. 

This is an acrid plant, much esteemed by the Indians. Bige- 
low. Mat. Med. 203, is of the opinion that it is poisonous, and 
should be used cautiously when gathered from wet places. 
The root and leaves have an unpleasant and rank odour, and 


the taste is pungent and acrid. Its qualities are certainly active. 
. Griffith. The root, in a dried state, is used as a diuretic expec- 
torant and antispasmodic. It has been greatly employed by 
Empyrics. Dr. Griffith quotes a paper by Dr. Orue, of Salem, 
Mass., read to the Massachusetts Medical Society, 1803, in which 
he reports three out of five cases of epilepsy cured by it. He 
gave it in large doses both in substance, and in infusion. Dr. Cox, 
Am. Disp. 326, recommends it as a stomachic and carminative, 
and in cases of dj'-spepsia accompanied with flatulence and car- 
dialgia, he used a strong decoction of it with benefit. The 
leaves are used externally as rubefacients as a cataplasm in ab- 
scesses, and the seeds are said to be expectorant. Dr. Eichardson, 
Faun. Bor. Am., says the Northern Indians use a portion of the 
hollow stem of this plant to imitate the voice of the male deer, 
to attract the female within gunshot. Griffith. 

ANGELICA; MASTBEWOET, }iZaTgel!ca'tt'mr^e. ^'"' 
I have collected it in rich woods in Fairfield district ; also 
rarely in upper St. John's, Charleston district. Fl. July. 

Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 469 ; Ed. and Yav. Mat. Med. 
276 ; Le. M. Med. i, 85 ; Woodv. Med. Bot. 86 ; U. S. Disp. 98 ; 
Journal de Pharm. 3e ser. 2 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med, i, 
296 ; Shec. Flora Carol. 167. The root is edible, and possesses 
more aroma than any of our indigenous plants. It is used in 
spasmodic vomiting, flatulent colics, and nervous headaches ; 
some say it is powerfully emmenagogue. The vittse of some 
species are filled with a pungent oil. A candy is sometimes 
prepared with the roots boiled in sugar. The great fragrance 
of this root has caused it to be used for many purposes by the 
confectioner and others ; the tender stalks also are candied. 
The seeds are cordial, tonic, and carminitive ; and the plant 
was in repute at one time as a preventive of pestilence to those 
who bore it about them. " The pulverized I'oot, in doses of a 
drachm, is said to be very useful in pestilential fevers and 
diseases of the liver; and a paste of its root and vinegar used to 
be carried and smelled at by physicians during the prevalence 
of epidemics, as a preventive of infection." Wilson's Rural Cyc. 
"Angelica" is stated in some tables to yield more potash even 
than wormwood or fumitory. See " Chenopodium " and ''Fuma- 
ria " in this volume. Chapman does not include the A. lucida 


in his Flora — he has Archangelica hirsuta, T, and G. A. triqidnata, 
Ell. N. C. Drs. Wood and Griffith refer to Angelica atropur- 
purea as a native of the South, and Dr. Griffith includes A. 
lucida, also, as a highly aromatic plant. 

DILL, (Anethum fcenicuhim, L.) Introd. cult, in South Caro- 

It is employed in flatulent colic as a carminative and anti- 
spasmodic. The oil has been given in hiccough. Milne, in his 
Ind. Bot. 404, says : The herb, boiled in broth, has been used 
with great success in preventing obesity." See authors. 

CAEEOT, {Daucns carota, Tourn.) Completely naturalized, 
says Elliott, in South Carolina, Georgia and North Carolina. 
Collected in St, John's; Charleston. Fl. April. 

Woodv. Med. Bot. ; Eoyle, Mat. Med., 401. The root and 
seeds are stimulant, carminative, and eminently diuretic ; em- 
ployed with great success in strangury, anasarcous swellings of 
lower extremities, in suppression of urine, and in painful micturi- 
tion. Eberle on Diseases of Children, 110 ; Am. Herbal, 92 ; Frost's 
Elems. Mat. Med. 298. Dr. Chaj)man used a strong infusion in 
gravel. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 299; Flora Med. ii, 
99 ; see Chemical Anal, by Bouillon Lagrange, in the Journal 
de Pharm. i, 529. Britanet and himself wrote a book on the 
plant (which may be seen in the New York Hosp. Lib.) The 
root contains some volatile oil, a large proportion of pectin, a pe- 
culiar coloring principle called carotin, and sugar. Griffith, Med. 
Bot. 337. The authors alluded to above contend that the plant 
acts as a sedative, even topically applied. In the form of a 
poultice, it calms pain, is antiseptic, and corrects the intolerable 
fetor arising from internal diseases — as of the ear, for example. 
Dr. Geo. Wilkes, ophthalmic Surgeon, New York, informs me 
that he finds it invaluable in this respect. Mem. de Museum, iv, 
102 ; Suppl. to Mer. and de L. 1846; Yauquelin upon the Pectic 
Acid in the Eoot of the Carrot, Journal de Pharm. xv, 340. 
The essential oil is regarded as emmeuagogue and anti-hysteric. 
Ancien Journal de Med. xxiv, 68. In Germany, it is considered 
vermifuge. Crantz, Mat. Med. i, 23. Shecut, in his Flora 
Carol., alludes to its employment in gravel, and in expelling a 
species of tape worm. A syrup similar to treacle has been 
obtained from it, and by distillation, a liquor nearly equal in 


flavor to brandy. An old Encyclopcedia, in a very favorable 
notice of the carrot, then not so generally known, gives this 
statement : 

" Yarious but unsuccessful attempts have been made to get 
sugar from carrots — they yielded only a thick syrup similar to 
treacle. These roots have been lately employed more advan- 
tageously in distillation. A distiller has obtained from ten 
pounds of carrots, one quart of 'first runnings' and half a pint 
of very strong ardent spirits." 

Much use is made of the seeds of this plant in popiilar prac- 
tice as a diuretic. For this purpose a drachm of the bruised 
seeds, which are excitant and carminative, may be taken at 
once, or an infusion of an ounce of the seeds may be given 
during the day. Prof. Proctor has made an ointment of the 
root grated and mixed with lard and wax melted, and slightly 
evaporated and then strained. It is used in excoriated or ulce- 
rated surfaces requiring a gentle stimulation. U. S. Disp., 12th 

WILD CAKROT, (Baucus pusillus, Mx.) Grows on the Sa- 
vannah River; collected in St. John's; Charleston. Bach.. X C. 

Eberle, Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 318; Bell's Pract. Diet. 162. 
The seeds contain more volatile oil than the other species. It, 
however, possesses nearly the same properties. Used as a diu- 
retic in calculous diseases, suppression of urine, etc. 

ARALIACE^. {The Aralia Tribe.) 

GINSENG, {Panax quinquefolium, L.) Rich soils in the moun- 
tains of South Carolina and Virginia, and westward. FI. May. 

Am. Herbal, 157, by Stearns. In China they drink an infu- 
sion of the root instead of tea, and it is well known that they 
have recourse to it as a last resort in all diseases ; Dr. James 
says, more especially in all cachectic and consumptive cases, 
and in those arising from debility of any kind. Dr. Healde 
also alludes to their great confidence in it as a restorative after 
great fatigue, as an anti-spasmodic in nervous affections, in 
coma, and as an aphrodisiac ; one hundred and twenty grains 
of the sliced root are boiled in a quart of water, and two ounces 
of the decoction, or twenty grains of the root in substance, is 
employed. Jartoux, in the Phil. Trans, xxviii, 239, states that, 
after being fatigued by travelling three days, he employed the 


decoction of the leaves internally, and as an application to the 
feet, and was satisfied of its utility, being completely revived 
by it. Dr. Wood, in the U. S. Disp. 530, says, it is very little 
more than a demulcent ; but Lindley, Nat. Syst. Bot. 25, thinks 
that thei-e is no reasonable doubt of the ginseng having an in- 
vigorating and stimulant power, when fresh. Big. Am. Med. 
Bot. ii, 82 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 356, and iv, 176; 
Flor. Med. iv, 185 ; Kaerapher, Amoen. Academicse, v, 218 ; His- 
toire du Japon, vi, 218 ; Burmann, Flo. Ind. tab. 29, i ; L'Bncy- 
clop. Chinoise, Ixcii; Flora Cochine, 806; Lafitteau, Deserip. du 
Ginseng, Paris, 1718, i, 12. Dr. Sarrazin introduced it into 
notice in Europe. Trans. Roy. Acad. Sci., Bartram Com. 61, 
1741 ; J. P. Bregnius, Diss. Med. de Radice Ginseng, 1700 ; Coxe, 
Am. Disp. 434. Cullen in his Mat. Med. 270, refers to its effi- 
cacy in increasing virility. See Merat, loc. cit. " J'avoue qu'un 
individu qui en avait fait usage dans cet derniere intention 
pendant long temps, n'en obtint absolument aucun resultat." 
S. Yaillant in Acad, des Sci. 1718; Bourdelin, Hist, de I'Acad. 
1797 ; Lafitteau, Mem. concernant la precieuse plante do Gin- 
seng, Paris, 1788; Kalm. Travels, iii, 114; Osbeck's China, 145; 
Heberden, Med. Trans, iii, 34; Fothergill, Gent. Mag. xxiv, 209; 
loc. cit. sup. The Ginseng was an article of importance as an 
export from Virginia. The root is thought to resemble liquo- 
rice, and may partially supply the place of that article: see 
Report from Surgeon-General's office, C. S. A., 1862. 

THREE LEAVED GINSENG, {Panax trifolium L.) N. C. 

This formed an article of considerable trade formerly with 
the Indians, and it makes an excellent cordial. Mills' Statistics 
of South Carolina. 

LIQUORICE, (^Glycyrrhiza glabra.) Exotic. I am uncertain 
as to the position of this genus in the Natural system ; it should 
probably be placed near "Robinia." Dr. Wood states, U. S. 
Disp., that a species G. lepidota grows about St. Louis and along 
the bank of the Missouri to its source. A friend informs me that 
it has been a long time planted near Doko, on the Charlotte 
Railroad, in South Carolina, where it grows luxuriantl}^ This 
plant is said to be well adapted to the Southern States. It has 
been grown in Texas. Information as to the best mode of 
planting and culture can be found in a paper in Patent Office 


Eep. 1854, p. 359. I append the following practical remarks : 
"The sooner liquorice is sold the heavier it weighs ; and the 
greener it is the more virtue it contains. It is sold in three 
distinct forms, viz : in the roots, in powder, and in its inspissated 
juice. The first of these needs no explanation. The second is 
prepared by cutting the small roots into small pieces, drying 
them in an oven or kiln, and grinding them in a mill. The third 
kind is prepared by pounding the smaller roots and fragments 
with cold water for nearly two days ; after which the pulp is to 
be squeezed, and the juice boiled down in an iron pot to a pitchy 
consistence, and then rolled or stamped into sticks or cakes, 
which are sometimes sold under the name of ' Spanish Liquo- 
rice.' Liquorice roots will keep a year if laid in sand, and stoi'ed 
in a cool, dry cellar ; and if the sets, or runners, or buds, are 
cut ready for planting, tied in bundles, and sent by land car- 
riage, they will keep a fortnight. If packed in sand, and sent 
by water, they will keep some three or four months, especially 
the nM)re hardy buds." In the Patent Ofiice Eeports for 1854-55, 
the cultivation of a number of medical plants is described, par- 
ticularly those yielding aromatic oils. 

ASH; PEICKLY ELDER, (Amlia spinosa, L.) Collected in 
St. John's; rich soils along fences; Charleston, Florida and 
North Carolina. 

Plant often confounded with the JCanthoxylon ; properties 
somewhat similar. See JC. fraxineiwi, which is the true Prickly 
Ash. Ell. Bot. 373 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. i, 379 ; 
Coxe, Am. Disp. 100; Shcc. Elora Carol. 191; Frost's Elems. 
20; Griffith, Med. Bot. 345. It is a stimulating and very 
certain diaphoretic, " probably to be preferred to any emetic 
yet discovered among our native plants." This species is more 
stimulating than the A. nudicaulis. The infusion of the bark 
of the root is used in chronic rheumatism and cutaneous 
eruptions, also employed in lues venerea. Pursh states that a 
vinous or spirituous infusion of the berries is remarkable for their 
power in relieving rheumatic pains, and the tincture is also given 
in Virginia in violent colics. See Dr. Meara's experiments. 
Merat says, it has been used to allay pain caused by carious 
teeth. Dose, of the saturated tincture, a tablespoonful three 
times a day. A decoction is often preferred in rheumatism, 


made by boiling an ounce of the bark in a quart of water ; 
taken in divided doses several times a d&y. In South Carolina, 
this plani is the rattlesnake's master ^ar excellence, according to 
the negroes ; they rely on it almost exclusively as a remedy for 
the bite of serpents. I am informed that they use the bark of 
the fresh root in substance, taken internally, also applying it 
powdered to the wounded pai't. Dr. Meara advises that the 
watery infusion, when employed as a diaphoretic, should be made 
very weak, as it is apt to excite nausea, and cause irritation of 
the salivary glands. 

SPIKEISTAED, {Aralia racemosa, L. Mx.) Grows, according to 
Dr. McBride, in the mountains of South Carolina, Grcorgia and 
North Carolina. 

Ell. Bot. Med., note, i, 373. The decoction of the root is much 
esteemed by those residing in the mountainous districts as a 
remedy in rheumatism ; no doubt possessed of stimulating pro- 
perties. Michaux cites it as a sudorific. The root, when boiled, 
yields a gummj^ substance. A tea, syrup, or tincture, may be 
made of the roots or berries. It is given in coughs, asthma and 
diseases of the lungs. Also given as a stimulant in menstrual 
obstructions ; said to be in high repute among the Indians. See 
the " Indian Guide to Health." Dr. Sarazzin informs us that it 
is very useful as a cataplasm in inveterate ulcers ; generally 
adapted to similar purposes with the A. 7iudicavlis. Mer. and de 
Li. Diet, de M. Med. i, 376 ; U. S. Disp.; Am. Journal Med. Sci. 
xix, 117. 

nudicaulis, Mx.) Mountains of South and Noi-th Carolina. Fl. 

Eaf Med. Flora, i, 53; U. S. Disp. 116. A gently stimulating 
diaphoretic ; thought to be alterative, and used in poj)ular prac- 
tice in rheumatism, syphilis, and cutaneous affections. Mer. and 
de L. Diet, de M. Med. i, 375. Dr. Meara records the roots as pos- 
sessing the virtues of sarsaparilla. Mus. Med. Philos. iv. An excit- 
ant diaphoretic, and eutrophic, like mezereon.guaiac, sarsaparilla, 
and sassafras. The infusion has been employed with success in 
zona, and as a tonic in debility of stomach (les reldchemens 
d'estomac.) Coxe, U. S. Disp. 99 ; Lindley's Nat. Syst.; Griffith 
Med. Bot. 344 : Phil. Med. Mus. ii, 161. Administered in domes- 


tic practice, in pulmonary disease, where inflammation does not 

DWAEF ELDEK, (Aralia hispida, Mx.) Mountains of North 
Carolina and northward. 

Dr. Peck strongly recommends the root as a diuretic in dropsy. 
He uses it in the form of decoction and finds it pleasanter to the 
taste and more acceptable to the stomach than most other medi- 
cines of the same class. Am. J. Med. S. C. xix, 117 ; U. S- 
Disp., 12th Edition. 

' BEEBEEACE^. (The Berberry Tribe.) - 

AMEEICAN BAEBEEEY, (Berberis vulgaris, Walt. Fl. Carol. 
Berbens Canadensis, Ph. and Ell.) Grows wild in St. John's, Berke- 
ley, near Woodlawn, PI.; upper districts of Georgia, South and 
North Carolina, and northward. Fl. May. 

Shec. Flora Carol, (see B. vidgaris,) 268 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 
30 ; U. S. Disp. 1233, Appendix. The B. vulgaris of Europe, 
with which this plant is not identical, though differing from it 
but slightly, if at all, in medicinal properties, has received con- 
siderable attention. They are used as a domestic remedy in 
jaundice, and in dysentery and diarrhoea ; it is supposed that the 
acid is specific. From analysis by Buchner and Herberger, it is 
shown that the root contains a new principle called berberine, 
which acts like rhubarb, and with equal promptness and activity. 
Griffith, Med. Bot. 113 ; Journal de Pharm. 1233 ; Trans. Phil. 
Soc. 1834 ; Analysis in Journal de Pharm. xxiv, 39 ; Mer. and de 
L. Diet, de M. Med. Supplement, 1846, 101. From the berries a 
syrup is obtained which is adapted to putrid fevers, and those of 
a low type ; a cooling drink is also made with them, and given 
in similar cases. The root boiled in lye imparts a yellow color to 
wool. I have observed the remarkable irritability of the stamens 
in the species growing in South Carolina, which, when touched, 
instantly spring down upon the stigma, and in this way com- 
municate their pollen to it. It was said to have a singular eff'ect 
upon wheat growing near it, turning the ears black for some dis- 
tance around ; but this, however, is doubted. The berries are 
acid. The English barberry (B. vidgaris) has attracted much 
attention ; its fruit is edible, and much discussion has been ex- 
cited whether or not it produces smut in wheat or corn when 
planted near it. Experiments touching this peculiarity should 


be performed with respect to our barberry. For a full state- 
ment of the merits of the above question, see AVilson's Eural 
Cyc. Art Barberry. Thaer, in his " Principles of Agriculture," 
p. 409, says : " One very extraordinary fact is that the barberry 
bush will produce smut, or something very similar to it, in all 
corn growing within a considerable distance of it. This is 
a fact which has been confirmed by numerous observa- 
tions and experiments in almost all countries. But it 
has never yet been clearly and satisfactorily ascertained 
in what manner the barberry produces this effect. My 
friend Einhoff has made several experiments on the possi- 
bility of communicating the cecidium (a parasitical fungus) to 
cereals by cutting branches from the barberry, which were 
quite covered with it, and shaking them over the corn, or else 
planting them in the midst of it ; but he never sncceeded in 
thus producing the disease ; therefore it would seem that it is 
not the communication of this dust, but the vegetation of the 
barberry in the vicinity of the cornfield, which engenders the 
disease. Nor will it attack crops planted near young and new- 
ly made barberry hedges ; but as these latter grow up, the dis- 
ease will appear until these hedges are rooted up. As soon as 
the barberry has been thoroughly extirpated, the evil disap- 
pears." Thaer considei"S mill or mel-dew a disease of the skin 
of plants. See this work for information on diseases affecting 
the cereals — on irrigation, etc. Translated by William Shaw 
and C. W. Johnson, New York, 1852. It is believed by some 
in this country that the pokeweed (Phytolacca,) if allowed to 
die in a cotton field, wilt produce rust. This is quite unlikely. 

Dr. Wood advises that the active principle berberina be ex- 
amined for its antipcriodic properties. See Hydrastis, in this 
volume ; U. S. Disp., 12th Ed. 

(Caulophgllumthalictroides,M.^., JOeonticethalictroides, L.) Moun- 
tains of South Carolina and northward. Ell. 

The seeds when roasted are said to form an excellent substi- 
tute for coffee. The root, which is the part used, is sweetish, 
somewhat pungent and aromatic, affording a yellow infusion or 
tincture. See Grriffith, who says that it is much employed by 
empyrics, who derived a knowledge of it from the Indian. "It 
is stated to be demulcent, antispasmodic and emmenagogue, 


and has been administered in rheumatism, dropsy, nervous die- 
orders," etc. Rafinesque states, adds Griffith, that it is par- 
ticularly adapted for female disorders, and that the Indian wo- 
men make use of a tea of the root for some time before their 
confinement, asserting that it facilites parturition. It is like- 
wise said to bo an active emmenagogue. Ryddell, Synop. 4, 
also states that it is "bitter, diuretic and a preparatory partu- 
rient." Griffith invites an examination of it. A decoction, in- 
fusion or tincture of the root is employed ; of the two former 
the proportions are an ounce to a pint of water — dose one or 
two ounces; the dose of the tincture, made by adding four 
ounces of the root to a pint of spirits, being one or two tcaspoon- 


The species of this order are exclusively confined to the bogs 
of this country. Lindley thinks it should also comprehend the 
Dion'sea, which grows in North and South Carolina, and which 
also possesses the' power of entrapping insects. See D. mus- 

nia fiava, L., and van'olaris, M.) Diffused ; grow in bogs > 
Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. June. 

See Mer and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 226, where the Diss, 
of Dr. McBride, of South Carolina, in the 12th vol. Trans. 
Linna^an Soc, is referred to. I have read this description of 
one of our native botanists, and allude to it with pleasure. I 
am informed by several gentlemen of South Carolina, that these 
plants are used in dyspepsia with great service. The roots are 
undoubtedly possessed of bitter, tonic and stomachic proper- 
ties ; and I am credibly assured of a number of cases in which 
relief has been experienced from them. The taste is disagreea- 
ble to those using them for the first tijne, but eventually it be- 
comes pleasant, as I have myself experienced. An infusion 
might serve as a useful substitute for bitters. 

In an article on the medicinal and chemical properties of 
these plants, published by me in the January number (1849) of 
the Charleston Medical Journal, the attention of the profession 
is for the first time invited to their reputed value in the treat- 
ment of dj^'spepsia. Several cases are there detailed, illustrat- 


ing the employment of the Sarracenia. It is supposed by many 
to relieve most of the distressing symptoms of this atfection, 
among which may be cited : gasti-algia, pyrosis, acidity, and 
the general feeling of malaise so frequently attendant upon it. 
In some it induces considerable diuresis, and in others soreness 
of the mouth. In experiments made upon my own person, to 
ascertain its physiological effects upon a healthy individual, 
it exhibited a tonic, stimulating influence upon the digestive 
organs, producing some cerebral disturbance, when persisted in. 
On one occasion three hundred and twenty grains of the 
dried root, in the form of pills, were taken during the 
course of twelve hours. From the examination made for 
me by Prof. C. TJ. Shepard, it contains besides lignin, 
coloring matter, and traces of a resinous body, an acid, or 
an acid salt, and also an astringent property, due neither 
to^ tannic nor gallic acid, -and a salt of some alkaloid, related 
perhaps to cinchona, which, should it prove new, may be called 
sarraceniny I ascertained the existence of starch in some 
quantity in the cold infusion and in the decoction, not discovered 
in the boiled alcoholic solution, which, however, contained 
some gluten. '-In its exhibiting in moderate quantities no 
very decided nor violent eflects upon the animal economy in 
disease consists its excellence. And its peculiar action on the 
stomach, I think, is the result of a happy combination of ele- 
ments, which renders it appropriate to the relief of an affection 
like dyspepsia. Its acid prevents or corrects the undue forma- 
tion of alkalies, or supplies its own deficiency ; the existence of 
either condition having- been assumed as explaining the true 
pathology of the disease. Its power of neutralizing or correct- 
ing acidity was obvious. Its bitter property, which is abund- 
ant, is tonic and restorative ; its i-esinous portion may supply 
the proper cathartic stimulus, the too inordinate action of which 
is corrected by the astringent; and this being neither that of 
the tannic nor gallic acid found in other vegetable tonics, may 
be superior. Should dyspepsia be a gastric neuralgia, or con- 
sist, as Parry thinks, in a condition of hyperaemia ; or as, ac- 
cording to Wilson Philip, a chronic gastritis, its relief may be 
accounted for, by a narcotic principle contained in the plant ; 
the cerebral disturbance, one of its physiological effects upon 
my own person, giving some color to the suggestion." (See 


Art. cit. sup.) A bit of the fresh or dried root of either species 
may be chewed, and the juice swallowed during the day before 
each meal ; it may be given powdered in the form of pill, with 
a little rhubarb if necessary; or a tincture may be made by 
pouring a pint of brandy over several ounces of the root, of 
which half an ounce, diluted, may be taken three times a day. 
I have lately had cases reported to me of its marked success 
in the relief of chronic diarrhcea and dysentery*, and I am 
pleased to learn that it is noAv widelj' used in other portions of 
South Carolina and in Georgia, with very general approba- 

PITCHER PLAXT, (Sarracenia purpurea.) I have speci- 
mens from Barhamville, S. C, and have collected it in St. John's, 
S. C, near the State Eoad. It is not near so common as the 
other species. X. C. Curt. Cat. 

The following paper was sent to the Surg. General C. S. 
Army, and was addressed to the Editor of the "Evening Mail," 
Eng., by Cosmo G. Logic, Surg. Major Eoyal Home Guards 
(Blue,) and dated Windsor, May 25, (1862:) 

Some time ago, seeing a paper written by Assistant Surgeon 
Miles, of the Eoyal Artilk-ry, on the efficacy of the Xorth 
American plant called the Sarracenia purpurea, or pitcher plant, 
in the treatment of small-pox among the Indians, my colleague 
(Mr. Agnis) and myself have given this remed}-, which has 
been imported into this country by Dr. Miles, to the house of 
Messrs. Savoy & Moore, a fair trial. And I am happy to say 
the eleven cases in our hands have recovered under its peculiar 
influence. This remedy I consider a boon to the public, for this 
reason : it is so easily managed ; any one can make a decoction 
or infusion of the root, like tea. An ounce of the root is sliced 
and infused in a quart of water and allowed to simmer down to 
a pint, and given in two tablesjjoonful doses every four hours, 
while the patient is well nourished with beef tea and aiTow 
root. Four of the cases in my hospital have been severe con- 
fluent cases, (confluent means where the head, face and neck are 
swollen into a misshapen mass, and the pustules thickly run- 
ning into each other ;) they have throughout the disease all 
been perfectly sensible, have had excellent appetites, been fi-ee 
from pain, and have never felt weak. The eftects of this medi- 
cine, which I have carefully watched, seemed to arrest the 


development of the pustules, killing, as it were, the virus from 
within, thereby changing the character of the disease, and 
doing away with the cause of pitting (if I may so express 
myself to the uninitiated,) and thus avoiding the necessity of 
gutta percha and India rubber application, or of opening the 
pustules. In my opinion, all the anticipations of disfigurement 
from pitting may now be calmed, if this medicine is given from 
the commencement of the disease. Before leaving this subject 
I may here caution the public that the useful part of the plant 
is its root, as recommended by Dr. Miles, and it can only be 
obtained from Messrs. Savoy & Moore, to whose house alone it 
has been imported. With the usual kindness of Dr. Gribson, 
the Director-General, I have been amply supplied with it for 
the use of my regiment. So much am I impressed with the 
efficacy of it in small-pox over the old mode of treatment, that 
I hope to heal' of it in every country gentleman's medicine 
chest. " 

It is difficult to conceive how it acquired any reputa- 
tion in the cure of small-pox, unless from the fact that simple 
means are the best in the treatment of this disease, as in other 
eruptive fevers. I do not know that the S. purpurea has ever 
been experimented with in this country. I was unable to procure 
any of it in Yii'ginia, in obedience to the wishes of Surgeon- 
General Moore. Dr. A. Eaoul informs me that this plant has 
been used in South Carolina to correct vomiting in pregnant 
women, 1867. He has employed it for this purpose. Prof. 
Wood, in 12th Ed. U. S. Disp., is inclined to put no confidence in 
the power of this plant as a remedy in small-pox, and I fully 
agree with him. He refers to a description of this species in 
all its relations by Prof. Bentley, in a paper in the Pharm. Journ. 
for January, 1863. 

EHIZOPHOEACE^. {Mangrove Tribe.) 

MANGEOVE, {Rhizophora mangle, L.) This plant is found 
in South Florida. Chapman. An introduced species is used in 
India for yielding a black dye. 

ONAGEACEiE. {The Evening Primrose Tribe.) 

SOABISH, {(Enothera biennis, Linn.) Grows in dry pastures ; 
diffused ; collected in Charleston District ; Newbeni. 


Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. iv, 202 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 36 ; 
V. S. Disp. 1281 ; Dem. Elem. de Bot. ii, -iU ■ Griffith, Med. 
Bot. 304. The root and herb have been employed in cutaneous 
diseases. Dr. Griffith has used it with success in tetter, apply- 
ing the decoction to the affected part several times a day, and 
giving it internally at the same time. He has been successful 
with it in subsequent trials. Th« plant should be gathered 
about the flowering season. The young sprigs are mucilagi- 
nous, and can be eaten as salad. Lindley. The leaves of the 
QEnothera expand in the evening, and continue open all night. 
Pursh states that, even of a dark night, it can be seen at some 
distance, owing, he supposes, to some phosphoric property. 
The leaves are stated by M. Dussauce, in his Treatise on Tan- 
ning, Philada., 1867, to be useful in tanning leather. Its roots 
have a nutty flavor, somewhat similar to those of rampion, and 
are used in Germany and some parts of France, stewed and 
raw, ir^ salads, with mustard, oil, salt and pepper, like the 
common celery The ancients thought the plant possessed the 
power of allaying intoxication and calming the most ferocious 
animals. It is doubtful whether this is theCEnothera of the 
ancients. Wilson's Eural Cyc. It appears to possess some 
power as an abstergent, and is used in washing clothes. 

WILLOW-HERB, {Epilobium augxistifolium, T.) Mountains 
of N. C. and northward. The leaves and root are said to be 
demulcent, tonic and astringent, and yield their virtues to 
alcohol. They are used by the "Eclectics," adds Dr. Wood, 
generally and locally, in decoction infusion or cataplasm, in 
cases which call for the use of astringent remedies ; U. S. Disp., 
12th Ed. 

Jussicea grandijlora, Mich. Grows in bogs; "common 
around Savannah, and in ponds four miles from Charleston." 

Dr. J. Bachman informs me that he has seen it in abundance 
around Charleston for the space of ten miles, from which 
locality I have specimens. Fl. July. Dr. S. A. Cartwright, of 
J^atchez, asserts that this plant has the power of preventing 
the development of malaria in regions peculiarly adapted to its 
generation. He affirms that it "purifies all stagnant water in 
which it grows — that of the lakes and bayous inhabited by it 
being as pure to the sight, taste and smell as if it had just 
fallen fi'om the clouds" — ascribing to the pi*esence and peculiar 


"hygienic or health-preserving properties of this plant" the 
remarkable exemption of the inhabitants of lower Louisiana 
from "malarious or miasmatic diseases." "The fact," he adds, 
"that the region of country in which this aquatic plant abounds 
is exceedingly healthy, can be established beyond cavil or dis- 
pute ; it nevertheless contains more stagnant water and swamps 
than any other inhabited district of the same extent in the 
United States." He is quoted in the notes appended by the 
American editor, to AYatson's Pract. Physic, p. .465 ; and Dr. 
Wood, in his late woi-k on the Practice of Physic, also makes 
use of these assertions as if they were established. Dr. C. must 
seek for the exemption of this section of country from these 
diseases in other causes, as this plant is abundant around the 
cities alluded to above, in situations where it is well known that 
fevers of malarious origin are continually prevailing, I have 
recently observed this plant growing profusely around Charles- 
ton Neck, where intermittent and remittent fevers are noto- 
riously prevalent. 

The genus Jussiisa has its 7'oots distended into vegetable swim- 
ming bladders. The curious can examine the ./. grandiflora to 
observe this peculiarity, like that in our beautiful Utricularia in- 
flata, Tt/pha and Nymphma (water lily,) and Sagittaria, also " dis- 
play mjanads of air chambers in the solid stem." See Wilson, 
" Aquatic plants." 

nifolia, Jj.') Grows in Charleston District; Elliott says rare; 
seven miles from Beaufort, and at Savannah ; collected in St, 
John's ; North Carolina. Fl. Aug. 

Merat, in the Diet, de M. Med. iv, 154, says that in America a 
decoction of the root is employed as an unfailing emetic. 


In this order, a slight degree of astringency is the prevailing 
characteristic ; though a large one, it does not contain a single 
unwholesome species. 

DEER GRASS ; SORREL, (Rhexia glabella, Mx.) Grows in 
moist pine lands, vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. John's; 
North Carolina. Fl. July. 

The leaves of this plant have a sweetish, acid taste, and are 
eaten with impunity. Deer are said to be fond of them. 


MYETACE^. {The Myrtle Tribe.) 

POMEGEANATE, {Funica granatum.) Cultivated with suc- 
cess in the Southern States. The bark of the root is a well known 
astringent ; employed in dysentery and diarrhoea ; one scruple 
of the powder may be given at a dose, or a decoction may be 
used if this is too strong, as it acts on the nervous system. Car- 
son, in his Illust. Med. Bot. i, 1847, states that it has also been 
employed with success against taenia. The fruit is remarkable 
for the beauty of the coloration of the pulp around the seed ves- 
sels, which are packed away in a surpiisingly economical man- 
ner. This is edible, and forms with water a cooling ascescent 
drink, grateful in fevers. A correspondent of the " Mercury," 
"F. J. S.," 1862, says that the rind of the fruit yields a jet black 
fluid, which writes very smoothly and retains its jett}' hue." 

LYTHEACE^. {Loosestrife Family:) 

SWA^TP LOOSESTEIFE, {Nescea verticillata, H. B. H. De- 
codon verticillatum, Ell.) N. C. 

Lindley tells us : " It is said to destroy the young of cattle 
heavy with calf." Dr. Tully says: " If a great amount of testi- 
mony will decide anything in medicine, Decodon v. is an ecbolic 
for certain brute animals. This efl:ect is said to bo most fre- 
quently produced upon ewes, next upon cows, and sometimes 
upon mares. " 

HAMAMELACE^. {The Witch-Hazel Tribe.-) 

This order, remarks Lindley, is found in the northern parts of 
North America, Japan and China. In my examination of the 
various authorities on the subject before me, I have frequently 
been struck with the correspondence prevailing between the 
species found in South Carolina and those of Japan, and this re- 
spects only the medical botany of the two ; should the flora of 
each be compared, a still more universal relation might be estab- 
lished. Professor Agassiz has noticed something of the same 
kind existing between the fossil botany and the fauna of each. 

WITCH-HAZEL, {Hamamelis Virginica, L.) Grows along 
pine land bays ; collected in St. John's, Charleston District ; vicin- 
ity of Charleston, Bach.; N. C. 


Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 452; Coxo, Am. Disp. 310; 
U. S. Disp. 1258; Matson's Yeg. Pract. 201 ; Griffith's Med. Bot. 
350 ; Eatinesque, Med. Flor. i, 227. It is said to be sedative, as- 
tringent, tonic and discutient. The bark was a remedy derived 
from the Indians, who appHed it to painful tumors, using the 
decoction as a wash in inflammator}^ sweUings, painful hemor- 
rhoidal affections and ophthalmias. A cataplasm, and a tea of 
the leaves, as an astringent, were employed in hiematemesis. The 
steam practitioners also administer it in irritable hemorrhoids, 
and during the bearing-down pains attending child-birth. No 
analysis has been made, but as it probably contains sedative and 
astringent principles, attention is directed to it. The curious 
reader may consult, besides the paper in Hutton's "Mathema- 
tics," on the wonderful properties of the witch-hazel in detecting 
water, a recent one in Patent Office Eeport on Agriculture, p. 16, 
1851. This is from Prarie du Chien, by Mr. Alfred Burnson, 
and contains some remarkable statements of the certainty of 
finding water by divining rods. Some electrical and telluric influ- 
ences are hinted at — Credat Judceus! Persons living in the up- 
per districts of South Carolina assume to use the rod with suc- 

Dr. James Fountain, of Peokskill, N, Y., speaks highly of the 
efficacy of the bark in hemorrhage of the lungg and stomach, 
and also as one of the best applications for external piles, an 
ointment being prepared from lard, and a decoction of equal 
parts of this bark, white oak bark and that of the apple tree. 
He believes the witch-hazel to possess anodyne properties. (N. 
Y. J. Med. X, 208.) Dr. N. S. Davis in his report (Trans. Am. 
Med. Assoc, i, 350,) agrees with Dr. Fountain in his estimate of 
this remed}', which he has cmploj^ed in the form of a decoction, 
made with one ounce to a pint of water; dose, a wine glass full 
every three to eight hours in incipient phthisis. U. S. Disp., 
12th Ed. 

In the Eichmond Journal for January, 1868, is an article from 
the Atlanta Med. and Surg. Journ. (1867,) in which Dr. W, W. 
Durham claims for this plant properties similar to those said by 
Dr. Phares to be those of the Virhurnum pruni folium, and which 
tend to confirm opinions expressed above by Prof Davis and 
othei'S. In reference to its power of preventing abortion or 
miscarriage, Dr. Durham says: "At one period of my practice 


the negroes used the cotton root so frequcntl}'^ to produce 
abortion, that my supply of black haw became exhausted, and 
having heard of this power of the hazel to affect the purpose 
for which I used the haw, I resorted to it (the hazel) with per- 
fect success. Having only used it for the purpose of preventing 
abortion, from the effects of the cotton root, I cannot speak of it 
in other cases." He makes a decoction of one pint of the leaves 
to one pint of water, which is administered freel}'. See also 
Viburnum jjrunifolium. 

Dr. Joseph Bates, in an article on the Witch-hazel, published 
in Tilden's " Journ. of Mat. Med," February, 1868, furnishes an 
analj^sis of this plant by Dr. A. Lee. (See J. of Mat. Med. 2, 
p. 200.) The bark contains organic and inorganic matter, 
allumen gum, extractive, tannin, a particular (bitter) principle, 
resin, starch, etc. 

Dr. Lee observes : " The great amount of tannin contained in 
this plant is worthy of notice; while the sumach contains 
three hiyadred and twenty-five and geranium one hundred and 
thirty-six j)arts in seven thousand, the hazel contains no less 
than four hundred." This is an important statement and 
deserves attention. In the Boston Med. J. Surg. J., v, 37, p. 
348, is an account of the efficacy of this plant in arresting hem- 
orrhages — the leaves being cliewed and the juice swallowed. 
Tilden & (^o. prepare a fluid extract which may- be given in 
doses of one to two drachms. By means of this an infusion or 
a wash may be made by mixing with water in the proportion 
of one ounce to a pint. 

COENACE.E. (7/ie Dogwood Tribe.) 
DOGWOOD, {Gornus Florida, L.) Well knoAvn ; diffused in 

rich, shady lands ; Newbern ; Va. 

Drayton's View S. C. 63 ; Bell's Pract. Diet. 152 ; Barton's 

Collec. 12; Eberle, Mat. Med. 303; Chap. Therap. and Mat. 

Med. ii, 438 ; Ell. Bot. i, 208 ; Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 753; U. S. Disp. 

277 ; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 197 ; Am. Journal Pharm. vii, 

114; Eoyle, Mat. Med. 422 ; Ball, and Gar. 310 ; Mer. and de L. 

Diet, de M. Med. iv, 436 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 73 ; Shec. Elora 

Carol. 449; Thacher's Disp. 203; Walker's Inaug. Diss. Phil. 

1803; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 49; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 

This well known plant possesses tonic and anti-intermittent 


properties, very nearly allied to those of cinchona ; in periodic 
fevers, one of the most valuable of our indigenous plants. "Dr. 
Gregg states that, after employing it for twenty-three j^ears in 
the treatment of intermittent fevers, he was satisfied that it 
was not inferior to Peruvian bark.'" Generally given in con- 
junction with laudanum. It also possesses antiseptic powers. 
In the recent state, it is leas stimulating than the cinchona bark, 
but it affects the bowels more ; the dried bark is the preferable 
form. The fresh bark will sometimes act as a cathartic. It is 
more stimulating than thoroughwort (Eupatorium,) and, there- 
fore, is less aj)plicable during the hot stages of fever. According 
to Dr. Walker's examination, the bark contains extractive mat- 
ter, gum, resin, tannin and gallic acid ; and Dr. Carpenter 
announces in it a new principal, cornine. Dr. 8. Jackson also, 
from experiment, is satisfied that it contains a principle analo- 
gous to quinia. It has been exhibited by Dr. S. G. Morton in 
intermittent fever, with success. Griffith, in his Med. Bot. 347, 
mentions that the infusion of the flowers is useful as a substitute 
for chamomile tea ; for analysis, see Am. Journ. Pharm. i, 114 ; 
and Phil. Journal Med. and Phys. Sci. xl. Dose of the dried 
bark in powder, is twenty to sixty grains ; the decoction is made 
with one ounce of the root to one pint of water, or the extract 
may be employed ; alcohol also extracts its virtues. The ripe 
fruit, infused in brandy, makes an agreeable and useful bitter, 
which may be a convenient substitute for the article prepared 
in the shops. Dr. D. C. O'Keeffe, of Geoi'gia, published an 
article on the C. Florida in the So. Med. and Surg. Journal, Jan- 
uary, 1849. He gave the extract in doses of ten grains to two 
drachms, without its producing any disturbance of the stomach, 
as alleged by some writers. Barton says, in his Collections, 
that the bark is valuable in a malignant disorder of horses 
called 3'ellow water. From the gallic acid it contains, a good 
writing ink may be made, and from the bark of the fibrous 
roots the Indians extracted a scarlet color. Lindley mentions 
that the young branches, stripped of their bark;" and rubbed 
'^ against the teeth, render them extremely white. It is often 
employed for this purpose by persons living in the country. 

Where there is need of astringent anti-periodics and tonics, 
the dogwood bark powdered will be found the best substitute 
for the Peruvian. Internally and externally, it can be applied 


wherever the cinchona barks were found serviceable. The dog- 
wood bark and root, in decoction, or in form of cold infusion, is 
believed by many to be the most efficient substitute for quinine, 
also in treating malarial fevers ; certainly, it might be used in 
the cases occurring in camp, to prevent the waste of quinine, as 
it can be easily and abundantly procured. 

Dr. Richard Moore, of Sumter County, informs me that he not 
only finds it efficient in fevers, but particularly useful, with 
whiskey or alcohol, in low forms of fevers, and dj'sentcry 
occurring near our river swamps. 

During convalescence also, where an astringent tonic is re- 
quired, this plant meets our requirements. See Enpatorium 
(boneset) and Liriodendron (Poplar.) These, with the black- 
berry and chinquapin as astringents, the gentians and pipsis- 
sewa as tonics and tonic diuretics, the sweet gum, sassafras, and 
bene for their mucilaginous and aromatic properties, and the 
wild jalap (Podophyllum) as a cathartic, supply the surgeon in 
camp -during a blockade with easily procurable medicinal 
plants, which are sufficient for almost every jjurpose. Nitrate 
and bi-carbonate of potash are most wanted, and with calomel 
may be procured from abroad. Our supply of opium can be 
easily reached by planting the poppy, and incising the capsules. 
Every planter could raise a full supply of opium, mustard and 
flaxseed. A tonic compound, as advised by the herbalists, is 
made with the bark of the root of dogwood, Colombo (Frasera,) 
poplar, each six ounces ; bark of Avild cherry, six ounces ; leaves 
of thoroughwort, four ounces; cayenne popper, four ounces — 
sifted and mixed. Dose, a teaspoonful, in warm or cold water, 

The berries of the dogwood have also been highly recom- 
mended — given as a remedy for fever in place of quinine (1862.) 

The wood is compact, heavy, fine grained and susceptible of a 
brilliant polish. It is used on our plantations wherever a hard 
wood is required, as in making wedges, the handles of light 
tools, mallets, plane stocks, harrow teeth, hames, horse collars, 
etc. Michaux states that the shoots, when three or four years 
old, are found proper for the light hoops of small portable casks. 
In the Middle States the cogs of mill wheels are made of dog- 
wood. The branches of the tree are disposed nearly in the 
form of crosses. N. A7n. sylva. Farmer's Encyc. I have used 


the dogwood for engraving. See " Amelanchier" in this vol- 

Dr. Walker makes an excellent ink thus : Half an ounce of 
dogwood bark, forty grains of sulphate of iron, the same of 
gumarabic, in sixteen ounces of rain water. Prof Joseph 
Jones, of Georgia, has also used it with success. See So. Med. 
and Surg. J., September, 1861. , The Avood of the dogwood, like 
the willow, (see Salix,) is preferred in making gunpowder. 

EED WILLOW; SWAMP DOGWOOD, (Cornus sericea, 
Ph.) Elliott says it grows in the mountains of South Carolina ; 
sent to me from Abbeville District, by Mr. Eeed ; North Caro- 
lina. Fl. June. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 349. It possesses properties quite similar 
to those of the C. Florida, but it is more bitter and astringent. 
Mr. E. informs me that it is employed to a great extent in do- 
mestic practice in Abbeville. According to B. S. Bai'ton, the 
bark was considered by the Indians a favorite combination with 
tobacco for smoking. The young shoots were used to make coarse 
baskets ; and they extracted a scarlet dye from these and the 

BLOOD EED DOGWOOD, (Cornus sang uinea, Jj.) Grows, 
accoi'ding to Elliott, in the valleys among the mountains. Fl. 

Diet, de Med. de Ferus. ii, 737; Mathiole, Comment, ii, 119; 
Journal de Chim. xxxviii, 174, and xl, 107. See, also, Journal 
de Pharm. for an account of the oil extracted from it. M. Mu- 
rion says they afford one-third of their weight of a pure and 
limpid oil, used for the table and for burning. A case of hydro- 
phobia was said to have been cured by it. Griffith, Med. 
Bot. 349. There also exists in this, as in the others, a red color- 
ing principle, soluble in w^ater alone. 

Gornus stricta. Growls in swamps near Charleston; Newbern. 
Shec. Flora Carol. 44^. C. Circinata is not included by Chap- 
man among the Southern species, though Dr. Wood says that it 
grows in Virginia. See U. S. Disp. 


Bark usually astringent; berries contain a viscid matter; plants 
possess the power of rooting in the w^ood of others. 


MISLETOE, ( Viscum verticillatum, L.) • The V. verticillatum of 
Ell. Sk. is not of that Linn. T. and Gray ; N. A. Flora. Dif- 
fused ; grown on oaks ; Newbern. Fl. May. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de Med. vi, 860 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 
50 ; Le. Mat. Med. ii, 456 ; Journal de Med. Ixx, 529 ; Eberle, 
Dis. of Children, 522. Dr. Bai'ham, in the Hortus Americanus, 
says that the fruit of the misletoe cures epilepsies, pleurisies, 
coup de soleil, etc. Dem. Elem. de Bot. iii, 556 ; employed in 
pai-alysis. Thorton's Fam. Herb. 333. Fothergill, Dr. Wilson 
and Gilbert Thompson use it "with great effect in epilepsy." So, 
also. Dr. Eraser, who published a work on it. Wade's PL Eari- 
ores, 82. Eberle, "Dis. of Children," alludes to its employment 
in infantile epilepsy. Some writers refer to the European species ; 
but this is supposed to be identical with it. The seeds contain a 
viscid substance resembling bird-lime in appearance, which is 
insoluble both in water and in alchohol. In Dr. Hunter's edition 
of Evelyn's Sylvia, it is said to prevent the rot in sheep. Bird- 
lime wJBs formerly made from the berries of the misletoe of oak, 
which were first boiled in water, then pounded, and the Avater 
poured off in order to carry away the seeds and rind. For pro- 
cess, see "Holly" (^Ilex opaca;) also, Wilson's Eural Gyc, "Bird- 
lime" and "Bird catching." 

MISLETOE, (Phoradendron flavescens, Nutt.; Viscum flaves- 
cens, Pursh.) This is the only specie included by Dr. Chapman 
in his Flora of the Southern United States. 

M. Gampert (Ann. de Therap. 1859, 36,) had reported a case in 
France in which a child three years old was poisoned by eating the 
berries of the misletoe. Vomiting and prostration were produced, 
the patient was insensible, with a fixed and somewhat contracted 
pupil, and coldness of the skin and convulsive movements of the 
extremities were present ; an emetic brought away a considera- 
ble quantity of the berries and the child recovered. Prof Wood, 
in reporting this in the U. S. Disp., 12th Ed., states that Dr. 
Henry Dye, of Texas, records (Memphis Med. Kecord, iv, 344,) 
several cases of children poisoned by eating the berries of a 
species growing on the elm, probably V. flavescens of Ph. The 
prominent symptoms were vomiting and great thirst, followed 
by frequent discharges of bloody mucus from the bowels, with 
tenesmus. One of the children was found in a collapsed state 
in which death took place. Dr. Dye states, also, that in another 


instance, as he had been informed, children had eaten the ber- 
ries, without anj^ ill effect. 

CUCUEBITACE^. {The Gourd Tribe.) 

This order is closely allied to the Passifioracese, and is found 
in most abundance in hot countries. Most of them are valuable 
articles of food, but are pervaded by a bitter laxative quality, 
which in the colocynth gourd becomes an active purgative 

WATEEMELOX, (Cucumis citrullus.) The juice of the melon 
by boiling may be converted into a palatable syrup for table use 
and one of the best substitutes for molasses. From recent ex- 
periments it has been found that about one pint is yielded by 
each melon, which may be profitably made during a period of 
great scarcity in the supply of sugar. No doubt, like the ripe 
fig, beet and other saccharine substances, it may easily be con- 
verted into vinegar, and should be added to the vinegar cask. 
It is well known that the juice is diuretic, and the seeds, by tri- 
turation, or by being boiled in water, afford a demulcent and 
diuretic drink, useful in incontinence of urine and in strangury. 
Almost the same may be said of the pumpkin, which is used as 
an article of food for man and beast in many of the Southern 
States. The harder portions of both melon and pumpkin are 
used in making preserves b}^ our Southern matrons, and brandy 
was made from the juice during the w^ar. The melon, the celery 
and the asj^aragus are said to yield mannite. 

PUMPKIIST, (Cucumis jyepo, W.) Cultivated very successfully 
at the South. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 488. The seeds afford an essential oil, 
which might be made of some value ; when triturated with 
water, they furnish a cooling and nutritive milk, and when 
boiled to a jelly, they are said by Bechstein to be a very effica- 
cious remedy for retention of urine. The fruit is much used on 
the plantations at the South as an article of food both for men 
and animals; pies and preserves of an agreeable flavor are made 
of it. See Stille's Mat. Med. and recent medical works for the 
singularly useful qualities of the seeds, as recently applied by 
Johnson, Soule, Jones and others, as a remedy for taj)e-worm. 
A paste is made from the seeds, in the quantity of about an ounce 

and a half with as much sugar. The dose of the seeds is about 
two ounces in emulsion, taken in the morning and followed by 
castor oil. Boston Med. and Surg. J., U. S. Disp. An oil of the 
seeds is also used. The fruit when dried is useful as a winter 
provision for armies. An excellent substitute may be found in 
the pumpkin, which when cut into slips and dried either in the 
sun or in a dry room, is said to be little inferior to dried ap- 
ples. The musk-melon (Cucumis melo} Siud cucumber (C sativus) 
are also largely cultivated at the South. 

GOUED ; CALABASH, (C?^cM?'iiYa lagenariajJj.^ Grows in 
cornfields and along fences; vicinity of Charleston; Eichland ; 
collected in St. John's. Fl. May. 

Linn. Yeg. Mat. Med. 180; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 563; Le. 
Mat. Med. i, 379 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 492. An 
infusion has been found useful in inflammation of the urinary 
passages, and the seeds have been employed in rheumatism, 
strangury and nephritis. Shec. Flora Carol. 479. " Water, 
which has lain for some time in the fruit of this plant, becomes 
violently emetic and cathartic." The shells of the dried fruit 
are sometimes so capacious as to contain four gallons of water ; 
convenient receptacles, water-flasks, dippers, milk pans, etc., are 
made of them. They must first be deprived of their acrid 
principle by boiling ; moulds for buttons are fashioned out of 
them, and they are much used for these purposes by the 
negroes on the plantations. The general reader will recall the 
" Calebassia Tree, " mentioned in "Paul and Virginia," hence 
the name given to this vine, no doubt by the negroes, from its 
resemblance to the tree, a native of the east coast of Africa. 

CEEEPING CUCUMBEE, {Melothria pendula, L.) Grows 
in rich, shaded soils ; collected in St. John's, Charleston Dis- 
trict. N. C. Fl. June. 

Journal de Chim. Med. iii, 498 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. iv, 322 ; GriflSth, Med. Bot. 311. The seeds act as a drastic 
purgative — half a one is a dose for an adult. Martins states 
that three or four ^ will act powerfully on a horse. Journal de 
Chim., loc. cit. sup. 

CACTACE.E. {The Indian Fig Tribe.) 

Fruit very simihxr in its properties to that of the currant 
tribe ; often refreshing, sometimes mucilaginous and insipid. 


CACTUS; PEICKLY PEAR, (Opuntia vulgaris, Mill. T. and 
Gray. Cactus opuntia of Ell. Sk.) Grows in dry pastures ; 
Newbern. Fl. Ma^. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 11. The fruit is said to 
be eatable ; the leaves cut transversely are applied to tumors 
as a discutient ; the decoction is mucilaginous, and I am in- 
formed that it is much used in Alabama as a demulcent drink 
in pneumonic and pleuritic inflammations. Its cultivation has 
been recommended on account of the cochineal insect, which is 
said to feed on it. Mr. Wm. Summer, of South Carolina, con- 
tributes the following to the list of our "expedients:" 

To Make Hard Tallow Candles. — To one pound of tallow 
take five or six leaves of the prickly pear, {Cactus opuntia,) split 
them, and boil in the tallow, without water, for half an hour or 
more ; strain and mould the candles. The wicks should have 
been previously dipped in spirits of turpentine and di-ied. If 
the tallow at first is boiled in water, and the water changed 
four or five times, it will be bleached and rendered free from 
impurities. Then prepare, by frying with prickly pears, to 
harden it. In this way we have made tallow candles nearly 
equal to the best adamantine. 

The prickly pear has been generally used (1862^ for hardening 
tallow, with satisfactory results. One pound is added to four of 
tallow ; a larger quantitj^ make the candles too brittle. It takes 
the place of wax. I have often seen candles which were made 
hard by this process, and it appears to be a singular property 
possessed by this plant — and equally singular how it was ever 
first applied for the purpose. 

COCHINEAL CACTUS, (Cactus cochinilifer.) Elliott says 
that it is probable that other species exist, but he does not in- 
clude this in his sketch of the Bot. of South Carolina. Shecut, 
however, in his Flora Carol. 319, remarks that "we are indebted 
to Dr. Garden, of South Carolina, for the discovery of this tree 
here," well known as the one upon which the cochineal insect 
feeds. T. and Gray do not include it in their N. A. Fl. The 
fruit tinges red the urine of those who eat it ; and the leaves 
rubbed up with hog's hird, are useful as a topical application to 
prevent mortification. 

CRUCIFBRiE. {The Cruciferous Tribe.) 

Lindley states that the universal characteristic of this order 
is the possession of anti-scorbutic and stimulant qualities, com- 
bined with an acrid flavor. The species contain a great deal of 
nitrogen, to which is attributed their animal odor when 

cum, L.) Wet places. JS.C. Common. 

It is suitable to be used in winter and early spring salads, but 
is far less in request than some of the other cresses. Sowings 
should be made in light, dry earth, the beds protected with dry 
litter during severe winter. Rural Cyc. 

GOLD OF PLEASURE ; FALSE FLAX, (Camelina sativa, 
Crantz.) Referred to in Chapman's Botany of Southern States, 
p. 30, as introduced, growing in cultivated fields. N. Hanover, 
N. C, Curtis. 

. Se6 a paper in P. O. Report on Agriculture, 1851, p. 51, on 
the *' Camelina sativa — a new oil plant." In some parts of the 
world it is cultivated for its stems, which yield a fibre applica- 
ble for spinning, and for its oleifcrous seeds. Merat says it is 
cultivated for this purpose in Flanders. 

Mr. Wm. Taylor, F. L. S., has recently drawn the attention 
of agriculturists and others to this as an oil plant, adapted for 
feeding cattle, and for other purposes. He says that the soil 
best adapted for its cultivation are those of a light nature, but 
a crop will never fail on land of the most inferior description. 
It has been found to flourish this year on sandy soils, where no 
other vegetable would grow, and independent of the drouth 
the plants have grown most luxuriantly, yielding a large and 
certain crop. When gx'own upon land that has been long in 
tillage and well farmed, the crop will be most abundant. The 
best time for putting in the seed is as early as possible in the 
spring months, say from the middle of March or the middle of 
April to June, and for autumn sowing to August; and the 
quantity per acre required, fourteen pounds ; and may be either 
drilled or broadcast, but the drilled method should be preferred. 
If drilled, the rows must b3 twelve inches apart. As soon as 
the plants have grown five or six inches high, a hand or horse 
hoe may be used to cut up the weeds between the rows, and no 


further culture or expense will be required. If sown early, two 
crops may be frequently obtained in one year, as it is fit for 
harvesting in three months after the plant makes its first ap- 
pearance. Or another important advantage may be obtained : 
if seed is sown early in March, the crop will be ready to harvest 
in the beginning of July, and the land fallowed for wheat or 
spring corn ; also when barlc}^ or small seeds cannoi be sown 
sufficiently early, this may be put in with great success. It is a 
plant that may be cultivated after any corn crop, without doing 
the least injury to the land, and may be sown with all sorts of 
clover ; the leaves of the gold of pleasure, being particularly small, 
afford an uninterrupted growth to every plant beneath, it, and 
the crop being removed early, the clover has time to establish 

The grower of this invaluable production is in all seasons 
secure of his crop, inasmuch as it is not subject to damage by 
spring frosts, heavy rains, and drouth, and, above all, the 
ravages of insects, more particularly the cabbage plant louse, 
{Aphis bi'assica,) which so frequently destroys rape, turnips and 
others belonging to the cruciferse order, when coming into 
blossom. The seed is ripe as soon as the pods change from a 
green to a gold color. Care must then be taken to cut it off 
before it becomes too ripe, or much seed may be lost. AVhen cut 
with a sickle, it is bound up in sheaves and shocked in the same 
manner as wheat. The process of ripening completed, it is 
stacked or put in a barn, and threshed like other corn. The 
expense of these crops cannot be very great, either in the prep- 
aration and culture of the land or in the management in secur- 
ing the produce afterward ; but when grown with care and in 
good season, the produce will mostly be very abundant — as high 
as thirty-two bushels and upward to the acre. 

The cultivation of this plant for the seed would repay the 
farmer ; an abundance of chaff would be produced, which would 
be of infinite service for horses or for manure. In a grazing 
country like England, where vast sums are annually expended 
for foreign oil cake, the gold of pleasure will soon be found an 
excellent substitute under manufacture, and consequently a 
grower would find a good remuneration in cultivating the seed. 
The plant may be considered a valuable production of the earth. 
A fine oil is produced for burning in lamps, in the manufacture 


of woollen goods, in the manufacture of soaps for lubricating 
machinery, and for painters. The oil cake has been found 
highly nutritious in the fattening of sheep and oxen, as it 
contains a great portion of mucilage and nitrogenous matter, 
which, combined together, are found very beneficial in de- 
veloping fat and lean. From the experiments above related, 
it is abundantly proved that it does not suffer from the severest 
frosts, its foliage not being injured. It is not infested by insects, 
nor does it exhaust the soil. 

The gold of pleasure has been cultivated by several practical 
agriculturalists, who highly approve of the new plant. For all 
these reasons it is hoped that every farmer will avail himself of 
this valuable discovery as a remunerating rotation crop. Mr. 
Taylor adds that one acre cultivated with these plants yield 
thirty-two bushels of seed; from which five hundred and forty 
pounds of oil are obtained ; so that the Camelina seems to ex- 
ceed the flax in its produce of seed, oil and cake per acre. The 
seed is extremely rich in nutriment. I know of no seed superior 
to it for feeding cattle. The oil obtained by expression is sweet 
and excellent, especially for purposes of illumination. From the 
very small quantity of inorganic matter in the seed, it will be 
evident that the seed cake must be of a very nutritious character, 
being merely the seed deprived of a portion of its water and 
oily matter. We have examined some of the oil obtained from 
the seed of the Camelina sativa, and which has been recently 
sent to several medical men by Mr. Taylor, under the belief that 
it possesses valuable medical properties. It is of a j'cUow color, 
and smells something like linseed oil. Finding it of service in 
relieving the incessant cough of an animal, Mr. Taylor has 
extended the use to the human subject, and states that it has 
cured several persons affected with diseased lungs and asthma. 

In a brief notice, P. O. Reports, 1850, is the following state- 
ment : " Camelina sativa, {Miagrum sativum,) an annual from 
France, produces a finer oil for burning than rape, having a 
brighter flame, less smoke and scarcely any smell. It succeeds 
well in light, shallow, dry soils ; and in our Middle and Southern 
States it would probably produce two crops in a season. Besides 
the use of the seeds for oil, the stems yield a coarse fibre for 
making sacks and a rough kind of packing paper, and the whole 


plant may be employed for thatching. The culture is similar to 
that for flax." See " Linum " in this volume. 

GTn^-DTTT^'Tp-n'Q PTTT>«!T? 1 <^^pseUa Bursa-pastoris, Moench and 
SHEPHERD b r U KbE, ^ rj. ^^^^ q. Thlaspi. Linn, and Ell. Sk. 

Grows in damp pastures; collected in St. John's; Newbern, 
Fl. May. 

Ray's Cat. Plantarum, 47 ; Bergius, Mat. Med. ii, 389 ; Le. 
Mat. Med. i, 243 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 732. It 
astringes and constipates ; hence employed in dysentery, diarr- 
hoea and bloody urine ; the juice placed on a piece of cotton, 
and inserted in the nostril, will arrest hemorrhage. " Extern€ 
vulneribus solidandis adhibieter nee sine successu." PI. Scotica, 
342 ; Linn. Yeg. M. Med. 128. 

CRESS, (Sisymbrium nasturtium, L. and Ell. Sk.f^JSrysimum ol 
Bot.) Nat. in the upper part of South Carolina ; vicinity o; 
Charleston. Fl. March. 

Fl. Scotica, 351. The young leaves furnish an agreeable salad 
the plant was esteemed useful as an anti-scorbutic, and was em 
ployed in removing obstructions of the liver, viscera, jaundice 
etc. Thornton's Fam. Herb. 618. The juice acts as a stimulani 
and diuretic. Haller says : " We have seen patients in a deej 
decline cured by living almost entirely on these plants." Ac 
cording to Tournefort, the juice, snuffed up the nose, cured cases 
of polypus of that organ. See Edinburgh New Disp., Flon 
Med. iii, 138; Pliny, lib. xix, chap. 8 ; xx, chap. 13. Hoffman anc 
Cullen spoke highly of it as furnishing a mucilaginous applica 
tion for the heads of infants affected with eruptions. It was 
acknowledged to have an effect upon the maladies of the skin 
eno-orffcment of the abdominal viscera when the blood is de 
praved, in feeble digestion, etc. U. S. Disp. 1226. This plani 
is also vaunted in incipient phthsis, in chronic catarrhs, in mala 
dies of the bladder and kidneys, and in hysterical affections. I 
contains a very bitter and odoriferous essential oil — the seedi 
yielding fifty-five per cent, of fixed oil. See De Cand. Phys 
Veg. i, 298; Journal Gen. de Med. xxviii, 136; Barbier, M 
Med. 242. Moreau asserts that vertigq and discoloration o 
the face are produced in those eating this plant; but this is ai 
effect unnoticed by others. 


HEDGE MTJSTAED, {Sisymbrium officinale, Fide Gray ; Ery- 
simum officinale, Lin. and Ell. Sk.) 

This is not included by Mr. Elliott in his Sketches of the 
Plants of South Carolina. It was one of the specimens sent to 
Professor Gray, and determined by him ; collected in St. John's 
Berkeley; Charleston District; North Carolina. The herb is 
said to be diuretic and expectorant ; the seeds possess consider- 
able pungency, and have been recommended in chronic cough, 
hoarseness and ulceration of the mouth and fauces; the juice 
of the plant in honey or the seeds in substance may be used. 

WATER RADISH, (Sisymbrium amphibium, L.) Rare ; roots 
immersed ; collected on causeway near Brunswick PI., T. W. 
Peyre's, in St. John's; vicinity of Charleston. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de K. Med. vi, 365. Recommended for 
tape-worm by Didelot, and in the old works as an anti-scorbutic. 
Merat saj^s the "young leaves are eatable in the spring; proba- 
bly possessed of similar properties with the S. nasturtium." 

WATER CRESS, {Nasturtium officinale, R. Br.) Introduced. 
Ditches Florida, and northward. Chap. N. C. 

This plant came into pretty high favor about a century ago 
as a spring salad ; and it soon obtained preference to all other 
spring salads on account of its agreeable, warm, bitter taste, 
and for the sake of its purifying, anti-scorbutic and diuretic 
properties. It was greedily gathered in all its natural habitats 
within some miles of London for the supply of the London mar- 
ket, and eventually became an object of regular, peculiar and 
somewhat extensive cultivation ; see methods, etc., Wilson's 
Rural CyclopsBdia. 

MUSTARD, {Sinapis nigra.') Cultivated throughout the South. 
Therapeutic virtues well known. 

Mustard is a hardy annual, cultivated as a small salad for 
greens, and for the seed, which are extensively employed for 
medicinal purposes. The demand for the production of this 
plant, on account of the value of seeds as a local irritant, should 
induce every planter and farmer to grow it. Enormous quanti- 
ties are required to supply armies; besides that, it is largely 
consumed in every household. The white mustard I have seen 
cultivated on our plantations, and, maturing early in June, is 
fully equal in strength to the imported article. It is very easily 
ground or powdered, and used like English mustard. 

Tlio coinmoii laMc niuslurd in prc^psirod IVoni t.ho flour of (ho 
Hoi'd. Voy Hiihid, it is howm (liicUly, :iiid iiS(>d liUci comnvon crosH. 
"S()\V(>Hrly ill (lio Hjiriiiii; in two foot drills, ;iiid tliiii to six 
iiiclmM. Tlio (T'))) must ho u^iuthorod holbro it is I'ully rijio, on a 
cloudy day or c^arly in tho nioniinir, to provont tlio Hood f'roiu 
sliolliiii;- out." 

Tho "wliito" is usually ^iroforrod for salad, and tho soods aro 
i^atoii \viioh> as a roiiuMly for iiupaircMl dii;;ostion. Tho loaves of 
lliis aro liifht <i;rooii, mihl and tondor when younj^; tlio sood 
lii:;lit yollow. Tho "hhudv" or "lirown" is u lari!;or ])laiit, with 
juuoh darkor loavos. "Soods brown, aiui nioro pun^ont." 

For (h(^ nuxlical usos of thoso plants, any of tho works on 
tlio nuitoria niodica will supply inlbrniation under tl»o head 
" Sinapis." 

Mustard sood oil, says Uro, in his Dicl. Arts and Scionoos, p. 
1^85, ('oncrotos wlioii coolod a littU^ holow l{2° i^'ahronhoit. Tho 
white or y^^llo\v si>od allbrd thirty six pi'r cent, ol' oil, and tlio 
hhiciv S(^(>d oii;htooii per ooiit. 

Tho reader iiitiM'osli'd in (li(> cull uro of mustard can tiiid some 
information in Wilson's liural Cyo. llo quotes ft'om a prize 
essay by T. C. Hurroii^hes in 7th volume Royal Ag. Soc. Tho 
field culture of both the white and black mustard is practiced 
for the production of their seeds, with a view either to the ex- 
pression of oil from them similar to that of colo and ra]H> and 
])oppy, or lo tlu> obtaininj^ of oil cake for tho uso of cattle, or to 
tlu^ ifriiidiiii;; Ihoin into tho well known eondinuMilal and medi- 
cinal Hour of mustard, or to several other economical and 
liharmaceutical purposes. The crop is roapi^d, and tied in 
sheaves like wheat, and is afterward throHhed out u|)on cloths 
in tlu> liold in the same manner as (U)le. AVhito mustard is gen- 
erally laid in handfiils on the shuttle, and not tied up. The 
black mustard is hardier than tho white. Tho quantity of oil 
obtained from any given weight of black mustard seeds is 
greater than that obtained from tho sanio woight of coles; but 
the oil cake is slightly purgative, and requires to bo given to 
cattle witJi caution, and is commonly ground and sprinkled on 
their chalV. Wilson also stales that the Uour of mustard from 
tho sec>ds of black mustard, is much more ])ungont, and of much 
liner (iiiality than that from the seeds of wliite mustard. It is 
slill thi> kind most commonly used in l^'ranco ; but it rocpiiros to 

bo manufactui'od by a nice mechanical procoHH of removing tlio 
outer skinH ol" the hcihIh, or cIho it han a irrayiHli or very (hii'k 
coh)r ; and, in fact., it is nevt^r ho prepared as to he (entirely 
freed from its <;rayiHhneHH. The Hour of vvhit(5 miiHtard in gen- 
erally used in Britain in consoquonce of itH fine coloi', and the 
superior facility of manufacturing it. It in often mixed with 
the black. Jiural Cyc. The method of depriving the black 
mimtard need of its envelop I have be(>n unahli) to ohlaiii. 

Warm water is always the best addition to mustard to elicit 
the volatile oil. Vinegar lessens its pungency. See 'l^ruusHcau's 
Experinuuits. Mustard has been highly recommended as a Hub- 
Htitute for the spring colza and otlmr ])lants, to be used in the 
]>roduction of oil. "Both spe(M(!S," white and black, yield oil, 
Thaiir says in his J*rinc!i[)les of Agriculture, " which is well 
adapted tor l>urning; and also, when well ))urifiod, for tI»o use 
of the table. A (piintal of iriUHtard sood yields from thirty-six 
to thirty-eight pounds of oil. The l)iting acridity of the sec([ 
existffnot in the oil, but in the integument; and the English 
mustard, which is celebrated for its strength, is said to be made 
from cakes from which the oil has ]h\o,u expressed." Among 
the plants mentioned by Tluusr as valuabh; for tlie oil in their 
se(Ml, ai'o the oily radish, { /iaphanus chinensis oteiferus,) the sun- 
tlower, and the common ]H)\)])y, (I'djutvir n()mnij);rum ;) the oil 
from the white-seedi!(l variety is ])rel'erable on ac(!Ount of its 
taste. See Thaiir also for descriptions of the cultivation of 
flaxseed, hemp, hoj)s, madder, beets, etc. Many plants, the 
seeds of which yield oil, are used in making oil (;ake for agri- 
cultural purposes, and as food for animals. The sunflower, 
which yields a large quantity of soiid to the acre, will, it is waid, 
furnish one galhm of oil to the bushel. Soo "Cotton," " hMax," 
etc., in this volunu!. 

1 obtain the following, on the; (Mdtivation of mustai'd, from 
the P^armors' Cyclopcjudia: 

The species oi' si/uipis, generally grown in the kitchen gard(ui 
for domestic purposes, an; th(! wiiite mustard, (>S'. (iUmi,) and the 
common or black mustard, (iS. ni(jr<i.) The first is the one 
grown for salads; but the seed of both is emj)loyed in the 
manufacture of mustard. 

The soil tliey succeed in best, is a fine, rich, mouldy loam, in 
which tlio supply of moisture is regular; it may much rather 


irKilino to li^httutHH tlmn toiiaoity. Jf grown for Riilading, it 
iKU'.d not 1)0 (lug (1(U))> ; hut if for HOod, to full tlio (h^ptli of tlio 
Madcwjf ihc H|)a(l<^ Id early wpriiig and lato in uutunm, tho 
HJtuatioii HJiodid \)v Hluiltorcd ; and, during tlio height of Hum- 
niiir, Hliad(!d from tho moridian nun. Por Halading, tho white 
may l)o Hown throughout tho year; from tho hegiiining of No- 
vomhor to l.ho Hamo |)(M'io(i in March, in a g(intlo hot-l)od appro- 
priated for tlie pllr•p()H(^, in one ali'oady employed for Homo othor 
plant, or in the crornor of a Htove. I^'rom the closo of Kehruary 
to tho oloHo of April, it may ho Hown in tlui opcMi ground, on a 
warm Hholtorod border; and from thonee to tln! middle ol Sep- 
tcunher in a whady one. lioth tlu» white and the hhu^k, for Hoc^d, 
may ho Hown at tho (doHo of Mandi, in an open c.ompartmont. 

Kor Halading, it in howii in (hit-hottomcul drillH, about half un 
iiudi (loop and nix iiHihoH a|)art. Tho H(ted cannot well bo HOwn 
too thi(d{. Tho mould whi(di eovorn tho drillH nhould bo entirely 
divoHtod of HtonoH. Water munt b^ given oocaHionally in dry 
weather, an a duo nupply of moisturo in tho chief indu(!omont 
to a (piick vegetation. The Kowings ai"e to he performed onco 
or twice in a fortnight, according t.o tho demand. (/roHH ( //rpi- 
dium s(ttivnin) in the* almost conslant ac(-ompaniment of thin 
Halad Ikm'I) ; and, an tlu^ mod(M)f cultivation of v'M'\\ is idiMitical, 
it in only nec(^HHary to remark, that, as cri^Hs is rat Imm* tardier in 
vegetating than mustard, it, is necessary for ohtaijiing them 
both in jxtrl'ect.ion at the same tinu* to sow it live or six days 

Itmustlxi cut foi" use whil(» young, and befort^ the rough 
leavoH ap])oar, otherwise the pungency of the llavor is disa- 
greeably irKMHiased. if tho top is cut olV, the plants will, in 
gen(<ral, shoot again ; though this second produce is alwayn 
scanty, and not so mild or ttiiider. Kor the ])rodu(rtion of sood, 
wlu^th(M• for manu(iictui-e of mustard or future sowing, tho 
ins(M'tion must be nnide broadcast, thin, and I'ogularly ralfod in. 
When l-ho seedlings have attained foui- leavcis, tlu^y shoidd bo 
hoed, and again alt(^r tin* lapses of a month, during dry wiMither, 
boing Hot eight or nine incheH apai't. 'i'hroughout. tlu^r gi'owth, 
tlu^y must be kept free Irom wo(mIs; ami if dry weather occuirs at 
th(^ time of (lowcM'ing, water may be appliecl with great advan- 
tage to their roots. The plants (lower in June, and are lit for 
(cutting when their pods bavt' become devoid of voJ'duro. 4Muiy 


muHl 1)0 thorou/^hly driod bclbro throHhiii<^ and Htorin*^. For 
forcing, tlio sood is moHt convoniontly Hown in boxow or |)an8, 
ovon \i' u lio(-l)(id iH upitropriatcd Cor iiic |)iir|)oHO. I'aiiH of 
rolUui Ian arii to Ixi prcfcrfod to j)otH or box^H ol mould, lint, 
wliic-liovcsr in (Un|>loy(Ml, liio sriid iiiiihI. \h\ Hown tliicU, and other 
rcHtrictiotiH attended to, aH lor tho oj)on ^i-ound (tropH. Tho 
hot-l)c'(i n(H«d only Ix; inod«>rato. Air may bo admittod as abund- 
antly aH (iiri;umstan(!(!H will allow. 

CAV\*A\UDACh]M. (The Caper Trihc.) 

CAPJili TIIKIO, ((!app<(.ris ^Spinom.) This phmt, (•Mltivat(^d in 
Grooco,thc Ionian IhIoh, Franco, Italy, etc., bus also boon intro- 
du(!cd into thin country. Tho flowor IhuIh are colbuded and put 
into Halt and vinegar. See I'atont Offico ileport, 1855, j». Ii85, 
for a brief noti(!0 of tho cultivation and preparation, in tho 
Southern StatoH wo havo tlio C. Jcnnaicencis, hu-y, and 6'. ajno' 
phallopl^ra, L., growing in Houth Florida. It Ih poHHiblo that 
they may be uH(Mi an Hul)stituteH for the foreign caper. 

VIOLACE.T^]. {The Violet Tribe.) 

Roots more or less emetic; a j)r()|)erty vvbicii prevails to a 
greater extent in the South American Hpecien, whi(!h are genor- 
aily loHH lierbac(!ouH. 

VIOLKT, {Viola pedafa, Mich.) Found in the u|»per din- 
trictH ; Hparingly in tlu; lower; liichland, li. (Jibbes. N. C Fl. 

U. S. I)iH|). 75:{; (iriflitb, Med. Hot. MO. The roots of nearly 
all the H])eci(!H of thin giMius jjokhoss a nuli'itive aiwl an emc^tic 
])rinciplo, called violine, allied to that ol' ipecacuanha, but more 
uncertain in its operation. This is said to ro])laco tho European 
])lant, and, according to Dr. Higelow, is valuabh* as an exi)ecto- 
rant and demulcent in pectoral allections. 

FIELD VIOLET, (Viola arveyisis, \). C.) 

Urinith, Med. Hot. 141. This and the V tricolor, of which it 
is a variety, liavo rocoivod considei-able attcuition from Euro- 
])ean writers, especially tho Gorman. Strack made tliom the 
subject of a diHcussion in 1770, and since tlu^n the obsiu'vations 
of Metzer, Cloiiuet and others iiave shown that tlioy are j)os- 


sessed of much efficacy in the treatment of cutaneous diseases, 
and especially of that obstinate and unpleasant eruption, crustea 
lactea. The fresh plant, or its juice, is to be used, as drying 
destroys its active qualities. Strack states that, when the 
remedy has been given for some time, the urine becomes ex- 
tremely fetid, smelling like that of the cat ; op. cit. supra. At^ 
tention is invited to it. See V. tricolor. 

WILD PANSY, HEARTSEASE, (^Viola tricolor, Linn.) Cul- 
tivated in gardens. N. C. Fl. May. 

Trous. et Pid. Traite de Thcrap. et de Mat. Med. ii, 15 ; U. S. 
Dis. 743 ; Le Mat. Med. ii, 453 ; Griffith 40 ; Thornton's Fam. 
Herb, 731. It was formerly considered a valuable remedy in 
epilepsy, ulcers and scirrhus. See Storck de V. tricolor, Er- 
lang. 1782. Metzer do crustea lactea infantum, ejusdem que 
remedio pra)mio coronavit. 1776. Lond. Med. Journal. A 
handful of the fresh, or one ounce and a half of the dried herb, 
was boiled in milk, which was taken twice a day ; bread soaked 
in this was also applied to the affected parts. It was much 
boasted of as a remed}- in the latter disease ; see Mer. and de 
L. and the Art. V. arvensis. Bergius, speaking of these two, 
says that half an ounce in twelve of water produces a consistent 
and valuable demulcent jelly. 

HAND-LEAVED VIOLET, ( Viola palmata, Linn.) Collected 
in St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston ; Newborn. Fl. March. 

Ell. Bpt. 300, Med. Notes. The plant is very mucilaginous. 
It is employed by negroes for making soup, and is commonly 
called wild okra. The bruised leaves are^^ used as an emollient 

COMMON BLUE VIOLET, ( Viola cucullata, Ait.) Grows 
in damp pine lands; collected in St. John's; vicinity of Charles- 
ton. N. C. Fl. May. 

This plant has been used for making soup during war times. 
To it may be added the wild okra, the dock and the lamb's 

Le. Mat. Med. i, 223. Probably possessed of similar proper- 
ties with the others ; a decoction is given to children in eruptive 
diseases. These plants might very conveniently be used in 
domestic practice, and I would invite attention to their further 

CYSTACE/E. {Rock Rose Family.) 

canadense, Mx.) Fla. and N. C, and northward. 

Dr. Ives, of N. Haven, first recommended it in scrofula, and 
Dr. Isaac Parrish, of Philada., informed Dr. Wood that he had 
used it with much apparent benefit as an internal remedy in 
scrofulous affections of the eye. In a pamphlet upon the Fi'Ost- 
weed by Dr. D. Tyler, published at N. Haven, 1846, it is stated 
that Ji. corymbosum possesses similar properties. He found 
both species useful in scrofula, diarrlxjea and secondary syphilis, 
and locally as a gargle in scarlatina, and a wash in prurigo. 
The plant has been used in the forms of powder, decoction, 
tincture and syrup; and may be given freely with impunity. 
Dr. Tyler, however, has known tlie strong decoction and the 
extract to produce vomiting. He considers two grains of the 
lattqj: as a full dose for an adult. The herb has an asti'ingent, 
slightly aromatic and bitterish taste, and appears to possess 
tonic and astringent properties. Dr. Wood says that attention 
has only been attracted recently to it as a medicine. U. S. 
Disp., 12th Ed. 

Dr. Parrish, in his Pract. Pharmacy, p. 231, furnishes a syrup 
of this plant which he says was much used by Dr. Isaac Par- 
rish in scrofulous affections of the eyes, and by others in 
diseases of the scrofulous type. Four ounces of the herb, 
sixteen ounces of sugar are boiled down with alcohol and water, 
till the liquid is reduced one-half; given in doses of a fluid 
drachm three times a day. 

DROSERACE^. (The Sim Dew Tribe.) 

Plants generally slightly acid ; acrid and poisonous to cattle. 

SUN DEW, {Drosera rotundifolia, Linn.) Grows in damp 
spots in the low country of South Carolina; Richland; col- 
lected in St. John's ; Newbern. Fl. June. 

Bull. Plantes Ven de France. Vicat mentions it as an active 
and corrosive plant ; the liquor which exudes from the hairs 
destroying warts, corns, etc. Dem. Elem. de Bot. ii, 334. M. 
Geoffroi asserts that it is a valuable pectoral, employed in ulcers 
of the lungs, asthma, etc.; the infusion being generally used. 
The juice has been recommended in dropsies, diseases of the 


kidneys, ophthalmins, etc. Mer. and dc L. Diet, do M. Mod. ii, 
()i>(). Shoe, in liiH Flora ('arol. 519, eonfirniB the opinion in 
rotoroncc to tho corrosive ])roporty of tlio juice, and adds that, 
witli milk, it iurnislioH a safe a])plication for roniovin<^ Ireckles; 
any part of it will curdle milk. Kl. Scotica, 109. It is thought 
to be very injurious to sheep, |)roducing in them consumption 
or rot. M. Herlace alHrnis (Es([uiss. Hist. Bot. Aug.) that cattle 
avoid it on account of an insect (Hydra hydatula) which leeds 
on it. This plant is quite diminutive, and lias heretofore 
received voiy little attention. I see no mention made of it in 
our Am. Dispensatories. 

PASSIFL0EACE7R. (The Passion Flower Tribe.) 

Jiora liitca and incarnata, L,) (jirovvs in ])astures, passim. 

Tlu^ IVuit of these beautiful clinibing plants, which should not 
be confounded with the wild Jalaj), {I^odopkijUuin,) sometimes 
calK'd may ap[)le and growing in rich woods, contains a sweetish, 
acid pill]), and is eatable. Several of tho species are employed 
in medicine; but these have received no attention, being more 
remarkable on account of tho structure of their flowers. One 
is quite diminutive. In some jDortions of South Carolina tho 
wood is used as greens and for making soup. 

In a paper in Richmond M. Journal, for July, 1867, Dr. I). L. 
Pharos, of Newtonia, Miss., n^-ommends the May jiop very 
highly as a remedy for tetanus. He states that in 1838, Dr. \V. B. 
Jiindsay, of La., had directed his attention to it, and tliat "he 
used it for thirty years with oxti'aordinary success in all cases 
of tetanus neonatorum." Dr. L. says it never stupefies, l)ut is 
serviceable in "all sorts of neuralgic affections. " He also em- 
])loys tho aqueous extract of the root as an application for 
chancres, in irritable piles, for erysipelas and recent l)urns. 
The eulogy is couched in rather extravagant tox-ms. 

Tho author directs that tho loaves should bo gathered in May, 
or before forming fruit ; it is pounded and tho juice expressed 
through a strong cloth into shallow glass or porcelain dishes to 
dry as rapidly as possible in tho shade. When dry it is reduced 
to powdor in a mortar, bottled and closely corked. The dose 
of this powder is from one to four teaspoonsful, re])eated. F'or 
external use, the Avhole plant, including the root, may bo boiled 


Ibr an hour, llic oxti-Jict tliUH oUtuiiicd l)oin«^ rurthor l)oiU'(l down 
to u proper consistonco. 

1 may add tliat (Jriltith, in liis Mod. Hot., roCerH to tlio edihlo 
fruit ol" tho P. (/luiilnimjularis, or (jranadilla, and in speaking 
of the foroiji^n HpocioH ho says: "In a niodical point of view, 
thoy ai'o alwo of Homo interest, being poHHosHod of active (piali- 
tioH capable of fuHlling a variety of indications, though it should 
he noticed that our information in regard to them in iar from 
definite, 'fhe onl}' memoir on the subject, dosorving of notice, 
is that of Dr. liicord Madiana (Journ. do Pharm. xvi, and Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. 1,) on the P. (juadratuj. ; a decoction of the root 
of this he found to be poisonous, acting like a narcotic; he dis- 
covored in it a jx'culiar principle whicdi he aeWn passijiorine." 
Brown, in his Hist, of Jamaica, says a tin(^ture of the flowers 
of the P. nihra is used as a substitute for laudanum. 1Mie 
experience, therefore, of Dr. Pharos, with roforonce to our spe- 
cies, sTiould encourage others to test tluur value. 

IIYPKUICACK.K. (The Tatmn Trlhc.) 

The juice of many of the spe(!ics is sliglitly ])urgtttivc and 

S4\ J'KTEJi'S-AVOirr, {^/''linm. CruxAndrerv^, VV. 
' ) A Key nan nmuicanu'., Mx. 

Collected in j)ine land soils ; St. Jidm's; vicinity of Charles- 
ton ; Newborn. Fl. July. 

The infusion of the bruised i-oot and branches of this ])lant 
was used by an Indian with success in the case of a female, 
under my observation, with an ulcerated breast, which had re- 
sisted all <)th(!r att(^mj)ts at relief. I have since seen it employed 
with entire satistiu^tion on the person of an infimt, having a 
painful enlargement of the sub-maxillary gland. No further 
op]»ortunity has boon afforded of ascertaining its properties 
with certainty; but it seems to be possessed of some ])Ower as 
a resolvent in discussing tumors, and reducing glandular en- 
largements; given internally and applied to])ically. The taste 
is somewhat acrid. 1 wtnild invite further examination. Soe 
Jlj/pericum perforatum. 

ST. TOTTN'S-WORT, (JLipcricum perforatum., L.) Sparingly 
naturalized in tho Southern States. S. and N. C. 


It was gi'eatly in vogue at one time, and was thought to 
cure demoniacs. The decoction -svas also given in hysteria and 
suppressed menstruation. Thornton's Family Herbal, 67. The 
coloring matter gives a good dye to wool. 

The plant called St. John's- wort, which I think is Ascyrum 
cnixandrece, growing abundantly throughout our country, is 
pojjularly regarded as of great value, bruised and applied in 
the healing of wounds, and as a discutient. I have known a 
decoction of the whole plant used successfully as a local appli- 
cation in prurigo and in "camp itch," lamp oil being also 
applied alternately with it. I have used it with great satisfac- 
tion (1868) without the oil. 

Wilson states that its leaves and flowers are strongly resini- 
ferous or oleiferous, and emit a powerful odor when rubbed ; it 
bleeds under very slight compression or wounding, and imparts 
a blood-red color to any spirituous or oleaginous substance with 
which it is mixed, and was formerly supposed to possess the 
power of healing wounds, bruises and contusions. It is the 
Fuga Dcemonium, he adds, of old herbalists, and was held to 
influence conjurations and enchantments. It yields a good 
yellow dye to woven fabrics, from its flowers, and a good red 
dye from its leaves. The juice of the hypericums are often 
exceedingly similar to gamboge. Eural Cyc. The plant has a 
resinous odor, and Dr. Darlington says is believed to produce 
troublesome sores on horses and horned cattle, especially those 
which have white feet and noses. The dew which collects on 
the plant aj^pears to become acrid. Flora Cest. Farmers' 
Encyc. I found the same impression prevailing in Powhattan 
County, Va. There it is known to cause blindness in horses 
and troublesome sores on the legs, particularly in white horses 
with delicate skins. Dr. John Harvie, of Va., informs me that 
five of his w^ere made blind by this plant in one season They 
sometimes recover. The plant proves injurious b}' being eaten 
with hay, and it gets in contact with the skin or the eye when 
the animal is browsing. See Ascyrum cnixandrece. I find that 
Griffith also, in speaking of H. perforatum, says that it is ob- 
served to exercise " an injurious eff'ect on cattle by inflaming 
the skin wherever the skin is white, but he is inclined to attri- 
bute this to a species of Euphorbia growing with it." This 
opinion was entertained by some persons in Virginia. The ear- 


lier writers attributed to tlie St. John's-wort great virtues as a 
febrifuge and anthehnintic. Id this country, adds Dr. Griffith, 
" it is only used to make an oil or ointment, which is said to be 
an excellent application in ulcers, the reduction of tumors, etc.; 
and from some trials with it, we are disposed to think favorably 
of it. It is made by infusing the flowers in oil or lard until 
these substances are tinged of a red color. The first of these 
preparations, though perfectly fluid at first, has a tendency to 
solidify when kept." It is observed by Cullen, in his Mat. JVIed. 
173, " we should not be so audacious as to neglect it, for by the 
sensible qualities it appears active," "and there are manj^ well 
vouched testimonies of its virtues, particulai'ly of its diuretic 
pcnvers." Blair, in Am. Jour. Phar. ii, 23, says its active con- 
stituents appear to be an acrid, resinous substance in the whole 
plant, a red oil furnished by the glands on the petals and some 
tannin. A tincture of the flowers and leaves are used in stom- 
ach complaints. M. Dussauco, in his Treatise on Tanning, 1867, 
says tjiat the flowers and flower tops may be used for tanning 

PI:N^E WEED; ORANGE GKASS, {Hypericum sarothrn, 
Mich,, T. and G. Sarothra gentiajioides Linn, and Ell. Sk.) 
Grows in dry pastures; collected in St. John's; vicinity of 
Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. July. 

Mer and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 226 ; Journal de Med. Ixxx, 
360. It is employed as an aperient in inflammatory affec- 

ACEEACE.E. (The Sycamore Tribe.)' 

RED MAPLE, (Ace)- rubrum, Linn.) Diffused. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 80. The wood is much used in the manu- 
facture of Windsor chairs, gun-stocks, etc. ; the grain is some- 
times beautifully curled. In a communication received from J. 
Douglass, M. D., of Chester District, S. C, his correspondent, 
Mr. McKeown, states that the counti-y people consider a strong 
decoction of the bark, with white sugar, used as a wash, a safe 
and certain cure for ordinary ophthalmia. Some of the inhabi- 
tants of the Western States make sugar by boiling down the 
sap of the white maple, which, however, like that of the red 
maple, yields only half the proportion of sugar obtained from 
the juice of the sugar maple. Farmers Encyc. 


M. DuHHiiuco ill liiH " Complete Treatise on the art of Tan- 
ning, " etc., 1867, Htates that the nap or juices of 'maple, beech 
and oak " furnish tannin. 

SUGAR MAPLE, {Acer saccharinum, Linn.) Var. Florida- 
mtm, found in Houtli Florida. Chap. Dittusod, but more abund- 
ant in the upper districts ; found sparingly at the head waters 
of Cooper Eivor, St. John's, JJerkeley ; Newbern, N. C. Fl. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 90. Pure flake manna has been dis(!ovored 
in this species. Sugar extracted from it is an article of trade; 
it is employed medicinally also. The wood is esteemed in the 
manufacture of saddle-trees. The grain of the wood is fine and 
close, and when polished it has a silky lustre. 

The timber of old trees is extensively used in, America for 
inlaying mahogany, and it possesses, in an eminent degree, the 
same kind of bird's-eye markings which distinguish the timber 
of the Norway ma|)le. The wood is heavy and strong, but not 
durable. The ashes are very rich in alkaline matter, and fur- 
nish a large proportion of the potash which is imported to 
Europe from New York and Boston, llural Cyc. I have seen 
the sugar maple boxed as low down as Middle Virginia, but 
have never heard of any sugar being made from the tree in 
States south of Virginia. Maple and sweet gum barks, with 
copperas, will dye a purple color; maple, red oak bark and cop- 
peras to fix it, will dye dove color ; niajile, with bark of black 
walnut, (Juglans nigra^) gives a brown color ; sweet gum, with 
copperas, yields a color nearly black. See, also, " Quercus, " 
'^ Ilopea," etc.' See Boussingault's Treatise, " Eural Economy, 
in its Relation to Chemistiy, Ph^'sics, " etc., p. 125, for valua- 
ble instruction on cultivation, production, etc., of sugjw from 
maple, beet, etc. ; also, Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures 
and Mines, article "Sugar, beet," etc. Wilson, in his Rural 
Cyc, article "Acer, " which the reader may consult, states that 
the sap of the maple also contains ammonia, and has, there- 
fore, all the conditions for forming the nigrogenous components 
of the branches, leaves and blossoms ; and in proportion as 
these parts of the tree are developed, it gradually loses its am- 
monia, and when they are completely formed it ceases to flow. 
Rural Cyc. Liebig discovered that ammonia was emitted from 
this juice when mixed with lime. The sugar crystalized spon- 


taiiooiisly. The Amoricnii practice with the sui>;ar maple iw to 
boro two augor holes, threo-tbiii'tha of an inch in diamotor, and 
half an inch deeper than the bark, in an obliquely ascendinjij 
direction, on the south side of the tree, at the height of about 
eii;-hteen or twenty inches from the ii-ronnd, in February or 
JNlarch, while the snow is on the ground, and the cold is still in- 
tense, and to insert into the holes elder or sumac tubes, partial- 
ly laid open, eight or ten inches in length anil three-fourths of 
an inch in dianu^ter, conimunicating at the U>wer end M'ith 
troughs of two or three gallons in capacity, for the reception 
of the sap. b\)ur gallons are usually sutticient to yield ono 
pound of sugar; aiul eight to sixteen gallons are usually ob" 
tainetl in a season from a single tree — this nuist depend u]>on 
the locality. Op. cif. I insert the following from the Farmer's 
Encve. : 

"In a central situation, lying convenient tt) the trees from 
whii'h the sap is drawn, a shed i» constructed, called a sugar- 
camprwhich is destined to shelter the boilers and the ])er'<ons 
who tend them from the weather. An auger, three-fourths of 
an inch in diameter, small trough to receive the sap, tubes of 
elder or sumac, eight or ten inches long, corresponding in size 
to the auger, and laid open ibr a part of their length, buckets 
tor emptying the troughs and conveying the sap to the camp, 
boilers of titleen or eighteen gallons capacity, moulds to receive 
the syrup when reduced to a proper consistency for being form- 
oil into cakes, and, lastly, axes to cut and sj)lit the fuel, are the 
princij)al utensils employed in the operation. The trees are 
perforated in an obliipiely ascending direction, eighteen or 
twenty inches from the groutid, with two holes four or five 
inches apart. Care should be taken that the augers do not 
enter more than half an inch within the wood, as experience 
has shown the most abundant tlow of sap to take place at this 
depth. It is also recommended to insert the tubes on the south 
side of the tree; but this useful hint is not always attended to. 

"A trough is placed on the ground at the foot of each tree, 
and the saj) is every day collected and tem]K)rarily poured into 
casks, from which it is drawn out to till the boilers. The evapo- 
ration is kept up by a brisk tire, and the scum is carefully taken 
off during this ])art. of th*> ]>rocess. Fresh sap is adiled from 
time to time, and the heat is maintained till the liquid is re- 


ducod to a syrup, after which it is left to cool, and thoi\ strained 
thi*ough a bhviiket, or other woollen stutY, to separate the re- 
maining impurities. 

" Some persons recommend leaving the syrup twelve hour.-* 
before boiling it for the last time ; others proceed with it im- 
mediately. In either case the boilers are only half filled, and 
by an active, steady heat the liquor is rapidly reduced to the 
proper consistency for being poured into the moulds. The evap- 
oration is known to have proceeded far enough when, upon rub- 
bing a drop of the syrup between the fingers, it is perceived to 
be granular. If it is in danger of boiling over, a bit of lard or 
of butter is thrown into it, which instantly calms the ebulli- 
tion. The molasses being drained off from the moulds, the 
sugar is no longer deliquescent, like the raw sugar of the West 

"Maple sugar manufactured in this way is lighter colored, in 
proportion to the care with which it is made, and the Judgment 
with which the evaporation is conducted. It is superior to the 
brown sugar of the colonies, at least to such as is generally 
used in the United States; its tasto is as pleasant, and it is as 
good for culinary purposes. When refined, it equals in beauty 
the finest sugar consumed in Kurope. It is made use of, how- 
ever, only in the districts where it is made, and there only in 
the countiy ; from prejudice or taste, imported sugar is used in 
all the small towns and in the inns. 

"The sap continues to tlow for six weeks; after which it be- 
comes less abundant, less rich in saccharine matter, and some- 
times even incapable of crvstalization. In this case it is con- 
sumed in the state of molasses, which is superior to that of the 
islands. At\er three or four days exposure to the sun, maplo 
sap is converted into vinegar, by the acetous fermentation. 
The amount of sugar manufactured in a year varies from dif- 
ferent causes. A cold and dry winter renders the trees more 
productive than a changeable and huniid season. It is observed 
that Avhen a frosty night is followed by a dry and brilliant day 
the sap fiows abundantly ; and two or three gallons are some- 
times yielded by a single tree in twenty-four hours. Three 
persons are found sufficient to tend two hundred and fifYy trees, 
which give one thousand pounds of sugar, or four pounds from 
each tree. But this product is not uniform, for n\any farmers 


on (luj Oliio do not (;o!iurioiily oMuiii inoi-o tluiii two ])Ound8 
iVoin a truo. TreoH which grow in low and moint 2)laceH afford 
a greater (juaiility of nap than thoHc wliich occupy riHiiig 
grouiid.s, 1)11 1 it is li-ss ri(;h in tho saccharino principle. That of 
inHulat(!<l trcoH, left Htaii(liTig in tho middle of HoldH or hy the 
Hide oi'fcnceH, iH tho hcHt. It in alwo remarked that, in diHtrictn 
wlii(di have been cleared ol' other trooH, and ov(mi of tho less 
vigorotiH HUgar maploH, tlu! product of the remainder is, pro- 
portionally, most considisrable. ' Having introduced, ' says a 
W)'i(er, 'twenty tubes into a sugar inapbi, I drew from it tho 
same day twenty-tlirco gallons and three quarts of sap, whi(d» 
gave seven and a (piarter pounds of sugar; tbii'ty-three jxninds 
liave been made this season from the same tree, which sup- 
poses one hundred gallons of saj).' It ajipears hero that only a 
little more than three gallons was re(juired I'or a pound, though 
lour are commonly allowed." 

IVTr. M. Kaines fui-nishes the following ac(;ount of his pro- 
cess : • 

" r gather my sa]) to one large reservoir once in twcuity-foui" 
hours ; then it is boiled each day to syrup, which is about half 
the sweetness of molasses; it is then taken out and strained 
through a flannel cloth, and ])ut into a tub or barrel to cool and 
settle tor twelve hours — (i use a slu!et-ii"on i)an s(!t in an arch of 
brick ; the pan is made of Kussia iron, eight feet long, four feet 
wide, and six inches de(q»;) it is then takc^n out, and 1 am care- 
ful not to move the bottom where it has settled, and ])lace it in 
a kettle and heat it to ninety-eight degrees. 1 then add (for 
one Inmdred pounds) the whites of four eggs, two quarts of 
milk, and one ounce of saleratus — the eggs well beat up, and 
the saleratus well dissolved — and stir the whole well together 
in tho syrup ; and when the scum has all risen, it is to be taken 
off, and be sure it does not boil before you have done skim- 
ming it. Then it is boiled until it is done, which you will know 
hy dropping some into water; which, if done, will form a wax. 
Jt then must be taken from the kettle and placed in tinpans 
to cool and form tho grain ; and as soon as tlu^ grain is suf- 
ficiently formed, I then pour it into tunnel-shaped boxes to 
drain, and after twenty-four hours 1 ])lace a flannel cloth on the 
top, and take the plug from the bottom and let it drain. The 
flaiinel cloth 1 keep wet from day to day. " 

SAPINDACE.E. (Soapberry Tribe.) 

SOAPBEERY, {Sapindus marginatus. . Willd.) Florida and 
Georgia, near the coaHt. 

The skin of the fruit of S. emarginatus is said to be used in 
India for the same purposes as soap. That of the S. saponaria, 
which grows in the West Indies, is employed for washing linen, 
but when emploj^ed often is apt to burn and destroy it ; the 
nuts are very smooth and of a shining black color, and wore 
formerly imported to England and manufactured into buttons, 
which wore sometimes tipped with silver and always very 
durable. Wilson's Eural Cyc. Our species should be examin- 
ed. It will be observed that it is very nearly related to the 
buckeye, {^esculus,) the roots of which are also used for wash- 
ing woollens. See, also, " Saponaria^ " in this volume. 

Cardiosperinxim halicacabum,'L. S. Fla. " Apparently native 
but not uncommon in tjultivation. " Chap. 

The root is sudorific, diuretic and aperient ; and on the Mala- 
bar coast the leaves are considered efficacious in pulmonic af- 
fections. Anslie, II, 204, Griffith. 

The Bodoncea viscosn also grows in S. Fla. 

^SCULACE^. {The Horse Chestnut Tribe). 

The seeds contain a great quantity of nutritive starch ; also 
a sufficient amount of potash to be useful as cosmetics, or as a 
substitute for soap. 

HORSE CHESTNUT ; BUCKEYE, (uEsculus pavia, L.) 
Diffused. I have observed it in Greenville, Fairfield and 
Charleston Districts ; vicinity of Charleston, Bach.; North Caro- 
lina. Fl. May. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 105 ; Griffith's Med. Bot. 214. The fruit is 
about the size of a small lemon, and of a beautifully polished 
mahogany color externally ; it contains a great deal of starch. 
Dr. Woodhouse prepared a half a pint from the nuts, which re- 
tained its color for two years. It is superior to the famous 
Portland starch, and does not impart a yellow color to cloth. 
It is said that the washing from this is narcotic and poisonous. 
Dr. McDowol tried the powder of the rind, and states that ten 
grains were equivalent to three of opium ; a strong decoction 


is recommended as a lotion to gangrenous ulcers. A strong 
decoction of the root is said to relieve toothache when held in 
the mouth. The fresh kernels, macerated in water, mixed with 
wheat flour into a stiff paste and thrown in pools of standing 
water, intoxicate fish, so that they float on the surface, and 
may be taken ; reviving, however, when placed in fresh water. 
I am informed that large quantities were formerly caught in 
this way in the swamps along the Santee Eiver. See, also, Ell. 
Bot. Med. Notes. The roots are preferred even to soap for 
washing and whitening woollens, blankets, and dyed cottons — 
the colors of which are improved by the process. Satins washed 
in this manner and carefully ironed, look almost as well as 

The Buckeye has been used in St. John's, Berkeley, S. C, 
(186.3,) to fix the color of cotton fabrics, muslins, etc., when alum 
ox gall, sugar of lead, etc., had proved inefficient. Bedsteads 
made of the horse chestnut are said noC to be infested by bugs. 
I am l^ld that in the West they use the buckeye to prevent 
piles, worn about the loins as an amulet! 

POLYGALACEyE. {The Milkwort Tribe.) 

Bitterness in the leaves, and milk in the roots, are theirusual 

Senega, L.) Mountainous districts of South and North Carolina. 
Fl. July. 

Thornton's Fam. Herb. 629. An active stimulant, increas- 
ing the force of the circulation, especially that of the pulmo- 
nary vessels; hence, found very useful in typhoid inflamma- 
tion of the lungs. Dr. Brandreth, of Liverpool, has derived 
great service from its employment, in cases of lethargy, in 
the form of an extract combined with carb. ammonia). It has 
been given in dropsical cases, and as it sometimes provokes 
plentiful discharges by urine, stool and perspiration, it is fre- 
quently the means of removing the disease after the ordinary 
cathartics, diuretics and hydragogues have failed. The In- 
dians use it in snake bites, given internall}" and applied topi- 
cally; if beneficial, it only acts as a diffusible stimulant; it is 
administered, also, as a gargle in croup. A principle called sene- 


gin has been (liscovcrod in it ; and one by JleHchiov, called jpoZy- 
galie acid, (^iicvcnnc is also said to have detected two : poly- 
galic and Virgineic — the first of which will unite with bases; 
the second volatile, oily, nauseant and emetic in small, dia- 
phoretic, expectorant and diuretic in large doses. Stephens & 
Church, 103. See Analysis in Journal de Pharm. xxii, 449. 
One of the principles referred to is said not to differ from 5a- 
ponine. Supplem. to the Diet, de M. Med. by Mer. and de L. 
1846, 578 ; M. Guibourt, in his " Abridged Hist, of Simple 
Drugs;" Carson's ]llust. Med. Bot. 1847, pt. i; L. FeneuUe's 
Anual. Jounuil de Pharni. ii, 480. It has been employed iu 
pleurisy. See Ten nent's Essay on that disease; Duhamel,Mem. 
de I'Acad, de Paris, 1739, 144; McKensie's Med. Obs. and 
Enquiries, ii, 288 ; Do Haen. Eatio Medendi : F. d'Ammon " sur 
I'emploi ct I'utilite de la racine du P. senega dans plusieurs 
null, de I'oeil;" Annal. de Chini. de Heidelberg. Dr. Ammon, 
of Dresden, in liis ])aper, employs it in ophthalmias, after the 
inflammatory stage is passed; it is said to prevent the forma- 
tion of cataract, and to promote the absorption of pus in hy- 
,popion ; ho reports two cases; it is adapted, in fact, to all 
cases of exudation, hy its power of promoting discharge. Suite 
des Experiences, in Bull, des Sci. Med. xx, 241. Bretonneau 
gave four to five grains, every hour, in croup ; it opposes the 
formation of the di})htheritic membrane. Bull, des Sci. Med. 
de Ferus. xi, 61; Mem. sur le Senega, Acad, des Sci. See 
Merat, loc cit. Dr. Milne spoke highly of the decoction, joined 
with bitartrate of potash, in dropsy. Dr. Percival administered 
it iu dropsy of the chest. If the decoction causes vomiting, 
some aromatic, angelica, calamus, or fennel may be added. It 
is prescribed as a drink in pneumonia, ])leurisy and typhoid 
fever. Linnseus, in his Veg. Mat. Med. 137, speaks of this plant 
as a specific in croup {specijicum in phlogose hinc ojficinis nostris 
dignissinia.) Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 87. It acts as a stimulant, 
diuretic, sialagogue, expectorant, purgative, emetic, sudorific, 
and is also emmenagogue. U.S. Disp. 649; Big. Am. Med. Bot. 
ii, 27; Bart. M. Bot. ii, 111; Mer and de L. v, 424; Diet, des Sci, 
Med. Ii, 1 ; Journal de Chim. Med. ii, 431 ; Journal Analyt. i, 339. 
Emploj^ed in nervous affections, and hectic fever; in hydro- 
thorax, from its stimulating effect on the kidneys, and in dis- 
eases of the lun^s, fruni its augnientiiiii; the absorbent forces. 


Anc. Journal do Med. Ixxvi, 53; Detharding, Diss, do Senega, 
1749; C. Linn. Diss, upon the Koot of the Senega, Argentorati, 
1750; Kielhon, Diss. Frankfort, 1765; Helminth, at Edinbui'gh, 
1782; G. Folchi, "Eech. chimico — Therap. sur la racine du 
polygala du Virginie. " In pneumonia, after bleeding, and in 
the tyjihoid stage, it is one of our best remedies for promoting 
expectoration; at an earlier period it is too stimulating. Much 
use is made of it on the plantations in South Carolina for this 
purpose. According to Dr. Bree, it is eminently iiseful in the 
asthma of old people, and in the latter stages of croup. It has 
been employed successfully in chronic rheumatism, and Dr. 
Chapman also found it very efficacious in recent cases of amen- 
orrhea. Frost's Elems. 258; Griffith's Med. Bot. 225; Archer's 
Med. and Phys. Journal, i, 83 ; Brecon Asthma, 258; Massie's 
Inaug. Diss. Phil. 1803; Thacher's Disp. 319; N. Eng. Journal, 
vii, 206. In croup, it is often given in the foi-m of hive syrup; 
the best form, however, is a decoction made by boiling one 
ounce of the root in one pint and a half of water, till it is reduced 
to a pint, the dose of which is a tablespoonful ; thirty grains of the 
powdered root may be given in substance. This plant is em- 
ployed by the steam practitioners. See Howard's Syst. of Bot. 
Med. 343. 

BLOOD EED POLYGALA, {Polygala sanguinea, L. Nutt.) 
Grows in flat, pine lands; abundantly near Purysburg; sent to 
me from Abbeville by Mr. Reed ; vicinity of Charleston, Bach. 
North Carolina. Fl. June. 

Lind. Nat. Syss. Bot. 86; Barton's Med. Bot. ii, 17. A stimu- 
lating diaphoretic, similar, it is supposed, in properties to the 
above. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. v, 424 ; Griffith, Med. 
Bot. 225. 

Polygala paucifolia, Willd. Grows in the mountains of South 
and North Carolina. Fl. August. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 227. Rafinesque, in his Med. Flora, says 
it is possessed of active properties ; the root having a sweet, 
pungent, aromatic taste, similar to that of the -winter green 
{Gaultheria proeumb.;') he thinks it milder than the P. senega, 
and, therefore, adapted to cases in which that is inapplicable. 
Griffith does not agi'ce with him, attributing to it merely tonic 
and bitter properties. 


Polygala rubella, Willd. Pblygama, "Walter. Vicinity of 

The whole plant is officinal. In small doses it is tonic, in 
larger, laxative and diaphoretic. The infusion of the dried plant 
has been usually employed to impart tone to the digestive 
organs. (Bigelow.) It appears, adds Dr. Wood, to be closely 
analagous in medical virtues to the Polygala amara. of Europe, 
which is used for a similar purpose. U. S. Disp., 12th Ed. 

The fresh root of P. lutea, yellow bachelor's button, growing 
throughout the Southern States, emits a taste similar to that of 
the Gaultheria. 

Krameria lanceolata, Ton: S. Fla. It is highly probable that 
this might be used as a substitute for the officinal Ehatany 
which is such an excellent astringent. Griffith. 

CEDEELACE.E. {Mahogany Tribe.) 

MAHOGANY, (Swietenia inahagoni, L.) South Florida. 
Chap. So. Flora. 

This tree is cut down in August. See description of method 
pursued in Honduras, Wilson's Rural Cyc. 

The uses of the wood are so well known as to need no further 

The bark which has the properties of the S. febrifuga, which 
is employed in the East in intermittent fever in doses of thirty 
grains, may, it is said, be used as Peruvian bark. I do not 
know that the tree is " exploited " in Florida. 

LINACE.E. {The Flax Tribe.) 

FLAX, L. {Linum usitatissimmn.) Cultivated in the Southern 

It is cultivated here jDrettj^ much on account of the seeds, 
which are well known for their valuable demulcent properties, 
and for the linseed oil Avhich the}^ affoi'd. Immediate attention 
should be paid to raising on a very much larger scale both this 
plant, the mustard and the castor oil. Flax matures well in 
this latitude. For much useful information in reference to the 
economical application of this plant, see Mer. and de L. Diet, 
de M. Med. Sup. 1846, 435. 


Among the thread plants may be mentioned Eamie Flax, {Linum 
usitatissimuvi,) 'Peromnal Flax, {Linum perenne,) Hemp (Cannabis 
sativa,) Virginian Sillc, (Asclepias syriaca,) Common nettle, 
( Urtica dioica,) and the Kosebay willow herb, (Epilohium angus- 
tifolium.) The three latter are all found growing wild in South 
Carolina. The Asclepias was planted for the purpose in Ger- 
many, but is an imperfect substitute for hemp or flax. See A 
syriaca in this volume. The stem of the hop has also been used 
for the production of thread. They require further examina- 
tion. See Thaer's work, "Principles of Agriculture, " p. 461. 
Hemp seeds also yield oil. 

The best drying oils, Chaptal states ('"Chemistry applied to 
Agriculture, " p. 145,) are those of flaxseed, nuts and poppies. 
Linseed oil will dissolve at boiling temperature one-quarter of 
its weight of that oxide known in commerce by the name of 
litharge. It becomes brown in proportion as the oxide is dis- 
solved ; tvhen saturated with the oxide it thickens by cooling, 
and it is necessary to render it liquid by heat at the time of 
using it. Linseed oil saturated with the oxide and applied with 
a brush to any substance, hardens readily and forms a coating 
impervious by water, and much resembles gum elastic; linen or 
silk prepared with it is flexible without being adhesive. A ce- 
ment of this oil, pi-epared with the oxide and mixed with the 
refuse or broken fragments of porcelain or well baked potter's 
ware, is used with great success in uniting the tiles upon roofs, 
and in cisterns and reservoirs. To form this cement the pul- 
verized fragments are thoroughly incorporated with the heated 
oil, and applied by the trowel while in that state. When linseed 
oil is to be used in painting, one-twentieth, or, at the most, one- 
tenth of litharge is sufficient to render it drying. 

With linseed oil and common glue, a water-proof material is 
made, which may prove of great use in preparing garments for 
soldiers. Immerse common glue in cold water until it becomes 
perfectly soft, but yet retaining its original form; after which 
it is to be dissolved in common i-aw linseed oil, assisted by a 
gentle heat, until it becomes entirely taken up by the latter ; 
after which it may be applied to substances for adhesion to each 
other, in the way common glue is usually applied. It dries al- 
most immediately, and water will exei't no action upon it. It 
has more tenacity than common glue, and becomes impervious 

to water. It may be used also for furniture, and two layers of 
cloth may be glued together to form a water-proof garment. 
Glue dissolved in vinegar also makes a very tenacious substance 
in place of the prepared glues. See plates of machinery for 
pressing linseed and other oils, Ure's Dictionary of Arts, article 
"Oils;" also Wilson's Eural Cyc, articles "Flax" and "Lin- 
seed." The processes are described, with plates. Those inter- 
ested may find there a full statement of the method of gathering, 
planting, uses, etc. See, also, " Olea," in this work. Flaxseed 
intended for planting should not be gathered too quickly. It is 
sown early in the spring. If raised merely for the seed, it is 
harvested and threshed like other grain. But when the stalk 
is used, it is pulled up by a machine as soon as the seed begins 
to ripen, and bound in small bundles, the seed stripped off by a 
machine, and the stalks spread out and dew rotted ; it is then 
sold to the hemp makers for seven or eight dollars per ton. 
The farmer sells the crop at one dollar per bushel for the seed, 
which is sent to the oil-mill. 

Popular Essays on the cultivation of Flaxseed and Castor Oil 
Beans have been published, 1868, by the St. Louis " Lead and 
Oil Company." Barnum «& Brothei-, of St. Louis, furnish ma- 
chiner}'. They say that " farmers can undertake their culture 
with an almost absolute certainty of obtaining high prices, and 
of being richly rcAvarded for their labor," and that their cultiva- 
tion in the Southern States may be made more remunerative 
than in the Northern States, where, as in that of New York 
particularly, they have been profitably cultivated for j^ears. On 
account of the importance of the subject, I introduce the follow- 
ing from the pamphlet : 

" Millions are annually paid to foreign nations for flaxseed (or 
linseed) and castor beans, and for the oil pi'essed from them. 
It is strange that this country should be the importer of articles 
which can be so easily produced by our own peoj)le, and which 
are so perfectly adapted to our soil and climate. We might, 
with the same propriety, neglect to raise enough wheat or corn 
for our own consumption, and thus be compelled to depend upon 
foreign nations for our suppl}^ of these articles ; for we maintain 
that these crops can be raised at a greater average profit than 
wheat or corn. 

"The cultivation of flaxseed is as simple as that of any crop 


we have. It requires no more labor to raiHe and harvest a crop 
of it than it does to raise and harvest a crop of oats, barley or 
wheat. It is less exhausting to the soil than a crop of wheat. 
The use of mowers in harvesting, leaving the roots in the 
ground, prevents the crop from being an exhausting one. 
Flax is a very quick crop. The producer can receive his money 
within three months after sowing. The following directions, if 
followed, will enable any farmer to raise a large crop of strictly 
prime seed : 

" Selection of Soil. — Almost any dry, rolling, moderately rich 
land will produce good seed. It is generally thought that flax- 
seed should be sown on moist, rich land, such as our creek and 
river bottoms. This opinion prevails because the straw of flax 
grows more luxuriantly on such land. The best seed, i. e., rich- 
est in oleaginous matter, is produced upon rather dry, rolling 
and only moderately fertile soil. The stalks are shorter, branch 
more, and the bolls fill better. A better quality of seed is also 
obtaiired in a dry season than in a wet one, i. e., the seed con- 
tains a better per cent, of oil. The straw does not grow so rank, 
and the bolls fill with larger, richer seed. 

"Preparation of the Soil. — The soil should be put in the finest 
possible tilth for the reception of the seed. One good, deep 
plowing, and several harrowings, so as to make the surface fine 
and smooth, will answer. But it is better, when it can be done, 
to plow the ground deeply in the fall, exposing the sub-soil to 
the action of the frosts and the atmosphere. In the spring, cross 
plow the land, and harrow as before recommended. One thing 
must always be borne in mind in preparing land for flaxseed, 
and that is, the land must not be worked when wet. If it is, it 
will be lump}'^, sticky, and in bad condition for a crop. When 
the soil is dry, it pulverizes freely, and no such consequences 
follow. It is desirable to have a heavy roller drawn over the 
field, to crush and thoroughly pulverize any lumps or clods that 
may be on the surface. The whole cultivation of the crop, and 
the yield therefrom, depends upon putting the land in proper 
condition for the seed. A little 6xtra labor and care in this re- 
spect will yield a rich return. If the sub-soil is a retentive clay, 
it is better to plow the ground in back furrows or lands, eighteen 
or twenty feet wide, leaving the furrows between the lands open 


lor tin; ))iiHHUf4,<f of vvuL(^i" in chhc^ of licuvy I'iiiiiH, or uii iiiiduo 
:iinoiitit of lll()iHlllr(^ 

" Qiuilifi/ of Herd. — Too iiiiicli |)uiiiH (niiiiiot be taken to ^(^t (liiit 
wliicli in fully iiiiil iii-ed iind ix-.i-lrdly cXvuu — free from all loul 
h(U!(Ih — l)otli to HC(!uro u ^'ood nic-rchiintiiMe (^I'op mid to prc^scrvo 
the liiiid on wliicli it \h Hovvn I'rorn I roiihleHoiiKi wetMJH. h^u'inc^rH 
oltc^n ex|)eri(!n('(! threat dillicnlty in |»ro(!iii-inj/; Hiudi h*hm1, uH no 
ordiimry iannin;^ mill will iHMnove Home oi" Wxc worst enemi<'H ol" 
t:li(^ farmei- and ^ood Max. 'V\w liiiKeed oil manut'aedirer wlio 
r<M-eiv(^s the ci-op ol" a lar<:;e Hecttion ol" country iw enabled to 
Hele(!t (!hoi(;e lotn oIhchmI and reHerve them ibr sowinj^;, and then, 
by machinery too expenwivc^ and cumbrouH (or oi-dinary uhc, to 
clean it ho tiiorou^hly that he can «;ive out each year an almost 
])erf'ect article of sowing- seed. Sindi seed in HUj)erior to that 
ordimirily obtained in the market, and even at H(^(^d hIoi'ch, 
With ^'ood Heed (o how, therc! in nothing;- like llax aH a i)j'ei)ara- 
tory cro]) for vvluuit. ^Phe teHtimony ol" Ohio farmern, where 
flax lias been (^xtiuinividy ^i-own for ov(U' a (|iiarter o( a century, 
is CiXplicit on this point. 

" Tbnc and Ahtniwr of Soivin(j. — The need should be Hown ho 
soon in spi-in";' aH (he land can be f^ot in proper condition — nay 
the la(l(M- part o(" March to mid(ll(M)(" A|)i-il. We iiave heai-d 
(Jiat i( is som(^(imeH injured, at a par(.ieular nta^e of itw growth, 
by ("ros(, ; bu( W(» iiave cultivated it, and seiMi it cultivated Ibr 
more than twenty-hvo years, and havi* never known any injury 
to occur to it from front. To avoid i"rost, it should not be 
planted till about the firnt o(" May in the latitude of St. Louin ; 
but if the Hcawon should be dry, the flax will not get large 
enough to renint the drouth o(" summcfr. Therefore, wo think it 
b(^t(er to HOW the h(hm1 about ilw (irstof April. iSome ("arnn'rs 
do HOW (he Hcod as early as in February, on the snow. It may 
bo sown wi( h Hafoty at almont any time in spring. The need is 
Hcat(ered evcnl}' and thinly ovcm* {ho sur("a(H' o(" the ground by 
hand. It should be covered by di'awing brush ov^^r i(, instead 
<S{' harrowing it, as by the latter method it is (u)vcred too deep. 
()nl>' a very slight covering is reipiiivd. A h(^avy rain, imnie- 
diat,(dy a("tei- (he needing, will cover the need suHiciently ; oi', 
drawing a luuivy roller over the ground will answ(^i- (he name 
])urp()se. But, in (hesc^ cases, (he S(nl must have been made 
viiry mellow and fine belbre sowing the seed. 

" Quantity of Sixd per Acrr,. — Not, ov<'r liulf ii I)iihIi(^I \H'y ii<;n;, in 
juiy ciiHo, Hlioiild l)(! Kovvii. \^y iJiiii Howiii/^ tlic hIuIUk will \h'. 
HtroM^<!r iitid throw out vigorous hi'iinoiicH, which will j)r<;(lij(;c 
largo hoilH fiihid wiUi pliiMij), gloHsy H(je(l, (ronljiinin/^ a v<;iy 
largo per cent, of oil. liy thick H(!(;diiig tlu; plantH are lews 
wtrong, branch hiit littU^, the; Hiiri can Htriko only tlio tops of the 
plantH, aii<l tlio Hcedn will bo Hnialhjr, lighU^r, and will nf>t con- 
tain within fifteen or twcMity per cent. th(! amount ol' oil that 
HCcd will when raiwed by thin Mowing. 

^^ Flaxaacd with liarUnj. — FlaxHcjod may be ruiscid with Hj)ring 
barl(!y with the; moHt Hatinfactory rciHultH. A yield ban becMi 
obtained, varying in difl'ei-ent years, from ten to fifteen buHhelH 
of f1axMee<J, and from Hixteen to tw(!nty-two buHheJH of barUiy 
per acre. 'Phe barh^y in firnt Hown and harrowed in, then the 
flaxH«!(!d is Kown, hIx or (iight qiiartH per acre, and (covered with 
the bi'iiHh. The cro[)H ripen nearly together. They are har- 
voHted, arid then threHh(j<l with a common thrcHhing ma'^hine; 
and by <h(! uh(! of Hiiitable KcreeriH in tin; fa/ining mill, the barley 
comcH out el<;ari in the front part of the mill, and the flaxHoed 
f;omeK out und(!r (;r at one Hide of tin; mill. We have Hoen an 
fine, plump flaxHoed raiwid in thiw manner aw W(! (iver Haw, and 
tli(! barley equally fine;. TIioho fiii-nierH wlio intend to how 
barley, will find that, by Howing fiaxHe<!d with it, thcsy will 
derive much greater roturnH from the flaxmsed than from the 
barhjy, a)id tin; quantit}' of barhiy produr;(;d will not be materi- 
ally h^Hsened. Ijchh than the UHual quantity of barley nhould bo 
HowM, when it Ih intended to ralHo flaxHoed with it. 

" l\me of (!aUrn(i. — Flax Hboiild be cut an Hoon aH the br)llH b(!gin 
to turn brown, and wliih; the Ktock Ih ycjt green. If left Htand- 
ing too long, then; will be a great Iohh of Hoed in harventing. 
Farmern ai-e unually well through harvcHting Hpring wlx^at 
before flax in ready to cut; and it rijxiUH cfniHid(!rably later 
than winter wheat. 

" Mode of (Jutting. — Some farm(-rH use a cradle, but a largo 
majority a machine. From the; nutnlxir of reapei'H mentioned 
as working well, wo are pernuaded that almoHt all our Htandard 
machirioH can be UHod to advantage in cutting flax. When it is 
raiHcd principally for the Heed there iH no necoHHity for binding 
it, but may bt; Himply raked off into gavelH and lie until dry, 
when it Ih ready for thrcHhing. It is better to thrcHh it early. 

- 100 

^^ Mode of Threshing. — Some use a Hail, some a machine, and 
flome tread out with horses. In some sections, and those where 
they have raised most, and for the longest time, they report no 
difficulty in using machines with some slight alterations, to suit 
better the nature of the crop. The good sense and peculiar 
circumstances of each farmer will suggest the best mode for 

" Cleaning Seed. — Is an item in raising flax that must have great 
attention from farmers. Until lately the makers of fanning 
mills had little or no experience with it, and so furnished no 
screens suitable; but now several furnish a flax screen, with 
which a large amount of the foul seeds can be removed; and 
there is certainly no excuse for transporting dirt, at a high 
rate of freight, to the damaging of tlie crop in the market, and 
the great annoyance of the manufacturer, who has to separate 
every particle of it before crushing the seed. The difference in 
price between lots of seed belonging to diff'erent parties is mainly 
determined by the manner in which it has b(*en cleaned by the 

" Yield per Acre. — The average yield of seed may be stated at 
ten to twelve bushels per acre. The largest yield of which we 
have beard was twenty-three bushels to the acre, but scores of 
farmers re])oi't fifteen to twenty bushels. The average yield of 
straw is one and a half to two and a halftone — when cut, yield- 
ing about one ton of rotted straw for which there is now an 
active demand with every prospect for its increase, as machines 
for breaking out the fibre are improved and multiplied. 

^^ Cost of Prodxiction, — About the same as wheat, llarvcsting 
less expensive, but cleaning a trifle more. So that it may be 
safely put down as costing less to raise flax than wheat. 

" Certainty of the Crop. — On this point there is perfect agree- 
ment from all sections. We hope farmers, who have hitherto 
stood aloof from its cultui'e, will give it at least a fair trial — 
fully persuaded that, at no distant day, the South and West can 
and will produce flaxseed enough to supply the whole country 
with linseed oil, and flax fibre enough to clothe us all in linen 
more or less fine, and that at a cost comparing favorably with 

"Flaxseed has ])roved a ]jrofitabIe crop in the Noi'thern States 
for several years. The importatit)u of linseed and linseed oil 



liaH exceeded manyfold the homo production ; and the proHont 

duty on foreign oil and seed, with the immense homo demand, \h 

a sufficient guarantee to the producer of remunerative prices for 

many years to come. The market price for flaxseed has ruled 

remarkabl}' regular the past few years, as a comjtarison of the 

highest and lowest prices for the lour years last ])assed will 

show : 

Highost Price. LowopI Price. 

1864 ^. .$2 75 $2 25 

18(55 2 85 1 70 

1H6U 2 75 2 M 

18(>7 2 50 2 00 

The highest prices for the lour years averaging $2 71, and the 
lowest $2 11 per bushel. The fibre, when properly rotted and 
broken, is saleable in large quantities in the princi])al cities, at 
from eight to twelve cents per pound." 

The reader interested in the ])reparation and cleaning of the 
fibres flf textile plants, will find a pai)er upon the subject, con- 
densed from the Singjipore Free Press, in the P. Office Rep. 
1854, p. 174. A description of the simplest and most economi- 
cal modes of cleaning them is given. The Plantain, Agave and 
Aloe are planted in India, and the fibre exported for twine, 
paper, etc., bringing from sixty to two hundred dollars j)er ton. 
I do not know that those plants are used in our West India 
islands or in Florida for these purposes. The oi-dinary mill used 
in pressing sugar cane can bo used in cleaning tin; fibre. See 
article cited, and "IJamie" in this volume. 

Wilson's Rural Cyc, article " Bleaching," furnishes a practi- 
cal explanation of the methods of bleaching flax, hc^mp, etc. See, 
also, Ure's Dictionary. The wild flax (L. Virginianum, L.) 
grows in Florida and northward. 

MALVACB.;E. (The Mallow Tribe.) 

They abound in mucilage, and are totally destitute of all un- 
wholesome qualities. 

LOW MALLOWS, (Malva rotundifolia, L.) Natiii-alizcnl ; 
grows around buildings ; Richland ; vicinity of Charleston ; N. 
(J. Fl. June. 

U. S. Disp. 444. A substitute for J/, .sylvcstris, which possesses 
valuable demulcent pi-operties. Woodv. Med. JJot. 554, torn. 


197. It is very emolliont, and is employed in catarrhal, dysen- 
teric and nephritic diseases, and wherever a mucilaginous fluid 
is required. It is administered in the shape of emollient 
enemata, and it forms a good suppurative or relaxing cataplasm 
in external inflammations. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 
207. It was highl}' regarded by the ancients. " Pythagore 
regardait leur usage comme propre a favoriser I'exereise de la 
pensee!" Hippocrates employed it as we do, for gargles and 
coUj'ria, as an application to heated and'inflamed parts, as a 
vehicle for pectoral and anodyne medicines, and for those 
administered in diseases of the urinarj'' passages. The root, 
seeds and whole plant are mucilaginous, and are employed in 
catarrhal, dysenteric and nephritic complaints as an emollient 
injection, and w^herever an emollient substance is required. U. 
S. Disp. I have seen it collected in Chai'leston for these 

cennce, Gaartn., T. and G.) (Sida abutilon, Linn, and Ell. Sk.) 
Grows at Gran by, in Richland District, and in Georgia; vicinity 
of Charleston. Bach. Newbern. Fl. July. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 96 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 
338. The plant is said to be cultivated in China as a substitute 
for hemp. The flowers are employed as an ingredient in emol- 
lient applications. 

Abutilon and Sida. Species of these two genera have been 
used in medicine. S. abutilon is cultivated in India for the fibre, 
and somewhat extensively introduced into field culture in Italy- 
See Rural Cyc, Chap. So. Flora. Our Abntilons should be ex- 
amined ; several grow in South Carolina and Florida. They 
all furnish mucilage and may be used as substitutes for the 
Marsh mallow. 

MARSH MALLOW, (Hibiscus Moscheutos, L.) Collected in 
St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston ; Newbem. 

Bergius, M. Med. ii, 629. This also is possessed of demulcent 
properties; a convenient substitute for the above. 

OKRA, (Hibiscus esculentus.) Introduced from Africa. 

The fruit and pods aftbrd the well known valuable vegetable 
80 largely used in the Southern States in combination with 
tomatoes in making soup. It is very mucilaginous, and, in- 

fiiMod in waLcu", Ibrius a suiLiiblo vehicle for iixediciiicH prescribed 
in diseascH of the mucous passai^es, for eneiuata, etc. The leaves 
are sometimes employed for preparing emollient poultices. The 
roots are said to abound in mucilage, of which they yield twice 
as much as the Althtua root, free from any unpleasant odor. 
Their powder is perfectly white and superior also to that of the 
Marsh mallow. See Am. J. Pharm., May, 1860, U. S. Dis., 
12th Ed. The parched seeds aftbrd a tolerably good substitute 
for coffee ; the difference can with difficulty be detected. It has 
for some time been used for this purpose among the negroes on 
the plantations of South Carolina. 

This well-known vegetable contains an enormous amount of 
albumen — so much, that Chaptal says that in St. Domingo it is 
employed in clarifying liquors. In Guadeloupe and Martinique 
they use the bark of the slippery elm for this purpose as white 
of Ggg elsewhere. It would be a matter of imi)ortance to as- 
certain whether or not vegetable albumen would be useful in 
clarifying sugar. In employing albumen for clarifying fluids 
the following method is adopted, according to the writer just 
mentioned. I would refer the reader also to Ure's Dictionary of 
Arts and Manufactures. The albumen, generally white of egg, 
is diluted with water, and then mixed with the liquid which is 
to be clarified ; the whole is then heated to 65° or 70° Fahr., and 
stirred carefully so as to distribute the albumen equally among 
all its particles; by increasing the heat the albumen is made to 
coagulate, when it rises to the top of the vessel, carrying with 
it all the particles which render the liquid turbid or cloudy; the 
thick foam which this produces, when cooled, may be taken off 
with a skimmer, and the liquid be afterward filtrated, ta remove 
any remaining particles from it. The same writer says that 
animal albumen, mixed with quick-lime, finely powdered and 
spread upon strips of linen, ntakes an excellent lute, to be ap- 
plied over the joints of vessels for distilling, to prevent loss of 
gas or vapor. 

The Bene, (Sesamum indicum,') is another plant cultivated on 
our plantations, which has a very large amount of mucilage. 

The okra plant has been recommended to be planted for the 
fibre as a textile substance. Even the cotton plant, if not al- 
lowed to come to maturity, and planted closer, like flax and. 
hemp, might furnish an inner bark suitable for twine or cloth. 


Tlu> nottlo, {I'rticd dioica,) the Aj)oci/nu)ii ctunuihinum, ntul several 
spooios ot" Ast'lopias, or silk woihI, may, by improvod cultiva- 
tion, ijivo a usoliil tibro; see index. Dr. G. C 8baotVor, the 
author of a paper in P. O. Rep., 373, 1869, on "Vegetable tibro," 
states that the tibro of the silk or milk-weed (^4. cornuti) "was 
nearly if not quite as strong as the hoinp." In this article the 
mode of pn>paring textile tibres is treated of, and also the best 
materials for paper making. A curious work, by Dr. J. C. 
Shaotfer, 17(i5, is referred to, in which experiments wore long 
since performed upon innumerable substances suited to the 
making of paper. The latest work of consequence has been 
published by L. Piette, 1838. Piotte gives specimens of good, 
strong, white paper made from straw. Paper in the Ignited 
States was also made from wood, sawdust and shavings, in 1828 
and 1830. The bai'k of the linden is used in Prussia. (See 
T^lia.^ The palmetto, agave and yucca of the South furnish a 
long tibro. When necessary, the intercellular substance may 
be dissolved out by strong alkalies by the lye from the ashes of 
plants, etc. For material tor paper making see " Cotton" and 
" Esparto " Grass. lire's l)ictit)nary of Arts may be consulted 
with rotoronoo to machinery, etc. 

COTTON, (Gossypium herbaceum, Linn.) 

A native of tropical America. The long staple, including the 
varieties of sea island, black seed and mains, grow best in the 
K)wor <'ountry, and the short, or green seed, in the upper dis- 
tricts. Proscott states that the Spaniards found it in Mexico. 
See "Conquest of Mexico." It was tirst jjlanted in the United. 
States as an experiment in 1621. It was known in South Caro- 
lina by a paper which refers to it, dated UUU5. but only seven 
bags were exported in 1748. 

Mer and do L. Diet, do M. M(>«i. Supplem. 1846. This was 
the plant known to the ancients as the Byssus of old writers. 
Herodotus, t. iii, 134, of Durgor's Ed. ; Chateaubriand, Journal 
to Jerusalem, 1777. See Revue Medicale, Feb. 1845, 225, for 
Observations on the Employment of the Cotton Fibre in Dress- 
ing Wounds; Ann de Chimie, 427, 1845; Binol's Letters on the 
Cultivation of Cotton in India; C. Delasterie on the G. her- 
baeea and its Cultivation, Paris, 1808; Lessier sur la Culture du 
Coton en Franco ; Gerspach, Considerations sur rintluonce des 


filaturcH du Colon Hur la Hante des ouvrierH, Paris, 1827; Obs. 
on the Employment ol" Cotton in the Treatment of BlisterH, 
18:^0; Srmie JieflectionH by F. T. Saint Ililaire on Woundn, and 
their Treatment with Cotton, (in French,) Montp. 1830; Hicand, 
ObH. on the Employment of the Cotton Fibre in Surgery and a 
Memoir on the different Species cultivated in Naples, op. cit. 
sup.; Griffith, Med. Bot. 168; Dr. MacFayden (Fl. Jamaica) 
considers the species only as varieties. Humboldt saw them 
growing in Central America at an elevation of nine thousand 
feet. The flowers are emollient like mallows and used for 
similar purposes; the roots are used in India in diseases of the 
urinary organs. See Anslie. In Brazil, a decoction of the 
leaves steeped in vinegar is said to relieve hemicrania. Ac- 
cording to Martin the seeds, which afford much oil, are emol- 
lient and are employed in emulsions, injections and diseases of 
the mucous passages. The oil is afforded by the seeds in suf- 
ficiently large quantities to be exported. It might be made a 
useful Article on the plantations, as it does not deprive the 
seeds of their valuable properties as a manure. When boiled, 
they furnish an excellent food for cattle, but are poisonous to 
hogs when eaten in the raw state. Much use is made of the 
roots in South Carolina in the treatment of asthma — a decoc- 
tion being employed. It appears to have, moreover, a specific 
action on the uterine organs. I)r. Ready, of Edgefield District, 
informs me (1849) that his attention was called to its emmon- 
agogue properties by an article which appeared in a journal 
published some years since. (New Orleans Med. Journal.) He 
has since used it in suppression of the menses, but more par- 
ticularly in many cases of flooding, with entire success. It 
seems to produce as active contractions of the uterus as ergot 
itself. Four ounces of the root or inner bark of the root are in- 
fused in one pint of boiling water, of which from three to four 
ounces are taken internally every fifteen minutes. More ex- 
tended experiments with this remarkable plant, in cases of this 
description, might furnish very valuable results, and I would 
invite particular attention to it. Since the appearance of the 
first edition of this work many articles have been published in 
the medical journals on the use of the cotton root as an em- 
menagoguo and parturifacient. 

Dr. Wood in the 12th Ed. U. S. Disp., 1866, says that the root 


of the cotton plant has been employed by Dr. Bouehelle, of 
Mississippi, who believes it to be an excellent emmenagogue 
and not inferior to ergot in promoting uterine contractions. 
He states that it is habitually and oftectually resorted to by the 
slaves of the South for producing abortion ; and thinks that it 
acts in this way without injury to the general health. To as- 
sist labor he employs a decoction made by boiling four ounces 
of the inner bark of the root in a quart of water to a pint, and 
gives a wineglassful every twenty or thirty minutes. (West. 
Journ. Med. and Surg. Aug. 1840.) Dr. T. J. Shaw, of Ten- 
nessee, thinks it superior in the treatment of amenorrhoea to 
any other agent, and equal to ergot as a parturient, while at- 
tended with less danger. He uses a tincture made by ma- 
cerating eight ounces of the dried bark of the root in two pounds 
of diluted alcohol for two weeks, and gives a drachm three or 
four times a day. (Nashville Journ. Med. and Surg. 1855.) See 
U. S. Disp. See, also, Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 568 ; Med. and Surg. 
Journal, xiii, 215 ; U. S. Disp. 357 ; Lond. Med. Gazette, Nov. 
8, 1839; West. Journal Med. and Surg. 1840; Royle, Illust. 84 
and Mat. Med. 288 ; Mer. and de L. Diet de M. Med. iii, 409 ; 
Marcgrave's Brazil, 60; Diet, des Sc. Nat. xxxiv, 15. Dr. Bates, 
Journal of Mat. Medica, May, 1867, furnishes a paper on the 
medical uses of the plant. 

The fibre of our great staple is ajiplicable to many purposes 
in surgery, in dressing burns, preserving the temperature of the 
extremities in depressed conditions of the system, and also for 
stuffing and padding in the application of fracture boxes; but it 
is not, as has been confidently stated, a* substitute for lint in any 
sense of the term. On account of the oil which it contains, it 
cannot absorb pus or liquids from wounds, unless it has been 
previously prepared. This, indeed, is a peculiarity of cotton 
fibre in its natural state ; water or fluids will roll from it ; the 
slightest experience or observation would convince any one of 
this ; and yet it has been extensively distributed as a substance 
for dressing wounds, which it only tends to render hotter and 
more inflamed. 

The plant has also been highly recommended as a substitute 
for quinine in intermittent fever. I will refer the reader to 
some of the later volumes of the Charleston Med. Journal and 
Eeview. It has been used with great confidence by many per- 

. 1(»7 

sons throughout the South and West. See, also, a paper by Dr. 
Cabell, in the Va. Med. Journal, vol. H. Prof. II. II. Frost, 
(Charleston Med. Journal, May, 1850,) quotes Dr. W. 11. Davis, 
of Fairfield Distriet, S. C, who reports that it was used as an 
anti-periodic agent. A pint of the seeds is boiled in a quart of 
water to a y)int, and a teacupful of the decoction is given an 
hour or two before the return of the chill. I introduce the fol- 
lowing slip from a newspaper (1802) in default of more precise 
information from the medical authorities who have used it. 

H. D. Brown, of Copiah County, Mississippi, communicates 
the following notice of the use of the cotton seed tea as a sub- 
stitute for quinine : 

"I beg to make public the following certain and thoroughly 
tried cure for ague and fever: One pint of cotton seed, two pints 
of water boiled down to one of tea, taken warm one hour before 
the expected attack. Many })ersons will doubtless laugh at this 
simple remedy, but I have tried it effectually, and unhesitatingly 
say it f« better than quinine, and could I obtain the latter article 
gratuitously, I would infinitely prefer the cotton seed tea. It 
will not only cure invariably, but permanently, and it is not at 
all unpleasant to the taste." 

Collodion, a solution of gun cotton in ether and alcohol, 
has been extensively employed in surgical cases, as a covering 
for wounds, to keep out the air and to assist in the approxima- 
tion of the edges. It has also been employed in various eruptive 
diseases, in erysipelas, in burns, in the cure of excoriations and 
fissures of the nipple, in na'-vus, etc. See medical works. 

I am informed by planters in South Carolina that they use 
habitually a decoction of the cotton seed in place of flaxseed, 
and wherever a mucilaginous tea is required. If it serves fully 
the pui-jjoses of flaxseed, the fact is highly important, and it 
should be largely used. 

The seeds of the black seed cotton, parched and ground, are 
considered by many as one of the best substitutes for coflf'ee, 
both in smell and taste. In a paper by G. C. Shaeffer, on the 
cotton fibre, Patent Office Report, Agriculture, 1854, p, 181, he 
says: "Still, in the present scarcity of paper making material, it 
may be well to look to the bark of the cotton plant as a partial 
supply for the common kinds of paper. Fermentation, or any 
of the known methods of separating the wood, may be em- 


pK\V0(l.' It' tho i'(>lU)n is ijsvtlioroil. iho y\:\n\ has Ihoii botMino 
too womly. SvH», iilsi>, (>ki'u. {lllhisi'us <\^i'ul('iitus.) 

TownsiMul (Jlovor. ontomolog'st, employed by tho Patont 
OtHoo, ilosoribos tho divsoasos ijioidont to the cotton phuit in his 
siu'oossivo papers, in the vi>hnnos of the P. O. Report for 
lSr>;>-'7, "Oi\ the Inseets trequentiiij; the (''otti>n Phiiit." These 
pupers I'lMiiain a i;ood ileal ot' intorniiition ou t he eharacter and 
habits not only ot* inseets int'esting eotton, but many otlier 
plants, with illustrations on wood, lie deseribes the rust, rot 
and blii;ht. and ile\ ises methods lor preventing; their spread. 
The Kny;lish use eotton ilipped in a solution of saltpeter as a 
moxa ; see '• Ilditintfnts." "(Jun cotton " is aUso a well known 
explosive ajjent, prepareil by means ot' nitric acid. 

Or. \Yood. in his notes to the I2th Kd. V. 8. Oisp., IStUi, 
quotes some interesting tacts t'ri»m a paper by Mr. \Vm. II. 
AVeathet-by. who resided at the South. (^See Am. J. Pharm., 
May, ISltl.) He states that the oil is obtained by expression 
ft\)m the seeds, piwiously deprived o\' their shells. In this 
state they yield two i^allons ot oil to the bushel. Resides the 
cruile oil, there are three varieties in the shops at the South 
more or less puritieii, recoijnizoil as the cl<iriji<<i, the irjintd and 
the winter hldu-futi. The last mentioned has a mild, peculiar 
odor, and a bland, sweetish taste, not unlike that of almond 
oil. The oil is used in the preparation of woollen cloth and 
morocco leather, and t'or oilinjx machinery. There seems to be 
some doubt of its ilryiuij ipialities. It has been found to be an 
excellent substitute for almond and olive oil in most pharma- 
ceutical preparatioi\s, but it does not answer well in tho ftu-nja- 
tion of the lead plaster. Citrine ointment may be prepared 
with it. It is unsoluble in alcohol, but dissolved in (ill pro- 
portions of chlorol'orm. 

Cotton Strd <So<?jt).— Tho following I obtain from a cor- 
respotulent : " Put cotton seed into a large and strong iron pot, 
in small quantities at a time, mash them well with a wooden 
pestle, and then pour in a certain quantity of common lye, aj\d 
boil thoroughly ; strain in an ordinary sieve, and proceed in 
the usual way in drying and cutting into cakes. The oil is thus 
yielded, ami saponitied." 

Machines are now manufactured in this country for decorti- 
cating the cotton seed in ma«uitaciuring the cake. It is thus 

mu'/h improved an au urt'u-Ac of i'fyM I'or oaltle, not ^xjirig near 
8^> liabU; to injure the animals. It bring** a high pri*^;*; in Eng- 
land. Millt^ for the preparation of the eake ha%e been es^tab- 
liHhed in Uhode Inland. Strange that nothing of the kind Imn 
exi*iU'A at the S^^uth where the Heed can be hfj easily obtained. 
The great value of the K<;ed a« a manure may nfj-jmut in part 
for the indifferent;!^} of the planter. The H<;ed Jia« be<jn jtrttHHiA 
in New OrleanH. The oil in waid t^^ be '•un»'.urf>a»*H';d for dres*^ 
ing leather and lubricating ma^;hinery, and an an illuminator 
affords a clear and brilliant light" — an fsofxl as Hji^^rmaceti when 
refined. Bee, al»^^, a paper on cotton H^;ed oil. .S^juthem Cultiva- 
t^^r, p. iii, vol. 3. Jle htateh that there are thirty buhhelw of 
Wicd to every bale of eott^^n ; ea/'h bale will yield at lea>it fifu.-en 
gallons of crude oil and three hundred and sixty barrels of oil 
cake. " No difficulty existh in hulling, tempering, or expressing 
the oil," and the AwZ/^r of Follet and Smith, of Petersburg, is 
referred t^>; hulling at the rate of a basket of kerrjels in four or 
five rntnutes. The machinery employed in French Flanders for 
rape seed, answers perfectly for cotton W:red. 

Cotton >S'ee/i 0<7. — A good deal has l>een said of late in the 
Cincinnati and Xew Orleans papers on the subject of cotton 
seed oil and cake; and if the half of what is published shall 
turn out to be true, we have reached the beginning of a new 
era in the cotton culture, not unlike that which marked the 
invention of the cjMoti gin. Mr. William K. Frai^, of Cincin- 
nati, has invented and constructfj^l a colt/m w;ed hulier, which en- 
tirely separates the hull and the little lint that adheres to it 
from the meat part of the seed. The huller is said Ui be simple 
in construction, is made entirely of iron, and is easily kept in 
repair. It requires a two-horse power to drive it and two 
hands to tend it — one to feed the mill and one to remove the 
hulls from the w;reen. It will hull and screen one ton, or two 
thousand pounds per hour, ready for the press — fifty p<.'r cent, 
of which is kernels or the meats of the seed, from which forty 
gallons of oil may be obtained. This ma^;hine must be exceed- 
ingly valuable to prepare seed for all feeding purposes on the 
farm where no oil is expressed, as the hulls and lint are alto- 
gether undesirable as food. Hulls and cotton seed and cut straw, 
or corn stalks, boiled together iri large iron boilers, or steamed 
in big tubs or vats, will make a superior stock feed. But as a 


j;-alli)n of this oil is chonp :it :i dollar, and onoii^h sihmI to mako 
forty i;'allons oan ho HiiIUmI in an hour, it is tar hottoi- to t'ooil (ho 
oako atlor luosl ui' tho oil is lakoii out, stoainod with straw or 
stalks, than to {\\h\ (his pivrious oil (o livo sloi'k. Al'tor cotton 
800ii is hullod, Ji good c-otton pross lor halini;- cloth will press 
txit most of tho oil in tho kornols. Porhaps thoy may rotpiiro 
hoatiuiif, as in prossinu; flaxsood. Tho art is very simplo. In- 
s(oad ol" soiuling ootton sooil to tiistaiU markots, whoro tho 
|>rodiioor will loso tho oako lor (oodinij; and as a I'oiMilizor, wo 
oarnosdy ro('on\inonii (o oatdi lai'i;-o )>lan(alii>n (^or whoro (hoir 
operations aro small, for sovoral to uni(o,) to purohaso a huUinfj; 
maohino, and, if nooossary, oonstrnt't or buy an t)il pross for 
lu>mo uso. Aoi'ordinn- to (ho data furnishod hv tho C^inoinnati 
operators, four (housand pounds oi' oommon oo((on sood will 
turn out lifty dollars wordi of i)il ; and ovory plantor knows 
that in oaso ho should wish to mix (ho hulls with tho oako in 
foodiiiii" it. or as amanuro, ho oan dosoalVor (ho oil is oxprossod. 
Tho oil is noarly valuoloss as a fortilizor, boinu; nodving hut 
carbon anil (ho olomoiKs o\' water, while in skilful liands it is 
worth Slime forty to lifty cents a gallon for making fat hogs, 
sheep, cows and stoors. but more for burning, and lubricating 
machinery. At this (imo wo wouUi gladly pny twenty dollars 
per one thousand pounds for cotton seed cake, to feed cattle, 
sheep and hi>gs. It is worth more than corn or wheat, pound for 
pound, to food mules and hogs on a cotton plantation. It con- 
tains more of tho muscle, sinew and bono lorming n\atter. It 
has loss stari'h than corn, but is a healthier food than either 
peas, beans, wheat or maize. If tho hulls wore in (he cake, the 
result would bo quite ditVoront. In tlaxseod cake tho hull of the 
seed is not renunod. It is owing to the richness of the clean 
meats oi' ootton sooil that straw, or coarse forage of some kind, 
slu>uld bo fed with the cake, except to hogs. 

t'onsoquont upon the increased amount of cotton raised in 
the Southern States, ami tho great bulk of tho sood, there had 
boon several establishments in operation before tho war for 
oconon^izing tho oil. AtonoinXew Orleans, driven by a thirty- 
tivo-horse power steampress. five huiulrod gallons of oil and 
(ivo tons of oil cake a day were jiroparod. It required I'or (ho 
dav's work, as is sta(ed in tho Southern Farmer and Planter, 
about til\oen tons of cotton seed to produce this amount of oil 

ari'l ciikc, (!iu;h ion of H(r(;(J yielding afjoiit forty ^allonn of oil 
and Hcvcn hundred or eight hundred jtoiindH of cake. The 
propri(jtor nhipped (jight hundred tons to England, where it waH 
HHcd hy the farrnorH, wlio arc extenHivc irnporterH of linHeed oil 
cake, ^riio r;otton Hccd cuke "iH highly OHt(;cmed for fattening 
cattle arid Hheep." In Mernphin, 'J'enri., it waH also made in 
very large '|iiuiil,itieH. 'IMie oil. njfined hy a Hccret process, i» 
made of two fjualiticH — "the hcHt used for illuminating and lu- 
hricating piirpoH(!H, as well an for cu/'rying leather, etc. The 
inferior is found to answer tlie puii^ose of soap making equal to 
palm oil, making Hoap of every quality, even to the most re 
fined toilet soap." (Jr^tton seed cake might be used as a sub- 
stitute to a C(;rtain extent for corn for fattening stock. "Cotton 
seed meal and corn meal, if applied directly to the hay that is 
fed in fattening animals, instiiad of the latter being fed alone 
and dry, and the corn unground, would add vastly to the 
profits of fattening. " Cotton seed cake sold at the mills for 
about tUfcsamo price that flaxseed cake sold for. 

lirowno, in his " Field Hook of Manures, " Now York, 185.S, 
says of the (!Otton seeds : " 'JMicy abound in a mild oil, and are 
accounted very nutritious (as manures) after the oil is expressed. 
A bushel of se(;d weighs thirty jiounds, and yields two and a 
half quarts of oil and twelve and a half j^ounds of fine meal. 
The oil cake is very brittle and breaks down much more 
readily than linseed oilcake. Its taste is not unpleasant, and 
it is stated that it can be employed with success in fattening 
stock, " 

In the Patent Office Jteport, 1855, p. 234, are some "Chem- 
ical Jlescarches on the Seed of the Cotton Plant," by Prof C, T. 
Jackson. Jn this article a patent is referred to as having been 
taken out by 1). W. Mesner for "separating the hulls from the 
cotton seeds," The yield of the unprepared and wooll}- seeds 
is very small, in comparison with what is obtained from those 
which have been hulled. Analysis are given of th<; oil, the 
seed, the cake, etc. Prof, Jackson says: ^^ Separation of the oil: 
In <jrrler to separatf; the fixed oil, pure either was employed, 
and it was found that one hundred grains of the dried pulver- 
ized seeds yielded in one experiment 39.7, and in another 40 
per cent, of pure fatt}' oil. By pi-essure, J was able with a 
small screw-press to obtain only thirty-three per cent, of oil j 


but I have no doubt a more powerful one would have given a 
larger yield. The specific gravity of the oil which I obtained 
from the ethereal solution was 0.923 — water being unity. This 
is also the specific gravity of purified whale oil. Cotton seed 
oil is stated by Dr. Wood to be a dr3'ing oil, but that, which I 
have obtained does not appear to possess drying properties, 
serving perfectly well for the lubrication of machinery, and for 
burning in lamps, as well as for making soap. It will also serve 
as a substitute for olive oil in many cases, and perhaps may be 
eaten as a salad oil, for it has no disagreeable odor or taste." 

Chemical examination of the Oil Cake. — Linseed oil cake is well 
known both in Europe and in this country as valuable food for 
cattle, and as an excellent fertilizer — worth from forty to fifty 
dollars per ton for the latter purpose. On examining my cotton 
seed oil cake, I found it possessed a sweet and agreeable flavor, 
and was much more pure and clean than linseed oil cake. One 
hundred grains of the seed leave sixty grains of oil cake. This 
cake, examined for sugar, was found to contain 1.1 grains, and 
for gum, thirty-five grains were obtained. Iodine gave no proof 
of the existence of any starch in cotton seed, nor in the oil cake. 
Alcohol dissolves out the sugar, which is like that obtained from 
raisins, and is grape sugar. Boiling water dissolves the gum. 
and becomes very mucilaginous. The gum is precipitable from 
the water by means of pure alcohol. On the subject of paper 
from the cotton plant, I introduce the following coraniunication 
dated Carlowville, Ala., and signed C. F. Sturgis, 1863 : 

" Several years since I commenced experimenting with the bark 
of the cotton plant, (both of the root and the stalk,) and soon 
satisfied myself that it furnishes an admirable substitute for 
rags in the manufacture of paper, and is doubtless possessed of 
some advantages. Proceeding with my experiments, I finally 
invented a process (in many respects peculiar) adapted to the 
production of pulp from this material, visiting during the time 
the Bath Paper Mills and the Kock Island Mills for this pur- 
pose, as Mr. Walker, of the Bath Mills, can inform you. After a 
long series of annoyances, succeeded in procuring a patent 
from the United States Government, which is inoperative 
through or by reason of defective specifications, the fault either 
intentionally or unintentionally of m}^ agent, at least to a 
degree. I, however, continued my experiments, and since the 


termination of the war made application for a patent for my 
amended specifications. 

" I am prepared to demonstrate to any intelligent body that 
the above named material furnishes an admirable substitute for 
rags in the production of Paper pulp, and that dispenses with 
some of the operations necessary with rags, and, therefore, will 
produce paper far more cheaply than rags can possibly do." 

A writer in the Jackson, Miss., Southron, urges most stren- 
uously upon the people of the South the advantages of cotton 
for making beds. Besides its greater cheapness, attention is 
called to its superior cleanliness, "vermin will not abide in it; 
thei'e is no grease in it, as in hair or wool ; it does not get stale 
or acquire an unpleasant odor as feathers often do; moths do 
not ini^st it as they do wool ; it does not pack or become hard, 
as moss does ; nor does it become dry, brittle or dusty, as do 
straw, hay or shucks. It is the cheapest, most comfortable 
and most healthy material for bedding." Cotton has been ex- 
tensively used both by whites and negroes in making mat- 
tresses and comforts during the war. See ^^ Zoster a" and 
^'■JRamie " for substitutes for cotton. 

It would hardly be desirable that I should furnish, in a work 
like this, very full instruction respecting the cultivation and 
handling of cotton, as it can easily be procured elsewhere. It 
is greatly to be hoped that manufactories wnll soon spring up 
everywhere in our midst which can use the raw material at 
their very doors, and thus obviously diminish our expenditures 
and increase our profits. 

Governor W. B. Seabrook, of S. C, has written, perhaps, the 
most full description of the cultivation of cotton, in a pamphlet 
IJublished a few years since. See, also, a paper on "Cotton " in 
new Am. Eucyclopoedia, which contains a full account of the 
trade, growth, manufacture, production, etc. 

Cultivation of Cotton. — With respect to the cultivation of up- 
land or short staple cotton, I must be content to give an abstract 
of the plan recommended by David Dickson, of Hancock County, 
well known as one of the most successful planters in Ofeorgia, 
and as published by him in a series of letters to Southern Cult- 
vator, for January, 1869. 

His method in brief is as follows : 


Break the land deep before planting. If in a warm climate, 
cultivate the land flat, not on beds. At the second plowing, 
when the plant is about six inches high, give it a very deep 
plowing — sub-soil it if you can; after tiion cultivate with broad 
sweeps twenty-four inches across the wing, set to run very 
shallow or light harrows, so as not to break the small roots in 
the middle of the row, as the breaking of these roots is very 
fatal to cotton,. causing it to shed its fruit. In a cold climate or 
on bottom land plant on high beds, and keep them so in cultiva- 
tion, and be sure to leave a thick stand to prevent too large a 

His formula for manures for both corn and cotton, is "Pure 
dissolved bones, land plaster and salt, crowned with the best of 
all manures, Peruvian Guano. Purchase the pure article and 
do your own mixing. For one acre, take : 

Peruvian Guano 100 lbs. 

Dissolved bone (' sup-Phosph.) without admixture of 

dirt.'— Eds) 100 » 

Salt 100 " 

Land Plaster 50 " 

all well mixed ; and when you lay off cotton, open at least eight 
inches, and deposit the manure along the furrow and bed as 
usual. [For corn open eight inches, drop the manui'e in hills 
three feet apart, drop the corn within three or four inches of 
the manure, cover all at once, about one and a half inches deep. 
Let it stand for four or five weeks without work."] 

The following contains an abstract of his method of cultivat- 
ing a lot of sixteen acres. He gives the details of the prepara- 
tion, manuring, planting, cultivation and production of a sixteen 
acre lot planted in cotton. As many may desire to know all 
the particulars, I will be as explicit as I can be in a letter: 

"First, the land is good pine land, and has been under the 
plow nearly seventy years, and as many as fifty-five years in 
cotton. About twelve years ago it was sown in oats, with two 
hundred lbs. of guano and bones mixed with salt and plaster, 
and made thirty or thirty-five bushels per acre ; all fed off by 
turning stock in the field. Four years ago I left it uncultivated 
until the middle of July — there was then a heavy growth of 
weeds on it, just grown. I turned them in and di'opped peas 


in every third furrow. The result was u large crop of vines 
and at least fifteen bushels of peas per acre. These were fed 
off by beef cattle. 

" That, if you call it rest, is all the field ever had. The cot- 
ton was planted on the top of a level ridge. It was planted 
in cotton in 1866 — manured with about one hundred and fifty 
lbs. of bones and Peruvian guano each, and one hundred lbs. of 
plaster. I commenced the 3d day of May with two horses, to 
prepare the land, cotton rows four feet apart ; ran two furrows 
in the middle of each row, which stood open about eight inches 
deep, and applied to each acre two hundred and fifty lbs. solu- 
ble bones, one hundred and sixty-five lbs. No. 1 Peruvian guano 
and one hundred lbs. plaster. Salt being too high, I omitted 
that. The mixture was deposited in the bottom of the furrow, 
then covered with a long scooter plow, going about as deep 
as the other two furrows, then ran on the side of each scooter 
furrow with a good turning plow, going seven inches deep. 
After^reparing about six acres in this way, I opened with a 
small bull-tongue plow ; dropped the seed and covered lightly 
with a board — part of it with a harrow. I continued in this 
way until the lot was planted, finishing the 15th of May. 
The land being freshly prepared and a little dry, it did not 
come up well. The 25th of May, had a fine shower, and on the 
first morning of June there was a first rate stand. About the 
first of June I turned the plows back to finish the preparation, 
running a scooter (six ?) inches long in the bottom of each turn 
plow furrow, going seven inches deeper ; then ploughed up the 
old stalks with a large, long shovel plow, going under the old 
cotton stalks — making nine furrows to the row in preparing 
the land — taking nine days, with one horse, for every eight 
acres, which was equal to a full sub-soiling. The preparation 
was not expensive. Including planting, it was eleven days 
work to eight acres. 

"The cotton soon stretched up well. The first plowing was 
done with a heavy twenty-two inch sweep, (right wing towards 
the end nearly flat; the back edge of the wing about one and 
a fourth of an inch above the front edge in elevation.) I then 
hoed out to a stand, the width of No. 2 Scovell hoe, leaving one 
to three stalks in a hill. Cotton standing thick in the drill 
will be much forwarder than that which is thin. Give it the 
necessary distance between the rows. 


"The second plowing was done with the same kind of sweep, 
with both wings elevated — the second and last hoeing followed 
in a few days. The third plowing ran one furrow in the mid- 
dle of the rows. The cultivation with the plow occupied one 
horse five days for each eight acres, which makes two days 
plowing for each acre, and about two days hoeing for the 

" The cotton grew so rapidly it did not need any more work. 
The lot averaged about (3,000) three thousand lbs. per acre, 
but owing to a storm and other causes, I gathered only (2,700) 
twenty-seven hundred lbs. and a fraction, which will make two 
good bales per acre. I picked one hundred bolls in two sepa- 
rate parts of the lot, at four o'clock in the evening of a dry 
daj". Each weighed twenty-one ounces. In the lot was an 
Irish potato patch that had been manured and mulched with 
straw twice. I think that portion made at the rate of six 
thousand lbs. per acre. The next best place was about one 
acre of old pine field, first year, which made, I think, about five 
thousand lbs. 

"If you expect such results, you must not cut the roots of 
the cotton. Cotton is a sun plant, as you will see by its turning- 
its leaves to the sun, as the latter moves through the heavens. 
So have a deep water furrow in the spring, work flat by 
hot weather, and on level land run the rows north and 

" The cotton would have been much better planted the 10th 
of April. 

" I found, during the wet weather, where the most manure 
was put it stood the best — especially the part that bad the most 
Peruvian guano on it. There was some rot, owing to the density 
of foliage and wet weather; some boll worm and caterpillar on 
about one-half of the patch. The seed planted was of the 
David Dickson, Oxford, Ga., variety, selected twice by myself, 
and would sell for more than the cotton if I did not wish to 
plant them myself" 

David Dickson, of Oxford, by his selections, has greatly im- 
proved the quality and productiveness of this variety of cot- 
ton. Mr. Peabody, on the contrary, has hybridized the "uj^lands " 
on fine sea island cotton, and has reached w^hat is esteemed by 
him a most valuable class of cotton. 


At my request, Mr. J. W. E. Pope, of Bluffton, S. C, has drawn 
out the following account of the Cultivation* of the Sea Island 
or Long Staple variety of cotton. Though his experience is not 
as great as that of some others, he has made one hundred and 
fifty pounds round of fine cotton to the acre, using manures 
made on the farm. 

The sea island cotton is the plant which has been so carefullj^ 
cultivated since the abandonment of indigo along the shores 
of Cai'olina and Georgia, and more recently introduced into 
Florida. / 

This plant was first cultivated on the Island of Hilton Head, 
by Mr. William. Elliott, some sixty years or more ago. This 
variety of cotton affords the finest vegetable fibre known, its 
silky'staple reaching over two inches in lengtn. The selection 
of this cotton has so far improved its quality, that the seed of 
the most valued kinds have commanded one hundred dollars 
j>er bushel 'in gold. The finest quality of this cotton has com- 
nianded in market as high as seventy to ninety cents in gold 
before the war, and has sold during the present season at two 
dollars per lb. in currency. The most prominent selectors of 
this cotton, beginning with Mr. Kinsey Burden, are Joseph D. 
Edings, Josej^h J. Pope, Ephraim Seabrook, J. Jenkins Mikell, 
John F, Townsend, William G. Baynard, William Edings, 
Theodore Becket, Ephraim Clarke, Owens, Benjamin Godley, 
William Fripp — the two last confining themselves chiefly to 
selecting for more productive varieties. 

This plant requires, on the whole, a nicer cultivation than the 

Previous to emancipation the sea island fields were cultivated 
by "listing" down the old beds of the fallow land into the 
alleys. This was done exclusively with the hoe. Manures 
were applied either above or below this list, according to the 
fancy of the planter, the pressure of the manure in the field at 
time of "listing, or the character of the soil. 

This work being carefully done, the land was then bedded, or 
hilled up with the hoe, either with or without the plow, ac- 
cording to the wish of the planter, the strength of his laboring 

* Peter Gaillard on the Saiitee, in Berkeley Parish, S. C, carried the 
. culture of this cotton to perfection very soon after its introduction. His 
method has been published. 


force or team. With the early and further crops, in the mean- 
time, it usually reqviired from the 1st to 15th February, up to 
1st or 18th April, to complete the fields for planting, much of 
this time being consumed in hauling out and distributing ma- 
nures on the field. The most approved time of planting was 
from the 6th to 15th April. 

The distance in planting was from under one foot to three 
feet and over, on rows averaging five feet or less apart, accord- 
ing to strength of soil and manures applied. 

The plants along the rows range from under one foot to two 
feet and more, according to strength of soil and growth of cot- 
ton. The most approved plan of planting consisted of from five 
to six seeds to the hill. These plants were afterwards thinned 
down to one or two plants to the hill — the more careful and 
judicious planters leaving but one stalk. The first working 
after the plant gets up for eight days or more, is a nice hoeing, 
when the bunches of young plants "are slacked" by carefully 
drawing out a portion of the same. 

The next working is what is called a " hauUng," or hilling up 
to the cotton, when the plants are reduced to two or three in 
the hill. Another "hoeing" or "hauling" is then given, when 
the plants are reduced to a "stand," or the number of stalks 
deemed proper to the row. The crop is then hoed or hauled, 
according to condition of the field, to the end of the season, it 
being deemed advisable to have the two last workings, at least 
the last, done by " hauling." The plow, in the meantime, is 
used or not, as the preference of the planter or circumstances 
may require. These fields were formerly thoroughly and beau- 
tifully attended with the hoe alone, and checkered with narrow 
paths a quarter of an acre apart, presented the appearance of 
a well kept farm garden. 

The last working was given from the 5th to 20th July. The 
sea island planters enriched their lands with marsh cane, and 
usually made their own manures, consisting of composts made 
of salt weeds or marsh grass, salt muck, leaves, drifted "marsh 
sedge" or dead marsh grass, washed in heaps on the shores, 
mixed sparsely with cotton seed strewn on the different layers; 
the whole drenched with sea water and soiled by cattle, each 
layer being strewed over with salt muck until the bed was 
completed. Stable manures were freely used and the fields 
soiled by running over them shifting pens of cattle. 


The green salt marsh was also freely used, being cut in the 
summer and fall for next year's use. 

This cotton is prepared for market by what is known as the 
McCarthy Gin, propelled either by steam or horse power. This 
gin is of more recent use A few years ago the whole sea island 
crop was ginned out on treddle roller gins. 

The cultivation now pursued with this variety approximates 
more nearly the upland method, and with a moderate use of 
the hoe, the recurrence to manures formerly practiced, and the 
free use of approved mercantile manures, it is confidently hoped 
that these once beautiful fields will again gladden our genial 

See P. O. Eep., 1857, and Tuomey's Geol. of S. C. for analysis 
of cotton plant, fibre and soil, by Prof C. T. Jackson and C. W. 

The germinating power of some seeds reaches from one to 
forty years ; that of the cotton may germinate after being 
kept three years. See paper on vitality of seeds, and then 
packing for transportation in P. O. Eep., 1857. 

OSAGE ORANGE ; Bois d'arc, (Madura aurantiaca ;) N. 
America. Not included by Chapman in his Flora of the 
Southern United States ; position irregular ; it is allied to the 
Mulberry morus. 

From the P. O. Report, 1848, is an article taken from the Prairie 
Farmer, by Prof J. B. Turner. He says that the osage orange, 
the favorite hedge plant of the United States, has already become 
too well known to need any particular description. It grows in 
the wilds of North America, in regions further north than New 
York and further south than the Carolinas. It is usually in 
this country from ten to fifteen feet in height, though, like the 
English thorn, it is said sometimes to attain in its native soil a 
height of fifty and even sixty feet. Its utility as a hedge plant 
is no longer an experiment. Hedges of the rarest beauty and 
excellence have been growing in Boston, Philadelphia and Cin- 
cinnati, in Kentucky, Tennessee and Northern Missouri ; and, 
in short, in all the Middle and Southern States. Some of these 
hedges have been standing for ten or twelve years; they were 
planted by gentlemen of wealth and taste around their favorite 
walks and grounds at a time when the plants sold at the rate 
of five dollars per thousand. Among all who have written on 


the subject, no unfavorable account has come to my knowledge. 
Great losses have been incurred with the seed, as might be ex- 
pected, but the plant and hedge are universally admired and 
commended, and it is confidently believed by the best judges 
that it will double the real value of any farm it surrounds. 
Eecent writers enumerate thus its many advantages: First, 
its tenacity of life is scarcely equalled ; it is a native of the 
prairies and will grow on any soil where common prairie grass 
will grow. Overflowing the land does not harm it. It will live 
for weeks and months entirely under water. The dead wood is 
exceedingly hard and durable, and fresh shoots from the stumps 
soon supply the place of all which have been killed by fire or 
cutting. Second, its protection is perfect. It is armed with a 
very sharp, stout thoi-n under each leaf. Its dense iron branches 
soon become so interlocked, that no domestic animtiJ, and not 
even a common bird, can pass through it. Both its thorns and 
its acrid bitter juice prevent all animals from browsing or 
feeding on its branches. Its seed is like the orange, and its 
roots like the hickory, consequently it can never spread into 
the field, either from the seed or root, but keeps its own place, 
growing stronger and thicker year by year. It thus perfectly 
secures orchards, fruit j'ards, stables, sheepfolds and pasture 
grounds from all thieves, dogs, wolves, etc., and one good gate, 
well locked, makes a whole farm secure from all intruders of 
whatever description. It may be trained so high as to afford 
shelter to stock, and break off the rough prairie winds from all 
grounds needing such protection. Plants may also be prepared 
so that it can be set in the open prairie without fence with 
perfect success. See, also, in Patent Office Keport, 1854, p. 419, 
an article on the best mode of cultivating the osage orange for 
hedges, and the volume for 1855, p. 315, on ''Live fences." The 
insects which feed on it are described, viz: a "chinch-bug," 
and the mole known as the gopher in southern Illinois. In 
Illinois contractors set and tend the hedge at one dollar a mile, 
till a good fence is produced. The juice of the osage orange, 
says Wilson, is exceedingly abundant, and flows freely from 
incisions, and quickly separates into a feculant matter, and a 
supernatant, clear liquid. The wood is uncommonly fine and 
elastic, and is used by the American Indians for making their 
bows. It seems well adapted to many purposes of turners. It 


18 said to equal fustic as a yellow dye stuff, and may be much 
more easily produced. Eural Cyclopoedia. 

The Cherokee rose forms a most valuable hedge plant. A 
writer praises highly the "cabbage tree." See, also, Crab apple, 
(Cratcegus,) and Wild Orange, (Cerasus Carolin.,) in this volume. 

TILIACEtE. {The Linden Tribe.) 

They all have a mucilaginous, wholesome juice. 

T TTiTT,! mTiT:^r< n K oa TT[Tr\r\r\ 1 TiUa Americana, Linn.. T. 
LIME TREE; BASS WOOD, ^^^^^ ^.^.^ ^/^^^.^^^ ^r^,,,^ 

and Ell. Sk. An ornamental tree, found in the mountaiirvallcys 
from Florida to North Carolina; Ncwbern. 

Ell. "Bot. 22. The bark, when macerated, forms a strong 
cordage, used for domestic purposes. The wood is white and 
soft, and is used by carriage and cabinet-makers. 

The inner bark of the European linden, (jT. Europea,) forms a 
strong cordage. Doubtless our American species are also thus 
distinguished. Mills, in his Statistics of S. C, states that the 
inner bark of the Tilia Americana, macerated in water, may be 
made into ropes and fishing nets, and is a good application to 
burns. The plants or branches may be steeped in water for 
three months, dried and stripped ; for every purpose of cordage 
on the plantation or garden, this material will be found useful. 
It forms throjughout England the material for " bass," and is 
used by the horticulturist. The flowers of our American Tilia, 
sent to me from Pendleton District, S. C, I find quite as useful 
as the imported " TiUeul,'' a material for quieting, anti-spasmodic 
teas, which I have repeatedly seen prescribeci in France. It is 
particularly grateful and soothing to lying-in women : quieting 
nervous excitement, and pleasant to the taste. I would particu- 
larly recommend a larger use of these flowers in the Southern 
States. It can be used wherever a tea is required. The above 
remarks apply to T. pubescens also, which is indigenous. The 
wood of the T. Americana is white and soft. In the Northern 
States, where the tulip poplar does not grow, it is used for 
carved woi'k for the panels of carriage bodies and the seats of 
Windsor chairs. It is, however, apt to split, and is not con- 
sidered equal to poplar for such and other useful purposes. IST. 
Am. Sylva. 


" Honej'-dow " is ijjenorally found most abundant on the Lirao, 
Sycamore and Booch trees. I have noticed it on the Cotton plant, 
and at times it covers the leaves of the Potato, Rye, Wheat, 

It is, by some, supposed to be connected with the potato 
disease, thouiijh it abounds in swampy places. He^-wood says 
" it is owing to an excess of carbon in the plants," which could 
only occur in dry weather, when the other ingredients could 
not be furnished for it to combine with. I insert here an ex- 
tract from the Analectic Mag., Thilad., 1815 : 

"My design in this essa}' is to give a brief statement of 
certain facts relative to the appearance of the honey-dew in 
Carolina, which appear to militate against the received theories 
of its formation ; together with a concise view of the opinions 
of ancient and modern writers Avith regard to this peculiar 

'• The production of honey-ilew is influenced b}' the season of 
the year, evidently by the state of the atmosphere. In Carolina 
it most frequently appears in the month of May or June, during 
a long absence of rain, and after a succession of wann days, 
alternating with cool nights. Early in the morning it is found 
on the leaves of plants, grapes, etc., of the consistency of diluted 
hono}', transparent, and resembling in taste the syrup of refined 
sugar ; the viscidity of it increases with the heat of the sun ; 
and about ton or eleven o'clock it ceases to be fluid, giving to 
the leaves a shining and glossy appearance. Situations, also, 
appear to influence the production of the honey-dew. I have 
observed it in the greatest abundance near the margin of stag- 
nant marshes, ponds and savannahs. In the District of Marion, 
South Carolina, is a morass extending fifteen or sixteen miles in 
length, and one or two in breadth ; it contains no ti-ees of con- 
siderable magnitude, except the cypress and a few perennial 
shrubs, but abounds with annual succulent aquatic plants and 
grapes. Xear the edge of this morass, during the season and 
state of the atmosphere alluded to, the honey-dew is produced 
in such quantities as to moisten every shrub, and to cover the 
grass. Horses, which fei d at large in the vicinity of the morass, 
may be found at eight or nine o'clock in the morning with their 
manes and tails agglutinated to a mass with this substance. 
The particles of pine leaves and grasses carbonated by the fires 


vthich HometimeH ravage exUjnwve tractw of country in March 
and April, are frequently ob»erved cemented with large maHMeH, 
and in HituationH whero, apj^arently, the honey-dew could not 
have droj>[M;d from overnhadowing treen. Swarrnn of becK in- 
habit alrnoHt every excavated tree; and from their honey the 
jK>or inhahitantH of thJH hlcrilc I'cgion dcrivo no inconhiderable 

" Fenega, in bin hiHtory of California, sayHthat Father Piccola 
ol>«erveH that in the rnonthw of April, May and June, there fallH 
with the dew a kind of manna, which bccomcH intipishatcd on 
the leaven of trecH. He adds that he tauten] it, and, though not 
80 whit<} aH HUgar, it had all the Hweetncf»H of it." 


TFA FJ^ANT, (T/iea viridis.) The introduction of the Tea 
plant \x\U) the Bouthern States \h ho important that I will, at any 
rate, endeavor U) give all Huitable references to sourcen of infor- 
mation *>r;oncerning itH culture, preparation, etc. See a pretty 
full account of the hiHtory of its production in the United States 
in F. O. Report, 1855, p. 42. The best mode of growing the 
plant, drying and preparing the leaves, is also described. 

For some account of the experiment in the cultivation of 
foreign tea in South Carolina, by Dr. Junius Smith, see P. O. 
ii<;port, 1848, p. 108, and 1859, p. G. See, also, vol. for 1857, p. 
Un, for article on "Practicability of the Tea Culture in the 
United States," A description is given of the varieties of soil 
and climate a^Japted to the growth of tea, its cultivation and 
preparation, with a notice of the plants set out in Washington. 
This communication should be read by any one who proposes 
entering upon the business of raising tea plants ; also, vol. 1859, 
p. 5, et. .Herj., containing successful experiments in Brazil. See 
litjd-root. New Jersey tea tree, (Ceanothm Americanus,) as a 

Among our indigenous plants, the Gardenia, ( G . pufjescens and 
lasianthuH, growing from Florida to North Carolina,^ belong to 
"the same natural family, Camelliese, an the tea plant, and they 
should be experimented with. Our Linden true, ( Tili.a Ameri- 
cana j the flowers of which are used in making an anti-spas- 
modic tea, is closely related to Gardenia and Thea ; so the 
botanical relationship and the natural properties are again sub- 


stantiated. See Tilia. It is said that a pleasant tea can be 
inade likewise from the Holly, (JLlex opaca.) 

The introduction of both coffee and tea into Brazil was at 
first very )w, biit was subsequently successful. 

A writer in the "Country Gentleman" makes this state- 
ment : "A few days ago 1 drank a cup of real American tea, 
from the Chinese tea plant, of which Dr. J. P. Barrett, near 
New Market, S. C, has a fine shrub, about four feet high, which 
has borne fruit during several years. By its side was a thrifty 
specimen of the Olea fragrans, or Chinese olive, with which the 
tea is scented." I have seen plants of the Then growing out 
in the open air, near Stateburg, South Carolina, which bore seeds 
abundantly and were verj' flourishing. The seeds, at first sweet 
to the taste, soon prove nauseous and pungent, to a great degree. 
It was some time before I recovered from their disagreeable 

In the cultivation of the tea in China, "the lower slopes of 
the hills are preferred, at 1,000 feet above the level of the sea. 
In India, from 2,000 to 6,000 feet. The best description of soil 
for the tea ]>lantis a light loam, well mixed with sand, and en- 
riched with vegetable matter, moderately moist, but neither 
wet nor sour. Sloping or undulating land of this kind, on 
which good crops of millet or Indian corn may be produced, is 
likely to be suitable. Any aspect will do, but east or west is 
preferred. The tea plant will not flourish in a wet or stagnant 
soil. When produced from seeds, the tea plant first flowers in 
the second j^ear. The usual period of flowering is in November, 
and the seeds ripen the next autumn. The ground is prepared 
for planting by being dug or trenched in the usual ways. 
Manure is rarely used in tea culture in China; but where the 
land is poor, stable-litter and sewage of all kinds are sometimes 
applied indiscriminately, in moderate quantities, and a top 
dressing of rich loam is considered valuable. The best time to 
apply manure is in the spring, before the plants begin to grow, 
or during mild weather in winter. When the plant is about 
eighteen inches high the leading shoots are pinched off, and the 
shrub is forced to throw out laterals. Naturally, it has a ten- 
denc3- to grow tall and straggling, with few side shoots. * * * 
As the leaves used in making tea are produced yearly at the 
ends of the shoot';, the object of this system of treatment is ap- 

parent. A small crop of leaves may be gathered the thii-d 
year after ))huitiiig. In the eighth or tenth year, the product 
may be considered at its maximum. AI)Out ten pounds to an 
acre is produced in China the third year, sometimes three hun- 
dred pounds in the tenth year." Art. cit. sup. 

A valuable but lengthy article on the cultivation of this plant 
has recently (1866; appeared in the Southern Cultivator, a 
standard agricultural journal published in Athens, Ga., from 
which I make the following extracts: 

" In March, 1860, I received fifty plants from the Patent Office. 
I kept them in pots until February, 1861. They were then 
planted, out five feet each way in a loose, sandy soil. They grew 
off very finely; in April, 1862, I made a small quantity of tea, 
and from that time to the present (1866) I have supplied my 
family with five or six pounds of tea yearly from fifty plants. 
The largest amount of tea produced in China, is raised in the 
lands lying between twenty-eight and thirty-five north latitude. 

" That the plant will grow and flourish as well or even better 
(although an exotic) through the whole of the States bordering 
the Atlantic and Grulf, from North Carolina to Texas, I have 
not the least doubt. All the lands of Middle Georgia and the 
Carolinas, which are now considered of little value for corn or 
cotton, can be made available, and grow tea to great advantage. 
In Middle Georgia and other regions the cultivation of cotton 
will decrease from this time onward. The truth of this fact is 
patent to all observers. 

"As before stated, I planted out tea plants in 1861. At the 
present time (1866) they are from six to seven feet high, each 
plant covering a space of seven or eight feet in diameter — so 
interlocking that it is with difficulty you can get between them. 
To estimate the quantity which one acre of land planted in tea 
would make, I selected a medium sized plant, and collected the 
leaves from it. The yield was one-fourth of a pound of tea. 
The number of plants to an acre, standing five feet each Avay, 
is one thousand seven hundred and sixty-four, which will make 
four hundred and forty-one pounds to the acre. Can we cul- 
tivate any plant that will compare with this? At fifty cents per 
pound it would make two hundred and twenty dollars per acre. 
Another very great advantage it has over all other crops is, 
that neither cold or heat, dry or wet, hail or winds, or insects 


injure it. Whoever heard of a failure of the tea crop of China 
or Japan ? Of the quality of the tea I have made, I can only 
say that connoisseurs have assured me that they prefer it to the 
imported. Age gives flavor to coftoe — so with tea. Some that 
is two years old I find higher flavored than that recently 

MELIACE^. {^The Bead Tree Tribe.) 

Bitter, astringent and tonic properties characterize the species 
of this order. Some of them are active and dangerous. 

AMERICA, (Melia Azedarach, Linn.) Nat.; diffused ; grows in 
the streets of Charleston and North Carolina. Fl. May. 

Chap. Thorap. ii, 70; Ell. Bot. 475; Mer. and de L. Diet. 
deM. Mod. iv, 290; U. S. Disp. 135; Royle, Mat. Med. 308; 
Bell's Prac. Diet. 87 ; Eberle, Mat. Med. 207 ; Frost's Elems. pt. 
1; Archives Generales de Med. xvii, 112; Lind. Nat. Syst. 102; 
Coxe, Am. Disp. 128. Barton considered it our most active an- 
thelmintic. It is also a febrifuge, adapted to verminous fevers, 
where no worms are voided. Diet, des Dx'ogues, par Chevallier, 
iii, 27. Tournon relates a case where a little girl was thrown 
into convulsions by eating three of the seeds. Merat also 
mentions cases. Journal Gen. de Med. xlviii, 25; Gazette de 
Sante, Mars, 1824. I have frequently seen them eaten by 
children in South Carolina, with no bad eftect, though destruc- 
tive, it is said, to hogs. As an anthelmintic, four ounces of the 
bark of the fresh root are boiled in one pint of water, till it 
becomes of the consistence of coftee, of which from one ounce 
to half an ounce may be given every two hours; it may be drunk 
sweetened, and should be followed by a cathartic. The dried 
berries, in spirits, have also been employed against ascarides 
tape-worm, and verminous maladies generally. According to 
Thacher, the pulp of the berry, stewed in lard, is used advan- 
tageously as an ointment in scald head. The decoction of the 
leaves is regarded as astringent and stomachic, and Dr. Skyston 
says he uses it with success in hysteria. This plant is employed 
in Java and Persia. See Rev. Medicale, iv, 82. The tree is 
planted around stables, in order that horses, b}^ eating the 
berries, may be prevented from having "bots." The leaves and 
berries of the Pride of India, packed with dried fruits, will 


preserve them from insects, and will prevent moths in clothes. 
The loaves of the cedar arc also useful for the same purpose. See 
Pmc/i for mode of preventing injury from wornls, where what I 
consider to be a very important suggestion is made. It is much 
valued in South (Jurolina as a shade tree, growing equally well 
in dry pine land residences, and in cities; during the expansion 
of the flowers, however, it gives out a disagreeable odor. It is 
easily blown down, and is not long lived. The wood is beauti- 
fully grained, and adapted for table covers, drawers, etc., never 
being injured by worms. A tea of the berries affects the eye- 
sight, f am told. 

A solution or decoction made with the berries of the Pride of 
India, (to a half bushel of the berries put into a barrel add 
fifteen gallons of water, and let them soak one or two days,) 
and sprinkled with a water-pot over the plant, will, in most 
cases, prevent the depredation of the black grub, or cutworm. 
The elder (^Samhucus canadensis) is also said to be excellent, 
used ir»» the same way. F. S. Holmes' So. Farmer. The oil 
from flaxseed (Linum) will also destroy all kinds of animals 
infesting quadrupeds, when rubbed into the skin. 

A soap is made from the berries of the Pride of India, which 
is called " Poor man's soap." 

The foUowjig was published in the Columbus (Ga.) Sun 

China Berries for Horse and Cow Feed. — The writer has fed 
China berries to horses and cows for the past two seasons, and 
can perceive no bad effects from them — on the contrary, horses 
under this feed seem to improve better than whop fed on corn 
alone. In these times of scarcity and high prices it is worth 
while to give this feed a trial. In my opinion a bushel of 
China berries are nearly, if not quite, equal to a bushel of corn. 
The crop is very abundant, and now, before the winter rains, is 
the time to gather them. I give my horses a half a bucket 
full of the berries, with a small feed of corn, three times a day, 
and I boil the seed with peas or other feed for my cows. 
Horses are particularly fond of the berries. 

AUEANTIACE.E. (The Orange Tribe.) 

SWEET ORANGE, (Citrus aurantimn, W.) This well known 
tree is cultivated in Charleston, and grows abundantly in Beau- 

■ l:i.s 

Ibrt District, on the soacoiist; very productive in Florida, ami 
coast of Georgia. 

I will condense the followinuc from Griffith : In every part of 
the "Western States the orange tree is liable to be injured by 
frosts, and hence earinot be considered as a certain crop ; where 
this is not the case it is a most prolific plant, and the quantity 
borne by a single tree is sometimes enormous ; thus it is said 
that 20,000 have been gathered from one in St. Michael's, exclu- 
sive of those unlit for use, which may l)e calculated at 10,000 

The orange contains a large quantity of saccharine matter 
and mucilage united to an agreeable acid, and hence is whole- 
some, cooling and refreshing to the sick, especially in febrile 
and inflammatory eomjilaints, but should be used cautiously, as 
it is apt to disorder the stomach and bowels. The juice of this 
fruit contains citric and malic acids, the super citrate of lime, 
mucilage, sugar and water. The rind of the sweet orange is 
also used as a substitute for that of the bitter species, which is 
the true officinal article ; it yields by distillation a fragrant 
essential oil. The immature fruit is also employed for the pur- 
pose of making issue peas ; for this purpose they are turned 
smooth by a lathe ; they have an aromatic odor and a bitter 
taste, and are also employed to flavor certain cor(ftals. Accord- 
ing to Lebreton, they are composed of volatile oil, sulphur, 
fatty matter, a peculiar principle called hesperidin, bitter 
astringent matter, some traces of acids, vegetable and mineral 
salts, etc. 

The leaves have been employed by some practitioners as a 
remedy in many nervous disorders, and are said to have proved 
beneficial in epilepsy and chorea. They are aromatic and 
feebly bitter, and contain a fragrant volatile oil, which is pro- 
cured on distillation, principall}' employed by perfumers. The 
flowers are much more celebrated as remedial agents, in sub- 
stance, but moi'c especially in their distilled water. Orange 
flower water, as it is termed, has a very agreeable odor, but 
less powerful than that of the flowers themselves, and is in 
general use in Europe as an anti-spasmodic, and is considered to 
possess much power; its use in this countiy is limited, but is 
becoming more extended ; although not endowed with the 
active qualities ascribed to it. it forms a very pleasant drink to 


the sick, and exorcises a sootliing iufluence when the nervous 
sj'stem is unduly excited. An essential oil is obtained from the 
flowers, known as the oil of Neroli, much used as a perfume 
and in the manufacture of cologne and other scented waters 
for the toilet. See, also, Eisso's elaborate work referred to by 
Grifiith. The young shoots are regularly knotted and ai'e much 
used in the manufactui'e of walking canes. 

To obtain the fragrant essences from the fresh rinds of lemons, 
oramjes, etc., the rinds are rubbed against large lumps of loaf 
sugar until the yellow rind is completely absorbed. Those 
parts of the sugar which are impregnated with the essence, 
are, from time to time, to be cut away with a knife, and put 
into an earthen dish. The whole being thus taken off, the 
sugared essence is to be closely pressed, and put by in pots, 
where it is to bo squeezed down hai'd, have a bladder over the 
paper by which it is covered, and tied tightly up. It is at any 
time fit for use, and will keep for many years. Exactly in the 
same banner may be obtained and preserved, at the proper 
seasons, from the fresh roots, the essences of the rinds of bitter 
or sweet oranges, lemons or limes, bergamots, etc., some of 
which are often unattainable in a fresh state at any price. 
Thornton's Herbal, p. 659. By this simple means those who 
have, or can obtain lemons, may preserve the essence for. the 
preparation of cooling acidulous drinks at any time. Wine 
may also be made from the orange. Thornton, in his medical 
work, gives the method as follows: Put twelve pounds of pow- 
dered sugar, with the whites of eight or ten eggs, well beaten, 
into six gallons of spring water, boil them three quarters of an 
hour ; when cold, put into it six spoonsful of j-east and the 
juice of twelve lemons, which, being pared, must stand, with 
two pounds of w^hite sugar, in a tankard, and in the morning 
skim off the top, and then put it into the water ; add the juice 
and rinds of fifty oranges, but not the white or pithy parts of 
the rinds; lot it work all together two days and two nights ; 
then add two quarts of Rhenish or white wine, and put it into 
a vessel. 

In P. O. Rep., 1859, p. 106, is a communication on the pro- 
ducts of the Ionian islands and Italy. The following may be 
useful to those in Florida who raise the lemon in quantity : At 
Agrami, "the most considerable, and sometimes the most valu- 


able portion of the fruit is Scarito, or that rejected as unfit for 
exportation, from which the essential oil contained in the rind, 
and the juice, or citric acid, in the pulp, are extracted. The 
essential oil is expressed by the hand, in a room from which 
the air is carefully excluded, as, owing to its highly volatile 
nature, the oil produced would be greatly diminished by cur- 
rents of air. The skin cut from three sides of the lemon is 
pressed between the thumb and finger, and ten or twelve ounces 
may be expressed in a long day by an expert workman. The 
oil thus expressed is put into large receivers, whence (after 
remaining some days to deposit the extraneous matter that 
comes off with the oil) it is transferred to copper bottles for 

" The juice, or citric acid, is obtained by submitting the pulp 
to a powerful press, which, though rustic in construction, is 
efiicient. This is worked during the season night and day. 
The quantity of juice produced from one press during twentj^- 
four hours averages 126 gallons. * * Lemon juice intended 
for exportation is put into well seasoned oak casks, and filled 
to the bung, so as entirel}- to exclude tbe air. When of a good 
quality, and the filling of the cask is completed, the article may 
be kept in a collar or cold place for any reasonable time." 
Lemon juice, used for calico printing, was afterward boiled down, 
or evaporated, in leaden pans, over steam, to a certain consis- 
tency — the citric acid and mucilage only remaining in a highly 
concentrated stage. Consult Mulberry (Morus rubra) in this 
volume. See P. O. Eep., 1858, p. 257, for Mr. Glover's report on 
the insects feeding upon it, and a history of the tree in Florida. 
See, also, Ure's Dictionary of Arts, article Citric Acid. To 
pi'event attacks of the ''scale," an insect, hot water or steam is 
the best remed3^ The Persian powder (see P. O. Rep., 1857, 
p. 129,) is also advised (Pyrethrum cancasicnm) — allied to the ox- 
ej^ed daisy {Ghrysanthevium leucanthemum) growing in the 
Southern States. 

LEMON, {Citrus limonum, Risso.) Dr. Grifiith gives the fol- 
lowing account of the properties of the Lemon : 

"The juice and rind are officinal. The rind has an aromatic 
and bitter taste, and an agreeable, fragrant odor ; these proper- 
ties are owing to the presence of a volatile oil and of a bitter 
principle. It is an aromatic stimulant, pi-incipally employed, 


however, as a mere flavoring ingredient, being seldom or never 
administered alone. The volatile oil, oil of lemons, although 
carminative and diaphoretic, is more used as a perfume and to 
mask the taste of nauseous medicines, than as a remedial agent; 
some success has attended its employment as an external stimu- 
lant, especially in chronic inflammations of the eye. 

" The juice owes its sourness to the presence of the citi'ic acid 
it contains in combination with mucilage, exti-active matter, 
some sugar and water. Scheele was the first chemist who ob- 
tained this acid in a pui'e state. The process he devised is the 
same now employed, that of saturating the juice with chalk, and 
decomposing the citrate of lime thus formed by means of sul- 
phuric acid, when the vegetable acid is set free, and may be 
purified and crystallized. Citric acid thus obtained is extremely 
acid, but not as agreeable as the juice itself; it is, therefore, but 
seldom used in medicine when the latter can be procured. It 
is, however, largely employed in the arts. 

" Lemon juice, as being one of the most grateful of the acids, is 
much used in the formation of refreshing drinks in febrile com- 
plaints, and also in the preparation of eff'ervescing draughts. A 
mixtureof this made with one scruple of the carbonate of potash, 
dissolved in an ounce of water and half an ounce of lemon juice, 
taken in a state of effervescence, is advantageously employed to 
lessen fever, to check vomiting, and to diminish morbid irrita- 
bility of the stomach. But the juice appears to possess proper- 
ties of a higher order. Whytt found that given in half ounce 
doses it allayed the paroxysms of hysteria, and relieved palpi- 
tation of the heart. As a preventive to scurvy, this article is 
well known. The crystallized citric acid has been substituted 
for it, though it is not equal to the juice itself. In the West 
Indies and South America a cataplasm of the pulp mixed with 
common salt, is a usual remedy for the bites of venomous 

I may refer, also, to the use of lemon juice, with olive oil, in 
the West Indies, in the treatment of j^ellow fever, and in large 
doses, as recommended by B. Jones and others in acute 

LIME, (Citrus acida.) Cultivated in warmer regions of 
Southern States. 

This is largely used in the preparation of citric acid. It is 

more aciil than the Leiuou. The C. decumaria, or Sluvdcloek, 
and C. heujantia, or Bergamot, are also cultivated. The former 
possesses a rind sm)erior to that of the Bitter Ahnoiul for ine- 
dieiiuU purposes, and tlio hitter the well known oil employed in 
perfumery. The rinds of all are n&ed in making preserves. 

BrrTEU ORANGE; SEVILLE ORANGE, (Citrus vulcjaris, 
Eisso.) Cultivated. 

The fruit is too bitter to be eaten. The leaves, flowers, etc., 
are used for the same purpose as those of the sweet Orange, but 
the volatile oils are said to be of a tiner quality. The rind is 
the officinal corttw (Uirdntii of the Pharmaoopooias, though that 
of the Orange is generally substituted for it in our shops. See 
Griffith, V. S. Disp., and authors. 

CITRON, (Citrus Medica, Risso.) Cultivated. 

This resembles the Lemon very closely. The fruit attains a 
great size. The rind is used to make a preserve; oil of Citron 
and oil of Cednvt are obtained from it, which are essential in 
comjiositit)n with oil of Lemon, and used in pert^unery. See 
Griffith, U. S. Disp., and authors. 

EIIAMNACEiE. (Tke Buckthorn Tribe.) 

Amcricanus, L.) Two varieties exist in the Southern States. 
Ditfused in dry pine barrens ; Richland; collected in St. John's; 
vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. July. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 108; Ferrein, Mat. Med. iii, 338; U. S. 
Disp. 1240 ; Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, 291 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de 
M. Med. ii, 165; Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, 1835. See, 
also, the supplement to Mer. de L. Diet, de M. Med. 1846, 155. 
This plant possesses a considerable degree of astringency, and 
has been used in gonorrheal discharges. It is applied by the 
Cherokee doctors as a wash in cancer, and may be used wher- 
ever an astringent is likely to be useful. The Indians employed 
it in lues venerea, preferring it to lobelia; if the case was violent, 
the root of the blackberry (Rtibus villosiis) was mixed with it. 
Stearns' Am. Herbal, 97. Referi'ing to its anti-syphilitie powers, 
Ferrein says : "EUe guerit aussi en moins de quinze jours, les 
veneriens los plus inveteres." It is not now supposed to be 
endowed with an)^ very decided virtue in this respect. Dr. 

Hubbard prescribes it with advantage in the aphthous affections 
of infants, in malignant dysentery and in other maladies depen- 
dent upon debility; he usually combines with it a little borax. 
See Journal de l^harm. xxiii, 354. Mr. Tuomey, State Geologist, 
informs me that much use is made of it in domestic practice 
in Chesterfield District. An infusion of the leaves was employed 
during the war of independence as a substitute for tea. I have 
experimented with the leaves, and obtained a liquor somewhat 
resembling common tea, both in color and taste. It imparts to 
wool a fine, persistent, cinnamon, nankeen color. 

The above was included in my report on the Medical Botany 
of South Carolina, published in 1849. Since the beginning of 
the recent war I called the attention of our citizens to this plant 
as a substitute for foreign tea, in a brief communication, having 
again collected and used it, and induced others to do the same. 
I quote from this article: "Without any desire to exaggerate, I 
commend the substitute. It grows abundantly in our high pine 
ridgetf The tea, prepared from this shrub, drawn as common 
tea, is certainly a good substitute for indifferent black tea. 
Properly dried and prepared, it is aromatic and not unpleasant. 
I am glad to report it as an article to be used in war times in 
place of a high-priced commodity, which, in every respect, it 
resembles, if it does not equal." Dr. John Bachman, also, at a 
later period (1802) directed attention to the plant, stating 
that he had used it for two months in his own family. The 
leaves should be carefull}' dried in the shade. 

CAROLINA BUCJ<:TII0RN, (Frangola Caroliniana, Gray.) 
MillH, in his Statistics of South Carolina, states of Rhammus 
Carolinianus, that a purgative syrup is prepared from the 
berries; and of R. frangula, (Blackberry bearing alder,) that 
the bark dyes a yellow colf)r, and that from a quarter to half an 
ounce of the inner bark boiled in small beer is a sharp purge; 
used as a certain purgative in constipation of the bowels of 


STAFF TREE, (Celastrus scandens, L.) Mountains of N. C. 
and northward. 

Acridity characterizes the order, but the seeds yield an oil 
which is useful for a variety of purposes. The bark of this 
plant has considerable reputation in domestic practice as an 


omotit', ilisvuliont and jiiiti-syphilitic; it also ap]>oars to possess 
8omo narcotic powers, lliddol, in his Syn. Fl., slates that it is 
iisoii by the Thonisonians as a stinuilatiiii;" diuretic, and con- 
sidereil capable of reniovinsj; hepatic obstructions, (iritlith. 

EUPnOllBIACE.E. C-^hc Euphorlnum Trihc.) 

Tho general property, accordini<; to Jussicu, is an excitant 
principle, residing principally in the milky secretion, and pro- 
portioned in its strength to the abundance of the latter. 

1U)X, t^liiixus sempi'rvirenfi.) Fjx.; cultivated in gardens. 

Bergii, JNlat. MeU. ii, TIH) ; Ed. and Vav. Alat. Med. 51U ; Le. 
i, L'14; CTrilHths Med. Hot. tUVJ. The leaves have been atKrmed 
to bo violentlj'' purgative, and are employed as a substitute for 
guaiacuni. I>cni. KUmu. de Hotanique, iii, 434; Hull. Plantes 
Yen. de France. A fetid oil is obtained from it, and the wood 
is prized by engravers for thoir blocks. 

Tho timber-bearing box tree is planted in England from the 
seeds to great protit. Besides being ornamental, its timber is 
very valuable. It attains a great height in Turkey and Asia 
Minor, and the wood is used by tho engraver, and for tho manu- 
facture of combs and musical and mathematical instruments. 
It will grow on poor lands. One species of tho garden box is 
always dwarlish. 

BALSAM BEARING CROTON, (Oroton halsamifenim.) 
Willd. South Florida. 

This plant, C. nuimtimum, Walt., and several other species, 
natives of the Southern States, should be examined on account 
of their alliance with C. tii/lium, which produces croton oil. 
Cascarilla bark, and a dye, are obtained from the genus Croton, 
The resin known as lac is obtained from C. laceiferum. 

TI, ( fiicin us comm uuis.) Ex ; grows luxuriantly in rich spots. This 
valuable plant thrives so well in the Southern States that it might 
be made a source of pi'otit. On some of tho plantations tho 
seeds are boiled, and the supernatant oil given as a cathartic. 
It might with groat advantage bo more generally used. See 
medical authors passim. 

It is believed by some that one variety of the castor oil bean 
hulls itself spontaneous!}'. I remember no distinction of this 
kind mentioned in Pereira's lengthy description of the plant. 


Mr. W. Tonoy, a writer in the Southern Field unci Fireside, 
Hnyn "there are several varieties, all yielding castor oil, but 
only one kind which is self-hulling, and this is the true, genuine 
oil-hean." If this is so, I am not aware of it. I have only 
seen a large and a small seed variety, and no writer refers, so 
far as i.arn aware, to any other distinction. lie says that, for 
the common varieties, »omo machinery, like the cotton seedhuUer, 
is necessary to decorticate them. 

J have heen applied to to ascertain the relative value of the 
small and large-seeded variety. Pereira states that the oil is 
equally good and abundant in each. See, also, the Dictionnairc 
do Mat. Medicule. 

It is being planted extensively by planters for homo use in 
the Southern States, As it is important that this plant should 
be largely grown, on account of its great value and enormous 
consumption, I will bo at the trouble to insert some of the 
practical information at my disposal. 

A brief paper can be found in the Patent Office Report, 1855, 
p. 27. The writer says that the Palma (Jhristi "has proved 
itself well adapted to the soil and climate of the Middle and 
Southern States, and were its culture extended for the manu- 
facture of castor oil, there is no doubt it would be profitable 
under improved methods of extracting it, and we should no 
longer be dependent upon other nations for a supply. At 
j)reserit we annually import an amount of this article ex- 
ceeding in value 8;j(),000." 

Although an annual herbaceous plant in the gardens of the 
cooler parts of Europe and the United States, within the trop- 
ics, and the warm climates adjacent thereto, the Palma Christi 
becomes a tree of several years standing, often having a woody 
trunk of the size of a man's body, and fifteen or twenty feet 
high. This plant thrives best in a light, sandy loam, although 
it may be cultivated with success in almost any soil tolerable 
fertile, or in any climate or soil where Indian corn will thrive. 
In the cooler parts of the Union it may be planted in hills two 
feet by three apart, two seeds in a place, as early in the spring 
as the warmth of the ground and the season will admit ; but in 
the South, where the season is longer, and the plant assumes 
the character of a tree, the hills should be six or seven feet in 
one direction, and three and a half feet in the other, receiving 


one seed to a hill, covered to the depth of two inches. The 
culture is so simple, that it only requires to keep the plants free 
from weeds, with a small, flat hill to each. The only difficulty 
to contend with is, that in saving or harvesting the beans, the 
outward coats, as they become dry and elastic, fly off the plants 
to a considerable distance, causing the seeds to di'op to the 
ground. In order to prevent this, it has been recommended to 
cut off" the branches from the plants as soon as the pods begin 
to explode, and spread them on the floor of a close room ; and 
after the beans and their shells have parted, to separate the 
husks from the seeds with a fanning-mill, as with wheat, or try 
the common riddle and a draught of air. The oil is obtained 
both by decoction and expression. The former method is per- 
formed by freeing the seeds from their husks, which are 
gathered upon their turning brown, and when beginning to 
burst open are first bruised in a mortar, afterwards tied up in a 
linen bag, and then thrown into a large pot with a sufficient 
quantity of water, and boiled until the oil has risen to the sur- 
face, when it is carefully skimmed off, strained, and preserved 
for use. In extensive operations, a mill should be provided, 
moved by the agency of animal power, water or steam, for 
bruising the seeds; and the other apparatus used in obtaining 
the oil should be of appropriate dimensions. The oil thus ob- 
tained, however, has the disadvantage of becoming rancid 
sooner than that pi'ocured by expression. The best mode, 
therefore, is to subject the seeds to a powerful hydraulic press, 
in a similar manner to that in which the oil is extracted from 
almonds and cotton seeds. The seeds yield about one-quarter 
of their weight in oil. The reader interested in the varieties, 
mode of pressure, etc., of castor oil seeds, may consult with 
profit Merat and DeLens, Diet, de Mat. Med., Pereira's Mat. 
Med., the U. S. Disp., and in addition the material included in 
this paper; also, Ure's Diet, of Arts, article "Oils," and Wilson's 
Kural Cyc. 

I introduce the following, from an Essay on the Cultivation 
of Castor Beans, published, 1868, by the St. Louis Lead and Oil 
Company : 

" The cultivation of the Castor Bean is attracting considerable 
attention at the present time. Heretofore it has been cultivated 
chiefly for the Oil for medicinal purposes, but it is now coming 


largely into demand for other uses. It is being used quite ex- 
tensively for lubricating, and as an excellent oil for the hair. 
For medicinal purposes its use is almost universal. 

^'Selection of tSoil. — Almost any soil that will produce wheat 
or corn, will answer for the castor bean. When it can be had, a 
sandy loam is preferable. The soil should be dry. Wet, heavy 
soils are not adapted to its successful culture. 

"One important fact in connection with the culture of castor 
beans is, that it is one of the most fertilizing crops raised. In 
this respect it surpasses even clover. Many fanners say, for 
fertilizing purposes, a crop raised upon land is worth several 
dollars per acre to the land, on account of the additional fer- 
tility gained by it. We have heard of landholders offering the 
free use of land to be planted with castor beans. 

" Preparation of the Soil. — The ground should be put in good 
condition for the seed as for other crops. One thorough plow- 
ing, and three or four harrowings, with a heavy harrow, will be 
a sufficient preparation. Fall plowing is undoubtedly de- 
sirable, as it more fully exposes the particles of the soil to 
the influence of the frosts and the atmosphere, thereby pulver- 
izing it, and preparing it better for the seed. Where a fall 
plowing has been bestowed upon the land, and another cross- 
plowing in the spring, thorough harrowing will put it in ex- 
cellent condition for a heavy crop. If the soil is inclined to be 
wet, it should be thrown into back furrows or lands, fifteen or 
twenty feet in width, and the dead furrows between these 
lands should be kept open for draining off all surface water. 
This is not more necessary for the castor bean than for many 
other farm crops, where the land is inclined to be wet. 

" Planting the Seed. — The ground is now laid off in rows, five 
or six feet apart each way, except that between every sixth 
and seventh row, a distance of about eight feet between the 
rows is left one way, to admit a horse and wagon or slide to 
pass, to take the beans when gathered. Hot water, somewhat 
below the boiling point, should be poured over the seeds, and 
they should remain in this water twenty-four hours before 
being planted. The temperature of the water will, of course, 
be gradually reduced to the temperature of the atmosphere. 
Applying the hot water once will be sufficient. If planted with- 
out this preparation, they are a great while in germinating, 


many of them not making their appearance for three or four 
weeks. With this preparation they will soon germinate and 
come up regularly. Some farmers put in each hill one-half of 
those which have hot water poured over them, and one-half of 
those which have not ; so that if the cutworms destroy the first 
that come up, a stand may be obtained from the others, which 
will come up a week or two later. Good, sound, plump seed 
should be selected for planting. A half bushel will plant eight 
or ten acres. Eight or ten seeds should be dropped in each hill. 
But one, or at most, two plants are to be left in a hill. As the cut- 
worm is quite destructive to the plants, this number of seeds is 
recommended, so as to be certain of an even stand. Of course, 
replanting can be done; but it is better to avoid it, if possible, 
by planting plenty of seed. The seed should be planted as soon 
as all danger of fi'ost is over. The plants are as easily destroyed 
by frost as our common bean, and, therefore, planting should 
be delayed till after the first of May. 

^^ After Culture. — The cultivation of the plants consists in 
destroying the weeds and grass, and keeping the soil open and 
mellow. These objects are chiefly attained by using the horse 
and cultivator, or small plow, working between the rows both 
ways. It is also necessary to work among the plants with hoes, 
going over them two or three times, cutting the weeds away 
from the plants that cannot be reached with the plow or culti- 
vator, and drawing a little mellow earth to the plants, gradu- 
ally reducing the number to one plant in a hill, though two are 
occasionally left. One strong, vigorous plant, however, will 
produce better seeds than two, and as great a quantity. After 
the plant is two feet high, it is capable of taking care of itself, 
and grows rapidly. After heavy rains, however, it is still ad- 
visable to work between the rows with the horse cultivator, 
breaking up the crust that has formed on the surfiice of the 
ground, and opening and loosening the soil to derive a greater 
benefit from the atmosphere. It will be seen that the cultiva- 
tion is as simple as that of Indian corn, or of the common navy 

^^ Harvesting the Crop. — About the first day of August the 
beans begin to ripen. They are produced in pods or husks, on 
spikes about eighteen inches long, and should be gathered as 
soon as the pods begin to turn brown, to prevent loss by their 


popping out on the field, as the beans when ripe pop or burst 
from the pod quite a distance. They are gathered by cutting 
off the entire spike. Kach plant has a number of these, and 
they are produced and ripen in succession till frost. Of course, 
only those exhibiting brown pods should be cut. These spikes 
are then thrown into a wagon or on a slide, passing through the 
broad rows, and hauled away to the 

^^Bry Yard. — Which is made on a piece of land near the bean 
field, sloping to the south, so as to get as much heat as possible 
from the sun to ripen the beans and cause them to burst from 
the husks. Then roll the ground down hard and make a fence 
around the yard b}^ placing boards up against rails laid on 
crotched sticks or posts ; though the fence is not necessary if 
the yard is made large enough to leave a space outside the 
beans of twelve or fifteen feet, as many of the beans Avill pop 
that distance; and if the fence is not built, or the space left, 
many of the beans will be lost in the grass or field beyond the 
yard. * 

" The spikes are occasionally turned over and exposed to the 
sun, until all the seeds have left the husks, when the old spikes 
are taken away and a new supply added. The same process is 
gone thi'ough with the entire crop. Great care should be taken 
to prevent the beans getting wet. Dirty beans command but a 
small price, and sprouted beans are nearly worthless. When 
rain is anticipated, rake the spikes into a heap and cover them 
with straw or plank; sweep tbe beans up; clean them with a 
fanning mill, sack them up and store in a dry place. Do not 
attempt to pop them out in p>ots over the fire, as it renders them 
almost ivorthless. 

"After the beans begin to i-ipen, the field should be gone over 
once or twice a week till frost. In hot, dry weather, they 
ripen more rapidly than in cool, wet weather. Children can 
perform this work, and a large family of children cannot be 
more profitably employed than in taking care of a crop of castor 
beans. The work is all light. With a steady horse children 
might do all the work. 

"Farmers who raise but a few acres of castor beans will not, 
of course, go to the expense of fitting up a dry house, as the 
yard answers the purpose ; but farmers who raise fifty acres or 
more will save labor and expense by having a dry house for 
popping out the beans on the following plan : 


^^ Dry House. — A common log hut or frame building may be 
converted into a convenient castor bean dry house by making it 
tight and constructing in it a drying floor, composed of narrow 
strips of board, carefully laid one-fourth of an inch apart, except 
those parts which are immediately over the stove and pipe, 
which should be laid close. This floor should be as near the 
ground as possible, but not so low as to impair the value of the 
building as a barn or place of storage. A window for taking in 
beans is made in one side of the house, two or three feet above 
the drying floor, and a similar opening in the first story would 
be very convenient. A large stove, for burning coal or wood, is 
set up near the front door, and the pipe, after passing to the 
rear under the drying floor and up through an opening in the 
same, returns again to the front, and is carried out through the 

" With a large wood stove, having a pipe of proper size, the heat- 
ing power may be increased by carrying the pipe entirely around 
the building, three or four feet from the walls, before it passes 
up through the floor, and again to the rear, before going out 
through the roof. A damper should be placed in the pipe near 
the upper end to save heat and fuel. 

" The opening in the floor through which the pipe passes, is three 
feet square, and is protected by a boxing or curb to keep the 
beans from falling through. The space about the stove is pro- 
tected by a similar guard, and should be at least six feet square, 
as the front door opens into this area. 

"The beans on the spikes, as they are cut from the plant, are 
thrown through the Avindow upon the drying floor ; and as the 
bolls open the beans are stirred and fall through upon the ground 
floor, ready to be fanned and sacked for shipping. The hulls 
and spikes will make good fuel. 

" Frosted Beans — Are worth from one-half to two-thirds the 
price of good beans, but must never be mixed with them when 
sent to market, as a very few frosted beans in a lot of good will 
reduce the value very much, from the inability to separate them 

" Yield^ Price, etc. — The yield will depend much upon the 
culture bestowed upon the crop, upon the season, and the care 
exercised in gathering and ripening the seeds. From fifteen to 
twentj'-five bushels to the acre is an average yield. Some culti- 
vators will raise more, others less. Farmers will do well to pay 


attention to this crop, for which a certain demand exists, and 
at remunerating cash prices. It will pay better than raising 
corn, potatoes, wheat, barley, or almost any other farm pro- 
duce. It is not a difficult crop to get tO market — can be taken 
by team, or sent by river or railroad, with more profit than 
most crops, as the value is greater for the same quantity. 

"Castor beans have also proved a profitable crop. The 
market price, however, has fluctuated considerably. The crop 
of 1865 was totally unequal to supply the demaud for oil, and 
prices reached the extraordinary figure of $5 00 per bushel. 
This stimulated the production and importation of foreign oil 
and beans to such an exteut that the crop and importations the 
succeeding year (1866) proved more than sufficient to supply 
the demand, and a small surplus was carried over to the next 
season. At the commencement of the harvest of 1866, the 
market opened at $3 50 to $4 00 per bushel, rapidly declining, 
however, as the extent of the crop was developed, until at one 
time 8£rtes were made at$l 50 per bushel, and advanced later in 
the season to $2 00 and $2 25. Importers of foreign oil suffered 
heavy losses; and whei-e their stocks were still " in bond," thvy 
were forced to ship to Europe for a market. Prices in 1867 
showed remarkable regularity, ranging from $2 00 to $2 40, 
with great steadiness during the season. 

"For medicinal purposes only, the demand for castor oil 
would undoubtedly be limited; but it is the best lubricator known, 
and at competing prices with lard oil would, doubtless, super- 
sede it in all cases where required for heavy bearings, and the 
demand would be nearly unlimited. 

" Flaxseed or Castor Beans, for seed, can be procured at the 
market price, which to-day is $2 25 for Flaxseed, and $2 40 for 
Castor Beans. 

"In more southern latitudes, circumstances would probably 
render it necessar}' to deviate from these instructions in regard 
to times of planting, harvesting, etc., etc., which any intelligent 
planter would at once discover. It is thought they are suffi- 
ciently explicit to enable any one to successfully attempt their 

The Oil may be extracted from the seeds, (see U. S. Disp.,) 
in three ways: by decoction, expression and by the agency of 


The process? by decoction consists in bruising the seeds, pre- 
viously deprived of their busies, and then boiling them in water. 
The oil rising to the surftxce is skimmed or strained off, and 
afterwards again boiled with a small quantity of water, to 
dissipate the acrid principle. To increase the product, it is said 
that the seeds are sometimes toasted. The oil is thus rendered 
brownish and acrid, and the same result takes place in the 
second boiling if care is not taken to suspend the process soon 
after the water is evaporated. Hence the color of the West 
India oil, where this method is pursued. " The oil obtained in 
this country is by expression. The following, as we have been 
informed, are the outlines of the process usually employed by 
those who prepare it on a large scale. The seeds having been 
thoroughly cleaned from the dust and fragments of the capsules 
with which they are mixed, are conveyed into a shallow iron 
reservoir, where they are submitted to a gentle heat, insuflScient 
to scorch or decompose them, and not greater than can be 
readily borne by the hand. The object of this step is to render 
the oil sufficiently liquid for easy expression. The seeds ai'e 
then introduced into a powerful screw-press. A whitish, oily 
liquid is thus obtained, which is transferred to clean iron boilers, 
supplied with a considerable quantity of water. The mixture 
is boiled for some time, and the impurities being skimmed off 
as they rise to the surface, a clear oil is at length left upon the 
top of the water — the mucilage and starch having been dissolved 
by this liquid, and the albumen coagulated by the heat. The 
latter ingredient foi'ms a whitish layer between the oil and 
water. The clear oil is now cai*efully removed, and the process 
is completed by boiling it with a minute proportion of water, 
and continuing the application of heat till aqueous vapor ceases 
to rise, and till a small portion of the liquid, taken out in a vial, 
preserves a perfect transparency when it cools. The effect of 
this last operation is to clarify the oil, and to render it less 
irritating, by driving off the acrid, volatile matter. But much 
care is requisite not to push the heat too far, as the oil then 
acquires a brownish hue, and an acrid, peppery taste. After 
the completion of the process, the oil is put into barrels, and is 
thus sent into market. There is i*eason, however, to believe 
that much of the American oil is prepared by merely allowing 
it to stand for some time after expression, and then, drawing off 


the supernatant liquid. One bushel of good seeds yields five or 
six quarts, or about twenty-five per cent, of the best oil. If it is 
not very carefully prepared, it is apt to deposit a sediment upon 
standing; and the apothecary frequently finds it necessary to 
filter it through a coarse paper before dispensing it. Perhaps 
this may be owing to the plan just alluded to, of purifying the 
oil by rest and decantation." U. S.Disp. The American castor 
oil, says Wood and Bache, is also prepared by mere expression, 
rest and decantation. See Bene, (" >SesamM?/i,") and Grroundnut, 
{'■'•Arachis") for oils and method of expression. 

The beaten beans may be used as a purgative, but an over- 
dose is sure to act powerfully as a cathartic, and often as an 
emetic. I have known cases of poisoning in children from 
eating the seeds. I may add, also, that to purify the oil 
of mucilage, which will render it rancid, it should be boiled 
in a little water; the mucilage being insoluble in the water, 
may be skimmed off. Any water remaining with the oil 
should 1)e evaporated, taking care not to burn or over-heat 
the oil in the process. Soubeiran considers that all processes 
in which heat is employed are objectionable, as a quantity 
of fatty acids is produced, which renders the oil acrid ; only 
too high a temperature should be avoided. Pereira says that 
in England the oil is expressed either by Bramah's hydraulic 
press, or by a common screw-press, in a room artificially 
heated. It is purified by rest, decantation and filtration. It 
is bleached by exposure to light on the tops of houses. In 
Calcutta it is prepared as follows, Pereira adds: The fruit is 
shelled by women, the seeds are crushed between rollers, then 
placed in hempen cloths, and pressed in the ordinary screw or 
hydraulic press. The oil thus procured is afterward heated 
with water in a tin boiler until the water boils, by which 
the mucilage or albumen is separated as a scum. The oil is 
then strained through flannel and put into canisters. The 
small seed variety is supposed to yield the most oil. Beans 
of ricinus are said by Boussingault to be about four times 
more rich in oil than either flaxseed, olives, or sunflower seed. 
He says that sixty-two pounds of oil can be procured in one 
hundred of the castor oil bean. It is stated that in Jamaica 
castor oil is often obtained by simply bruising the seeds in a 
mortar, and boiling them in bags under water — the oil rises to 


tho surthoe, is skiiuinod otV. slrainod ami l>otllod t'ov use. Tltis 
was tho plan used on tho plantations in South Carolina during;- 
tiie war of iudopoudonce. It would not do for oporations on u 
large scale. See, also, Encyc. Britannica, art. "Kioiuus." Tho 
oil is oonsidorod good for illununating pur[H>sos. A writor in 
tho Southorn Cultivator, p. 2i>, vol. 7, rotors to tho disoovory of 
a process for separating stearine from tho puro oil in tho soods, 
and making tho formor into candles. 

Tho Calco loft after tho expression of castor oil is very ad- 
vantageously applied to land as a manure for wheat and other 
crops. An interesting eommunioation upon this suhjeet may 
be found in the tirst volume of tho Farmer's Register, from T. 
G. Peachy, Esq., of AVilliamsburg, Ya., tho results of wliose 
experiiuouts show the great value of the article. lu one ex- 
periment ho applied from tifty to sixty bushels per acre on 
seven and a half acres of land sown with ten bushels of wheat, 
and the product was twenty-six bushels of wheat per acre. In 
this case the land was so poor that not over five bushels could 
be expoeted from it without dressing. Ho recommends about 
forty bushels as an ordinary dressing. Mr. Peachy does not 
think the common impression correct, that the chief efficacy of 
the cake resides in the portion of oil which it retains. His 
press, he says, •• is a very powerful one, and leaves a very 
small portion of oil in the cake. There is, moreover, other 
refuse matter in such an establishment as ours, which contains 
a vast doai more oil than tho cake, which I have used as ma- 
nure, anil boon uniformly disappointed in its etfects. Accident 
has enabled mo, 1 think, to solve tho ditHculty, and to declare 
my belief that tho fertilizing qualities of the oil cake reside 
chit'fiy in the farina it contains. Some time last year, a vessel 
laden with flour was stranded near Jamestown, and the flour 
ruined. Mr. John Mann, who owns a farm in tho neighbor- 
hood, took two or three of the barrels and top-dressed a small 
portion of his wheat with it. I was not an eye-witness of its 
effects; but I was informed that it produced as groat an in- 
crease of that portion of his crop as my oil cake would have 

" Bj' experiment, I tind that fifty bushels of the cake will 
weigh 1,800 pounds; and of this quantity 1 have discovered 
that ton-eighteenths is farina or flour — equal to rive barrels of 

flour. 'J'Ik! cotton h(!0(J, I tliirik, contaioH rfior<; fariiiii, in jifo- 
j)oriion to tlio oil, tiiari the cantor boan, and, i believe, would 
]>ioduco jiH great an effect after being deprived of its oil an it 
would do in itH original Htate," 

'J'lie leavcK of tbe f-awtor oil applied to the breaHt of nurning 
women are rej>orted to be (jalacta<joqw, and to increa«e power- 
fully the flow of milk, and used for tbiw purpoHC in the West 
Jiidia iHlaridH. See Art. CharleMton Med. Journal. 

STINGING NIO'J'TLE, (Jatropka xtimalosa, Mx.) Gi-owh in 
dry pine land ; vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St, John's ; 
Jlicbland; Newbern. Fl. Aug. 

'I'Ik; IcavcH are prickly and highly irritating when applied to 
the skin. It might be employed like the nettle, ( Urtica,) as a 
counter-irritant in epilepsies and diseases requiring stimulating 
applications. The plants of this family furnish, generally, a 
stimulating and highly acrid oil and they should be examined. 

TIlIiKK SKKDKD MKRCUJiY, (Acaiypha Vmjinica, L.) 
Grows Th dry, fertile lands; vicinity of Charleston ; collected 
in St. John's H(;rk(;ley; Newbern. Fl. Sept. 

1011. Hot. Med. Notes, ii, 645, Said by Dr. Atkins, of Coosaw- 
hatchie, to bo expectorant and diuretic; he has employed it 
successfully in cases of humid asthma, ascites and anasarca. 

PhyUantkus niruri, L. S. Fla. Chap. 

It has a bitter and astringent root, succcissfully prescribed in 
Jaundice; half an ounce rubbed in milk, given twice a day, is 
said to effect a cure in a few days; and that both it and the 
young shoots are said to be diuretic; the leaves are very bitter, 
and are a good stomachic; Ainslie. Martial states that they are 
employed in Brazil as a specific in diabetes. Griffith. 

MANCIIINEEL, (Hippomane mancinella, h.) South Florida. 

1 find it closely related to (Queen's JJelight, ( Stillingia,) and it 
belongs to the EuphorOiaceoe. Wilson describes it is a poisonous, 
evergreen, tropical tree, of the spurge family. It attains a 
height of eighty feet, and was esteemed a great curiosity in the 
liot-houses of Britain. The fruit is the size of an apple. A 
milky, caustic juice abounds in every part of the tree, and if it 
touches the human eye, is in danger of causing blindness; and 
if it falls on any part of the human skin, will blister it; if upon 
linen, it will make it black, and afterward eat a hole through 


it ; yet this forms, adds the author from whom I quote, sojne of 
the well known caoutchouc of commerce. The timber of the 
machineol is very durable and takes a tine polish, and is much 
esteemed for various kinds of cabinet-work; but the woods- 
men require to dry and consolidate it by suri-oundinjj; it with 
artiticial tires before felling the trees, else the}' might be blis- 
tered and blinded by its juice. And the cabinet makers must 
cover their faces Avith tine lawn while working it, else they 
might get their eyes inflamed, and temporarily blinded with its 
exhalations and sawdust. The fruit violently inflames the 
mouth and throat of any person who tastes it, and it is exceed- 
ingly dangerous. Any available part of the plant is so dread- 
fully active that it cannot, even in the smallest doses, be safely 
introduced into medicine. A notion prevails among the Ameri- 
cans that the dew which falls beneath the tree is inflammatory 
and blistering ; but this seems to be, the author adds, an absurd 
exaggeration. The name Ilippomane. signities horse-madness, 
ascribing to the tree a maddening ett'ect upon the horse. Hural 
Cyclopcedia. Its resemblance to our Stillingia, which is a mere 
shrub, is close, and the tree wants a careful investigation at 
the hands of those living in Florida. I have collected the milk 
from the Euphorbia and Aschpias and hardened it, though not 
in sutflcient amount to test its qualities. The salsity is said to 
yield a large amount of milk, which may furnish caoutchouc. 

QUEKN'S DELIGHT; YAW HOOT, (iStiUingia si/lcatica,h.) 
Collected in the pine barrens of St. John's Berkeley, in great 
abundance ; Kichland ; vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. 

U. S. Disp. 687 ; Frost in So. Journal Med. and Pharm,, Oct. 
1816 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 535. Dr. Wood says 
that the Stillingia was introduced to the notice of the profession 
by Dr. T. Y. Simons, of Charleston. (Am. Med. Eecord, April, 
1828.) See, also, a paper by Dr. A. Lopez, formerly of South 
Carolina, in N. O. Med. and Surg. Jour, iii, -10; but Mills had 
stated in his statistics, published in 1824, that " the root acts 
as an emetic; it is a most powerful cleanser of the blood; 
used with complete success in diseases where this fluid has been 
corrupted. The properties of this root are invaluable." This 
plant exudes a milky juice, very pungent to the taste, and 
flowin<j: in ijreat abundance from the bruised surface. It is used 


to some extent in South Carolina as an alterative in scrofula, 
in syphilis, in cutaneous diseases, in chronic hepatic affections, 
and in the composition of diet drinks; it adds to the efficacy of 
sarsaparilla. I am informed by physicians residing in South 
Carolina, that they have treated secondary syphilis successfully 
with it. It is believed to be possessed of valuable properties, 
and greater attention should be paid to it by those living in 
the country where it is easily obtained. A tincture is made 
with the root two ounces, of diluted alcohol a pint. Dose a 
fluid drachm. A decoction is made of the bruised root one 
ounce, water one and one-quarter pints. Boil to one pint. 
Dose, one or two fluid ounces several times a day; an overdose 
is cathartic or emetic. Dose of the powder fifteen to thirty 
grains. The milky juices should be examined. I have inspis- 
sated that from the Asclepias and Euphorbia. See these genera. 

Since the publication of the first edition of this work, I have 
employed the decoction of the root of this plant as an altera- 
tive inTsyphilitic sores, occurring in patients in the City Hospi- 
tal, Charleston, the spread of which nothing else could an-est. 
It proved completely satisfactory. Phagadenic chancres were 
rapidly cured under its use. A strong decoction was given 
three times a day with four drops of nitric acid in each dose. 
The following was published in the "Floridian" newspaper: 

" The herb known as Queen's Delight, (Stillingia,) is a sure 
preventive of chills and fever. It should be taken just before 
or just as the chill is coming on, and it will soon put the pa- 
tient in a profuse perspiration. The manner of preparing it is 
to make a strong tea of the root, cither in a green or dry state. 
Take doses of a wineglassful until it produces perspiration," 

TALLOW TEEE, {Stillingia sebifera, L.) Nat. from China; 
collected in St. John's, forty-five miles from the ocean. I have 
seen it growing abundantly near Charleston, on the King street 

Mer. and de L. Diet, dc M. Med. ii, 476 ; see Croton sebif. of 
Mich. An ointment made from this is applied in nocturnal 
fevers. The Chinese, according to Thumberg, employ the con- 
creted oil extracted from the plant, in manufacturing candles. 
The Reporters of the Patent Office, for 1848, speak very favor- 
ably of it, and recommend its introduction, seeming not to be 
aware of its being already found here. See their method of 
extracting; the oil. 


In my report on the Medical Botany of South Carolina to 
the American Medical Association, in 1849, I had, as above, 
reported the fact of this tree being already naturalized. The 
seeds, when burned, give out a great deal of light. It could 
be planted with profit. In the Patent Office Eeport, 1851, p. 
54, there is also a paper on the uses of the S. sebifera, with a 
notice of the Pe-la, or Insect Wax of China. By D. J. Mac- 
gowan, M. D., dated Ningpo, August, 1850. In this article, it 
is stated that the Encyclopoedia Americana refers to its being 
grown along our coast. " Analytical chemistry shows animal 
tallow to consist of two proximate principles — sfearine and 
elaine. Now, what renders the fruit of this tree peculiarly 
interesting, is the fact that both these principles exist in it 
separately, in nearly a pure state." " Nor is the tree prized 
merely for the stcarine and elaine it yields, though these pro- 
ducts constitute its chief value: its leaves are employed as a 
black dye ; its wood, being hard and duj'able, may be easily 
used for printing-blocks and various other articles ; and, finally, 
the refuse of the nut is employed as fuel and manure." Dr. 
Eoxburgh, in his Flora Indica, had condemned the plant as of 
little value, because, in simply crushing and boiling the seeds, 
the two principles referred to as existing together are not prop- 
erly separated. I had myself, in my report, published in 1849, 
and also in my paper in DeBow's Review, x\ugust, 1861, recom- 
mended this plant to the candle and soap manufacturers for the 
large amount of oil it contained, and because of its abundance 
around Charleston. I also gave some of the seeds to a manu- 
facturer of castor oil, to experiment with, in 1851. I will now 
quote from the paper mentioned, and also refer the reader to a 
paper on the subject in the Charleston Medical Journal, by II. 
W. Ravenel. 

" The Stillingia sebifera is chiefly cultivated in the provinces 
of Brangsi, Kongnain and Chekkiang. In some districts near 
Hangchan, the inhabitants defray all their taxes with its pro- 
duce. It grows alike on low, alluvial plains and on granite 
hills, on the rich mould, at the margin of canals and on the 
sand}' sea-beach. The sandy estuary of Hangchan yields little 
else. Some of the trees are known to be several hundred years 
old, and, though prostrated, still send forth branches and bear 
fruit. Some are made to fall over rivulets, forming convenient 
bridges. They are seldom planted where anything else can be 


conveniently cultivated — in detached places, in corners about 
hourtCH, roadH, canals and fields. Grafting is performed at the 
close of March, or early in April, when the trees are about 
three inches in diameter, and also when they attain their 
growth. The Fragrant Herbal recommends for trial the prac- 
tice of an old gardener, who, instead of grafting, preferred 
breaking the small branches and twigs, taking care not to tear 
or wound the bark. In midwinter, when the nuts are ripe, 
they are cut off, with their twigs, by a sharp, crescentic knife, 
attached to the extremity of a long pole, which is held in the 
hand and pushed upward against the twigs, removing at the 
same time such as are fruitless. The capsules are gently 
pounded in a mortar, to loosen the seeds from their shells, from 
which they are separated by sifting. To facilitate the separa- 
tion of the white, sebaceous matter enveloping the seeds, they 
arc steamed in tubs having convex open wicker bottoms, placed 
over caldrons of boiling water. "When roughly heated, they 
are reduced to a mash in the mortar, and thence transferred to 
bamboo sieves, kept at a uniform temperature over hot asbes. 
A single operation does not suffice to deprive them of all their 
tallow; the steaming and sifting are, therefore, repeated. The 
article thus procured becomes a solid mass on falling through 
the sieve, and, to purify it, is melted and formed into cakes for 
the j)resH. These receive their form in bamboo hoops, a foot in 
diameter and three inches deep, which are laid on the ground 
over a little straw. On being filled with the hot liquid, the 
buds of the straw are drawn up and spread over the top, and 
when of sufficient consistence, are placed with their rings in 
the pre.'^s. This apparatus, which is of the rudest description, 
is constractcd of two large beams, placed horizontally, so as to 
form a trough capable of containing about fifty of the rings, 
with their sebaceous cakes. At one end it is closed, and at the 
other it is used for receiving wedges, which are successively 
driven into it by ponderous sledge-hammers, wielded by ath- 
letic men. The tallow oozes in a melted state into a receptacle 
below, where it cools. ]t is again melted and poured into tubs 
smeared with mud, to prevent its adhering. It is now marketa- 
ble, in masses of about eighty pounds each, hard, brittle, white, 
opaque, tasteless, and without the odor of animal tallow. Un- 
der high pressure it scarcely stains bibulous paper; melts at 


104° Fahrenheit. It may be regarded as nearly }Ma"o stearine ; 
the slight difference is, doubtless, owing to the admixture of 
oil expressed from the seeds in the process jnst described. The 
seeds jneld about eight per cent, of tallow, which sells for about 
five cents per pound. The process for pi'essing the oil, which 
is carried on at the same time, remains to be noticed. It is 
contained in the kernel of the nut — the sebaceous matter which 
lies between the shell and the husk having been removed in the 
manner described. The kernel, and the husk covering it, are 
ground between two stones, which are heated to prevent clog- 
ging from the sebaceous matter still adhering. The mass is 
then placed in a winnowing machine, precisely like those in 
use in western countries. The chaff being separated, exposes 
the white, oleaginous kernels, which, after being strained, arc 
placed in a mill to be mashed. This machine is formed of a 
circular stone groove, twelve feet in diameter, thi*ee inches 
deep and about as many wide, into which a thick, solid stone 
wheel, eight feet in diameter, tapering at the edge, is made to 
revolve perpendicularly by an ox harnessed to the outer end of 
its axle, the inner turning on a pivot in the centre of the ma- 
chine. Under this perpendicular weight the seeds are reduced 
to a mealy stale, steamed in the tubs, formed into cakes, and 
pressed by wedges in the manner described; the process of 
mashing, steaming and dressing being repeated with the ker- 
nels likewise. The kei'nels yield about thirty per cent, of oil. 
It is called ising-yu, sells for about three cents a pound, answers 
well for lamps, though inferior for this purpose to some other 
vegetable oils in use. It is also employed for various purposes 
in the arts, and has a place in the Chinese Pharmacoiiwia 
because of its quality of changing gray hair black, and other 
imaginary virtues. The husk which envelops the kernel, and 
the shell which encloses them and their sebaceous covering, 
are used to feed the furnaces — scarcely any other fuel being 
needed for this purpose. The residuary tallow cakes are also 
emploj'ed for fuel, as a small quantity of it remains ignited a 
whole day. It is in great demand for chafing-dishes during 
the cold season, and, finally, the cakes which remain after 
the oil has been pressed out are much valued as a manure, par- 
ticularly for tobacco fields, the soil of which is rapidly impov- 
erished by the Virginia weed. Artificial illumination in China 


is generally procured by vegetable oils ; but candles are also 
employed by those who can afford it and for lanterns. In 
religious ceremonies no other material is used. As no one 
ventures out after dark without a lantern, and as the gods can- 
not be acceptably worshipped without candles, the quantity 
consumed is ver^' great. With an important exception, the 
candles are made of what I beg to designate as vegetable 
stearhie. When the candles, which are made by dipping, are 
of the required diameter, they receive a final dip into a mixture 
of the same material and insect wax, by which their consist- 
ency is preserved in the hottest weather. They are generally 
colored red, which is done by throwing a minute quantity of 
alkanet root, {Anchusa tinctoria,) brought from Shangtung, into 
the mixture. Verdigris is sometimes employed to dye them 
green. The wicks are made of rush coiled round a stem of 
coarse grass, the lower part of which is sJit to receive the pin 
of the candlestick, which is more economical than if put into a 
socket. Tested in the mode recommended by Count Rumford, 
these candles compare favorably with those made from sperma- 
ceti, but not when the clumsy wick of the Chinese is employed. 
Stcarine candles cost about eight cents per pound. 

ollata, ]..) Collected in St. John's Berkeley, Charleston Dis- 
trict, in dry soils; vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. Aug. 

Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 82; Bell's Pract. Diet. 199; Am. 
Journal Med. Sci. xi, 22; U. S. Disp. 321; Big. Am. Med. Bot. 
iii, 119; Royle, Mat. Med. 542 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 
iii, 179; Clayton's Phil. Trans. Abrid. 331; Zollickoff«T, Mat. 
Med. 1819; cit. in Bart. loc. sup.; Coxe, Am. Disp. 272; Grif- 
fith Med. Bot. 59.^. It is emetic, diaphoretic and cathartic. 
Dr. Zollickoffer thinks that, as a diaphoretic, combined with 
Dover's powder, it is not inferior to ipecacuanha. Ho tried it in 
seven cases. Twenty grains of the powdered root would pro- 
duce emesis, sometimes followed by hypercatharsis. Mr. McKeen 
states that twelve grains of the root in substance have double 
the purgative power of an equal quantity of jalap. "Combined 
with opium and the sulphate of potassa, it is an excellent dia- 
phoretic in dropsy." See Diet, de Mat. Med. Dr. Frost, Prof. 
Mat. Med. South Carolina Med. Coll., thinks it quite as active 
as the ipecacuanha, and fully entitled to the consideration of 

; 152 

the profession, lie liaving used it with benefit in liis own prac- 
tice. "Even should they not be enij)loyed, every phynician 
should be instructed in their properties, and, -when occasion 
requires, know the substitute he can apply to in case of need." 
Op. cit. 82. A drachm to eiujhty or one hundred grains may be 
added to a half pint of hot water, which may he given in table- 
spoonful doses every five or ten minutes till vomiting is induced. 
This is a convenient mode of administration. According to 
experiment, the contused root will excite vesication and intlam- 
mation if applied to the skin. Maj. John LecoDte, of New 
York, informs me that he has been much pleased with its eifects 
as a sudoritic. Dose as an emetic, twenty grains ; as a cathartic, 
ten grains ; as a diaphoretic, four grains. This plant is easily 
obtained, and can be conveniently prescribed as a substitute 
for ipecacuanha. It should be used with caution in cases of 
insensibility of the stomach. 

ipecacuanha.) Grows in Abbeville, Edgefield and Colleton 
Districts; Newbern. Fl. June. 

U. S. Disp. 223 ; Barton's Med. Bot. 120. An energetic and 
tolerably certain emetic; but liable sometimes to pi-oduce ex- 
cessive nausea by accumulation ; hence, thought by some 
writers "wholl}' untit to supersede the officinal ipecacuanha." 
This opinion, however, has been questioned by Ilewson, Royal 
and others. Barton said it was equal, and in some respects 
superior. Lind. Nat. Sj^st. Bot. 114; Shec. Flora Carol. 555; 
Mer. and de L. Diet. de. M. Med. iii, 182; Coxe, Am. Disp. 272 ; 
Schoept; Mat. Med. 7-4 ; B. S. Barton. Collec. 26 ; W. P. Barton, 
Veg. Mat. Med.; Griffith's Med. Bot. 592; Frost's Elems. 81. 
It sometimes has its action extended to the bowels, and operates 
with a considerable degree of activity. Dose as an emetic, 
fifteen to twenty grains ; as a diaphoretic, five grains. Bigelow 
notices among its constituents caoutchouc, resin, mucus and 
fa?cula. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 109. It is evident, from the variety 
of opinions expressed in relation to this plant, that it should be 
given with caution. Both species are considered to be more 
active than the imported ipecacuanha. 

SPURGE; EYE-BRIGHT, (Euphorbia hypericifolia, L.) 
Grows in the upper districts, according to Elliott; vicinity of 


Charleston, Bach; collected in St. John's; found by Dr. Boykin 
in Georgia. N. C. Fl. July. 

U. S. iJisp. 321. Highly reco mraended by Dr. Zollickoffor, of 
Baltimore, in dysentciy, after due depletion. Used in diarrhoea, 
menorrhagia and leucorrhoea ; a half ounce of the dried leaves 
is infused in a pint of boiling water, of which a fluid half ounce 
must be taken every hour in dysentery, and the same quantity 
after every evacuation in diarrhoea, and two ounces morning, 
noon and night, in amenorrhoea, flour aJbus, etc. See, also, Mer- 
and dc L. Supplem. to the Diet, de M. Med. 1815, 282, where 
Dr. ZoUickoffer's success in twelve cases is referred to ; also, 
Am. Journal of Med. Sci. Nov., 1832; M. and do L. iii, 181. It 
possesses some nnrcotic power, also, which contributes to render 
it peculiarly applicable in these diseases. Journal Med. de la 
Gironde, 161, 1825. Martiue pays it has the same properties as 
the E. linearis, the milky juice of which is used in Brazil in 
syphilitic ulcers. He has often tested its value in ulcers of the 
corneair Journal de Chim. v, 427. The juice applied to the eye 
causes severe smarting, and it is thought to cause the severe 
salivation to which grazing horses are subject. From several of 
the spurge tribe a gum (euphorbiitm) is obtained by incision, 
which concretes by exposure to the air. It is a dangerous irri- 
tant, and has to be handled with caution. Mixed with siai-ch 
to weaken it, it may be used externally. Our Euphorbias should 
be examined for caoutchouc, and the juice investigated cai-efully 
and cautiously; so, also, the juice of the Stillingia. 

SPOTTED EYE-B RIGHT, {Euphorbia maculata, L.) Culti- 
vated soils; vicinit)' of Chai'leston ; collected in St. John's. N. 
C. Fl. July. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, dc M. Med. iii, 184; Ainslie, Mat. Med. 
Ind. ii, 76. The juice is employed with great success in cleans- 
ing the cornea of the spots and pellicles (les pellicules) follow- 
ing small-pox. Mcrat says the ancients recommended these 
plants in diseases of the eye. Dr. ZoUickoffer speaks of this 
species, also, as possessing valuable properties. All are endowed 
with some emetic power. 

Euphorbia helioscopAa. Grows near the Horseshoe bridge, 
Ashepoo, and on Hutchinson's Island. See Ell. Sketch. Fl. 

Dem. Elem. de Botanique, ii, 21. "A valuable purgative." 


According to Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 181, it is use- 
ful in syphilis when mercury is contra-indicated. Dr. Nonne 
assures the profession of its utility. See Bull, des Sci. de Fer. 
ii, 354. 

Euphorbia thymifolia, L. Included by Thomas Walter, in his 
Flora Carolina, among the Soutk Carolina species. Mich, saj's 
it grows on the Mississippi. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 
iii, 188. In India the powder is administered in the verminous 
disorders of infants. Ainslie, Mat. Med. Ind. 275. 

Mercurinlis annua. Gi-ows around Charleston. Introduced. 

A poisonous, narcotic plant, with emetic properties, but 
less active than the M. perennis. Seeds purgative. It par- 
takes, to a certain extent, of the acrid qualities of the Euphor- 



DeCand. says an acrid principle has been detected among the 

SPINDLE TREE, (Euonymus Aynericanus.') Rare; grows in 
swamps; collected in St. John's Berkeley. N. C. Fl. May. 

GritRth's Med. Bot. 220. Emetic, discutient and anti-syphi- 
litic. It is also thought to be narcotic. The seeds are said to 
be nauseous, purgative and emetic, and are used in some places 
to destroy vermin in the hair. The leaves are poisonous to 

WAHOO, {Euonymus atropurpureus.) Possesses properties 
similar to the above. 

Dr. Wood, in the 12th Ed. of the U. S. Disp., slates that Mr. 
G. W. Carpenter had introduced a bark some twenty years 
since as a remedy for dropsy, under the name Wahoo, he 
having obtained a knowledge of its virtues in the Western 
States. Dr. W. ascertained that it was derived from this plant, 
which must be distiuguished from the Elm of the Southern 
States, which is also called Wahoo. The bark imparts its 
virtues to water and alcohol. By analysis of Mr. W. T. Wenzel, 
it was found to contain a bitter principle, which he named 
euonymin, asparagin, resin, fixed oil, wax, starch, albumen, 
glucose, pectin and salts. (Am. J. Ph., Sept., 1862.) Mr. W. 
P. Clothier found the substance, which is the euonyviine of the 
Eclectics, to purge actively without griping. Dr. Twyman, of 


Mo., informed Dr. Wood that he had found the bark, as a 
cathartic, rather to i*esemble rhubarb than to possess hy- 
dragogue properties, and he thought that he had obtained from 
it good results as an alterative to the hepatic functions. The 
decoction or infusion is used in dropsy, made in the proportion 
of an ounce to a pint of water, and given in the dose of a wine- 
glassful several times a day. TJ. S. Disp. See a paper by C 
A. Santos, upon the Am. species; Am. J. Pharm. xx, 80. 

STAPHYLEACEJD. {Bladder -nut Family.) 

THEEE LEAVED BLADDER-NUT, (Staphylea trifolia, L.) 
Damp woods. North Carolina, Tennessee and northward (Chap.) 

The nut of our tree resembles closely that of the S. pintiata, 
which is used in Catholic countries for making rosaries. 
Rosaries are also made of the seeds of the Pride of India tree, 
{Melia.) The nuts of the S. trifoliata resemble a large, inflated 

CyrilUi racemlflora, Walter. Grows in swamps and inundated 
lands; collected in St. John's, where it is found in abundance; 
vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. July. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, i, 295. The outer bark of the oldest 
shrubs, near the root, is extremely light and friable, and absorbs 
moisture. It has been used with advantage as a substitute for 
agaric and other styptics. I learn that it is much confided in 
for this purpose by those living in Darlington District, South 
Carolina. When rubbed on the hand, it produces a sensation 
similar to that ])roduced by the application of an astringent 
fluid. It has also been applied to ulcers when the indication is 
to cicatrize them. This plant merits further attention. 

TITI, {CUftonia ligxistrina, Banks. Mylocarium, Wild.) Pine 
barren ponds and swamps, Florida and lower districts of South 
Carolina and Georgia. 

The stems, when dried, are found to suit admirably for pipe- 
stems — a heated wire being passed through the pith. Much 
used by our soldiers in camps ; and noAv (1868) becoming to 
some extent an article of trade. 

CLUSIACE^E. {Balsam Tree Family.) 

YELLOW BALSAM TREE, {Clusiaflava, L.) South Florida. 
Wilson, in his Rural Cyclopcedia, says that the balsam tree, 


Glusia rosea, grows in Carolina and in the AVest India Islands, 
"A balsam resembling turpentine exudes from every part of the 
tree, and has been much used as a plaster for the cure of sciatica. 
The West Indians call this balsam hog gum, from a belief that 
wild hogs rub themselves against it to obtain a cure of their 

""I Canella alba, 


' ' [ Winterana 

J canella, L. 
South Florida. Chap. 

This is an aromatic tree, bearing black berries. Every part 
of the plant is aromatic ; the flowers retain much of their odor 
when dried ; and if they be moistened with warm water, the 
scent becomes very powerful, approaching that of musk. The 
bark gives out its virtues to alcohol and partly to water; but 
the infusion though bitter, has very little aroma. Petroz and 
Eobinet show that it contains volatile oil, resin, bitter extract- 
ive, canellin, gum, etc. lis properties are owing to the first 
three constituents, but principally to the oil which is used to 
adulterate oil of cloves. The canellin is a saccharine substance 
which is very analagous, if not identical with mannite. Ca- 
nella is employed to cover the taste of several disagreeable 
tasted articles of the Materia Medica, and enters into the com- 
position of the Pulvis Alues cum Canella; added to the tinc- 
ture or infusion of senna it covers the nauseous taste of those 
articles, and prevents them from griping. It is more useful as a 
condiment than a medicine ; Swartz says it is thus employed 
by the Caribs, and that it forms an ingredient of many dishes 
among the negroes. In Martinique the berries constitute the 
basis of a much esteemed cordial. The above account is sub- 
stantially that of Griffith. See, also, U. S. Disp., Swartz, Trans. 
Linn. Soc, i, 96, and Woodville's, Stokes', and Stephenson and 
Churchill's Medical Botany. 

POETULACACE^. {The Purslane Tribe.) 

GAEDEN PUESLANE, (Portulaca oleracea, Walter.) Grows 
in yards and rich soils; vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. 
John's; Newbern. Fl. Aug. 

Linn. Veg. M. Med. 88 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. v, 
458. It is anti-scorbutic, diuretic and anthelmintic, and vaunted 


as an antidote for poisoning from cantharides. According to 
Linnfeus, the herb was used in strangury. It will coagulate 
milk. The American Dispensatories do not vouchsafe it the 
same notice that it has received in various parts of Europe. 
It has long been used as a salad and potherb. The young 
shoots are gathered when from two to five inches long. Eural 
Cyclopoedia. A blue color is obtained from this plant. The 
following is given by an agricultural journal : Boil a bushel of 
garden parsley or purslane till soft, in an iron pot or kettle, and 
strain off the liquor ; boil a pound of logwood, also in iron, for 
two hours, strain off the liquor and mix the purslane water ; 
then dissolve half a pound of alum in soft water, sufficient to 
cover three pounds of yarn ; put it in a brass or copper kettle, 
and simmer the yarn in it for three hours ; then wring and put 
into the dye ; simmer this three hours, with frequent stirring. 
The depth of the color may be varied by varying the quantity 
of the^logwood. A very desirable blue dye is obtained. Sec 
Ohio and Southern Cultivator. 

Dr. C. B. Lucas, of St. John's, S. C, informs me (1868) that 
several children, and a dog also, were made sick, with vomiting 
and depression, from drinking the milk of a cow which had 
been fed on purslane. The same milk given to the dog on the 
next day again produced vomiting, which occurred almost in- 

SILENECE.E. {The Dianthus Tribe.-) 

Uniformly insipid. 

VIKGINIAN SILENE, {Silene Virginica, L.) Grows on the 
margin of roads; vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. John's. 
Fl. June. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 188; Barton's Collec. i, 39; U. S. Disp. 
1296 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 342; De Cand. Essai, 
94 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 125. The decoction of the root acts 
as an anthelmintic. 

SOAP WORT, (Sapo7iaria officinalis, Linn.) Nat. in upper dis- 
tricts ; Newborn. Fl. Aug. 

U. S. Disp. 1293. This plant imparts to water the property 
of forming a lather, from a principle it contains called saponin, 
which is allied to the active constituent of sarsaparilla, and as 
a substitute for which it is frequently used. This is obtained 

■ 158 

by treating the watery extract with alcohol and evaporating. 
It has been used in Germany in visceral and scrofulous affec- 
tions, cutaneous eruptions, and by some is thought superior to 
sarsaparilla in efficacy. The decoction, or the extract may be 
given. Wade's PI. Eariores, 32 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. vii, 220 ; Flore Med. vi, 311. It is regarded as diuretic, 
aperient and sudorific, recommended in engorgement of the 
abdominal viscera, stomach, intestines, lymphatic glands, and 
in icterus, cachexy, etc. On account of its sudorific properties, 
it is advised in syphilis, rheumatism and gout. Perrihle gave it 
combined with mercury ; while fresh, administering it in doses 
of one-half ounce of the decoction, or from twenty-four to forty- 
eight grains of the extract. Journal de Chim. Med. vi, 747, and 
vii, 710; Ludom; Diss, de Rad. Sap. Offic. Erfordi®, 1756, J. P. 
Cartheusen, Diss, de Sap. Frankfort ; Amielhon, " Si le Stru- 
thium des anciens est veritablement la saponaire des modernes." 
Mem. Nat. des Sci. et des. Arts, i, 587, 

Dr. Wood states that Buckholz had obtained saponin from 
the dried root of which this principle constituted thirty-four 
per cent. (Jour, de Pharm. Ser. x, 339.) It is said to possess 
poisonous properties. The Soapwort is given as an alterative 
in the form of ^decoction and extract, which are taken freely. 
Audrj" says that the inspissated juice, given in the quantity of 
half an ounce in the course of a day, will generally cure gon- 
noi'hcea in about two weeks without any other remedy. Ac- 
cording to Dr. Bonnet and M. Malapert, this and other plants 
containing saponin are capable of producing poisonous effects. 
U. S. Disp., 12th Ed. 

A decoction of this plant has been used in some countries as 
a substitute for soap, and is well capable of cleansing woollen 
fabrics; the leaves were considered laxative. Wilson's Eural 
Cyc. Consult ^^ Sapindus" and ^' uEscidus," in this volume, for 
other plants used as substitutes for soap. The Sapindus (soap- 
wort) also furnishes one species, S. 7narginatus, which may be 
useful. Found in Florida and Greorgia, near the coast. 

BARILLA PLANT, {Salsola soda.) I would particularly ad- 
vise the planting in the Southern Statesof this plant, (cultivated 
so largely in Spain, Sicily and Sardinia,) on account of its great 
value in the ready manufacture of crude soda — which is now 
supplanting, on account of its cheapness, the use of potash in 


the manufacture of soap. Besides, soda gives a hard soap. 
According to the analysis of Ure, "good barilla (Contains twenty 
per cent, of real alkali, associated with muriates and sulphates 
of lime, soda," etc. Caustic lyes made from it are used in the 
finishing process of hard soap manufacture. 

SALTVVOKT, {Salsola kali, L. >S'. CaroUniana of Walt.) It 
grows in Georgia and northward ; and I have little doubt is 
rich in soda, and may be made of great use to us in the pro- 
duction of this most important product. 

The barillas, Ure says, "always contain a small propoi-tion of 
potash, to which their peculiar value, in making a less brittle or 
more plastic hard soap than the fictitious sodas, may, with great 
probability, be ascribed." 

The following is the method of preparing soda from the Sal- 
sola: "Of manufactured soda, the vai'iety most anciently known 
is barilla, the incinerated ash of the Salsola soda. This plant is 
cultivated with great care by the Spaniards, especially in the 
vicinity of Alicant. The seed is sown in light, low soils, which 
are embanked toward the seashore, and furnished with sluices 
for admitting an occasional overflow of salt water. When the 
plants are ripe, the crop is cut doAvn and dried; the seeds are 
rubbed out, and preserved; the rest of the plant is burned in 
rude furnaces, at a temperature just sufficient to cause the ashes 
to enter into a state of seraifusion, so as to concrete on cooling 
into cellular masses, moderately compact," etc. "Another mode 
of manufacturing crude soda is by burning sea-w^eed into 
kelp." Ure. Crude soda, and the soda ash of commerce, are 
made altogether by the decomposition of sea salt. I am not 
aware whether our native Salsola kali grows in abundance upon 
the coast of the Carolinas and Georgia. See "Corn" {Zeamays) 
for economical mode of making soda from corn-cobs. Also, 
article " Kelp," in this volume. 

Directions for making " Home-made " Soda. — The Eichmond 
Dispatch publishes the following: "The preparation more 
closely resembles saleratus than soda, and is a comparatively 
pure article for making bread. It is more valuable in view of 
the scarcity and high price of soda in our drug stores. After 
making a strong lye from ashes, boiling down to dryness and 
burning till white, take the residue and add its own weight of 
cold water, set in a cool place for several days, say a week, 


stirring frequently; then strain tlu-ough a tine cloth, and boil 
down again to dr^^ness, stirring frequently, and, fin all}', cork up 
the powder so obtained in a bottle. These operations should all 
be conducted in an iron vessel, not in glass or stoneware." 

I insert the following from a journal of the day, hoping that 
they may prove useful : 

" Soap Receipts. — In times of war and blockade, when people 
are thrown almost entirely upon their own resources, every 
item looking to domestic economy and home production should 
be carefully observed. Our people have passed through a try- 
ing ordeal, but they have learned lessons which will be of prac- 
tical utility in after times. Habits of economy, and elements of 
self-reliance, which have been pushed aside by the pressure of 
an extravagant sentiment, by an iiycreasing love for easy and' 
luxurious living, are now, from the influences of necessity, being 
resumed, while they are found to embody all of practical utility 
which they possessed in days of yore." 

Looking to the general principle of domestic economy and 
home effort, I annex the following receipts for making soap, 
which I find in the Wilmington Journal. One of these has been 
patented at the North. If tried, they will, no doubt, be found 

'^Family Soap. — Take six quarts of soft water, six pounds of 
bar soap, one-quarter of a pound of sal-soda, three teaspoonsful 
spirits turpentine, one and a half teaspoonsful hartshorn, one 
teaspoonful of camphor, two teaspoonsful of salt. Cut the soap 
up line, boil the water, and add all the ingredients, and boil 
thirty minutes; take off, and pour into shallow vessels to cool 
and harden. 

^^Another. — Five pounds bar soap, four pounds sal-soda, two 
ounces borax, and one ounce hartshorn. Dissolve in twenty- 
two quarts of soft water, and boil fifteen or twenty minutes. 

^^ Jelly Soap. — After pouring out of the vessel the above soaps, 
pour in Avater enough to wash off the sides and bottom, and 
boil twenty minutes. Then pour off to cool, and you have ex- 
cellent jelly soap for washing clothes, etc. 

" Soft Soap. — Take ten pounds potash well pulverized, fifteen 
pounds grease, and three buckets boiling water. Mix, and stir 
potash and water together until dissolved. Then, add the 
grease, stirring well ; put all into a barrel, and every morning 


add two buckets cold water, stirring it well each time, until the 
barrel is nearly full, or mixed to the consistency of soft soap." 

Consult Hickory, (Carya,) for manufactui-e of potash and pot- 
ash soap from ashes. 

SPUEREY, {Spergula arvensis. "Walt.; Linn.) Grows in 
cultivated lands, lower country of South Carolina; vicinity of 
Charleston ; collected in 8t. John's. 

Mer. and de L. Diet. de. M. Med. vi, 497 : " Cows which feed 
on it give milk of a richer quality, and in larger quantities." 
The seeds of a variety of this plant growing in Germany con- 
tinue green during fall and winter, are far superior to pasture 
grasses, and yield an oil suitable for lamps upon expression. 
They are also ground up with rye, and used for making bread. 
Poultry eat spurrey in any form, and are thought to become 
very prolific of eggs when fed upon it. Eural Cyclopoedia, and 
Thaer's Agricultural Chemistry. 

CHICKWEED; STITCHWORT, {Stellaria media, Smith.) 
Introduced. Yards and gardens. 

The herbage is greedily devoured by hogs, and is said to be 
nutritive, and suitable for being boiled and eaten in the manner 
of spinach. It has the reputation, when boiled in vinegar and 
salt, of possessing virtue to cleanse eruptions of the hands and 
limbs. The flowers serve, in some degree, as a natural barome- 
ter, for when rain is approaching ihoy remain closed, and in 
dry weather they are regularly open from about nine o'clock in 
the morning till noon. Wilson's Rural Cyclopoedia. 


The species belonging to this order are generally aromatic 
and pungent. 

^ Americanum, T. and Gray. 
PRICKLY ASH; TOOTH- [fraxineum, Willd. 
ACHE BUSH, {Xnnthoxijlum.) \ramiflorwn, Mich. 

J Clava Herculis, Linn. 
Barham's Hortus Americanus. The scraped root is applied 
to ulcers in order to heal them. The plant possesses stimu- 
lating powers, and is a "powerful sudorific and diaphoretic;" 
remarkable, according to Barton, for its extraordinary property 
of exciting salivation, whether applied immediately to the gums, 
or taken internally. It is reported to have been used success- 


fully in paralysis of the muscles of the mouth, and in rheumatic 
affections. Also, in low forms of fever ; the tincture of the 
berries being sometimes employed as a carminative in doses of 
ten to thirty drops, increasing the quantity when its stimulating 
effect is desired. Dr. King, of Cincinnati, states that it was 
beneficially employed in cholera in teaspoonful doses. See Dr. 
Bates' article ; Tildeu's J. Mat. Med., April, 1867. Mer. and de 
L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 179; Journal Gen. de Med. xl, 226. Dr. 
Gillespie asserts that it is a good tonic and febrifuge. Accord- 
ing to Cam, the Indians employed the decoction as an injection 
in gonorrhoea : "Voyage to Canada." It has been given in 
syphilis as a substitute for guaiacum, and also for mezereon. 
See Anc. Journal de Med. ii, 314. A peculiar principle, xantho- 
picrite, is afforded by it. U. S. Disp. Its acrimony is imparted 
to boiling water, and to alcohol. According to Dr. Staples, 
besides fibrous substances, it contains volatile oil, a greenish, 
fixed oil, resin, gum, coloring matter, and a peculiar crystalliza- 
ble principle, which he calls xanthoxylin. The latter is given in 
doses of two to six grains. Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. i, 165. 
It is stimulating ; producing, when swallowed, a sense of heat 
in the stomach, arterial excitement, and a tendency to diapho- 
resis. It enjoys considerable reputation in chronic rheumatism. 
Dose of powder from ten grains to half a drachm. It has been 
tried by many with advantage in this disease. Barton's Collec. 
i, 25, 52 ; Thacher's Disp. sub. A. spinosa ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. 
iii, 162. A fluid extract is also prepared and given in doses of 
fifteen to forty-five drops. (Tilden's Jour. Mat. Med.) In rheu- 
matism an infusion is given, made of one ounce of the bark to 
one quart of boiling water; one pint to be administered in 
divided doses during the twenty-four hours. Rep. from Sur- 
geon-Gen. Office, 1862. It should not be confounded with Aralia 
spinosa, sometimes called prickly ash. 

X. Carolinianum, Lam. and T. and G. JC. tricarptwi, Ell. Sk. 

This species is supposed to be possessed of similar properties 
with the above. It is the Prickly Ash of the Southern States. 
T. and G. 

Chapman, in his Flora of the Southern States, does not in- 
clude X. Americanum among our Southern plants, but what is 
said of the medicinal properties of X. Americanum, applies to 
this plant. 


These plants have the reputation in America of bein^ power- 
fully sudorific and diaphoretic, and excite copious salivation, 
not only when made to act directly on the mouth, but when 
taken internally, and have been found highly efficacious in para- 
lysis of the muscles of the mouth. Rural Cyc. This may ac- 
count for their utility in toothache. 

I have ascertained (1868) that the decoction of this plant is 
extensively used by physicians in South Carolina as a remedy in 
dropsy. In a letter from a medical friend, he reports to me an 
aggravated case which recovered under its use. A saturated 
tincture of the berries or root made with whiskey is also 

HOP TREE, (Ptelea trifoliata, L.) Fla. and northward. 
Chap. N. C. 

A small genus of shrubs peculiar to America and India. 
This species is said by Schoepf, Mat. Med. Am., to be anthelmin- 
tic, a string infusion of the leaves and young shoots being used. 
The fruit is aromatic and bitter, and is stated to be a good sub- 
stitute for hops. 

SIMARUBACE.E. (Quassia Family.) 

ALIANTHUS, (Alianthus glandulosa.) Cultivated. 

M. Hetel, of Toulon, France, has ascertained that the pow- 
dered bark, in doses of seven to thirty grains, are very eflScient 
in the expulsion of the tape-worm. The volatile oil obtained 
from it is so powerful that persons exposed to the vapors in 
preparing the extracts, are liable to be seized with vertigo, cold 
sweats and vomiting. The resin is purgative. 

The tree also assumed great importance in an economical 
point of view; its leaves having been found to be suitable food 
for a species of silk worm, {Bombyx Cinthia,) imported from 
China. (Journ. de Pharm. Mars. 1859.) U. S. Disp., 12th Ed. 

Some suppose that the emanations from the leaves cause 

QUASSIA, (Simaruba glauca, D. C.) South Florida. A 
large tree. Chap. 

This species of quassia, though not the officinal, should be 
examined for any bitter tonic properties it may contain and for 

GEEANIACE^. {The Geranium Tribe.) 

Characterized by an astringeBt principle, and an aromatic or 
resinous flavor. 

maculatum, Linn.) Diff'used. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 137 ; Coxe. Am. Disp. 304; Eberle, Mat. 
Med. i, 382; Bell's Pract. Diet. 218; Big. Am. Med. Bot. 189; 
Thacher's Am. Disp. 224; TJ. S. Disp. 350; Royle, Mat. Med. 73 ; 
Bart. M. Bot. i, 140; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 751; Am. 
Journal Pbarm. iv, 190; Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. i, 171; Ed. 
and Vav. Mat. Med, 135 ; Schoepf, Mat. Med. 107 ; Barton's Col- 
lec. 7; Cutler, Mem. Am. Acad, i, 469; Mer. and de L. Diet, de 
Mat. Med. iii, 369; Journal Pharm. xiii, 287. It is a powerful 
astringent, adapted to passive hemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, 
and cholera infantum. It is injected with advantage in cases 
of gleet and leucorrhoea, and is used as a wash for old ulcers. 
Bigelow speaks of it as a very powerful astringent, very similar 
to kino and catechu, and a useful substitute for the more ex])eD- 
sive articles. It forms an excellent local application in sore 
throats and ulcerations of the mouth, and is adapted to the 
treatment of such discharges as continue from debility after the 
removal of their exciting causes. Coldcn and Schoepf also 
speak highly of the root in dj^sentery; and Dr. B. S. Barton, in 
cholera infantum, used the decoction, in milk. Eberle was suc- 
cessful with it, in his treatment of aphthous affections of the 
mouth, and of ulcerations of the fauces and tonsils. Griffith, 
Med. Bot. 209. The absence of unpleasant taste and other of- 
fensive qualities, remarks Dr. Wood, rendei-s it peculiarly ser- 
viceable in the cases of infants and persons of very delicate 
stomachs. By Staple's examination. Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. 
i, 171, it contains tannin, gallic acid, mucilage, a small propor- 
tion of amadin, and red coloring matter; from the bark, a small 
quantity of resin and a peculiar crystallizable principle. 

Dose of the powdered root in substance, is twenty to thirty 
grains, one to two ounces of the tincture, and ten to fifteen 
grains of the extract. The decoction is made by boiling one 
ounce of the root in one pint of water, the dose of which is one 
to two tablespoonsful. The extract is said to be the best form ; 
alcohol and proof spirits, however, readily dissolve the active 


principle, and the tincture keeps best. The resinoid Geranin, 
as prepared by the Am. Chem. Institute, is given in doses of 
five grains to an adult, or one grain every hour, to arrest intes- 
tinal discharges. They use a solution of this powder in hema- 
turia and as awash in apthous sore throat; as a wash to the 
eye and in ointments where astringents are required. Dose of 
Tilden's extract, three to fifteen grains, 

ZYGOPHYLLACE^. (Bea7i Caper Tribe.) 

Guaiacum sanctum, L. S. Fla. Chap. 

This possesses the same properties as the G. officinale, Lignuni- 
vitae or Guaiacum, but in a minor degree. The wood is paler and 
lighter, and is seldom imported, unless mixed with the true 
Lignum-vita), and as an adulteration of it; may be distinguished 
by the smaller size of the billets, and the less decided green 
tint of the heart wood. Grifiith. The uses of Lignum-vitae 
and thefqualities of Guaiac as a medicine, its action on the kid- 
neys in araenorrhoea, and in rheumatism and gout, are well 

BALSAMINACE.^. (The Balsam Tribe.) 

According to De Cand., the species are diuretic. They are 
chiefly remarkable for the elastic force with which the valves 
of the fruit separate at maturity, expelling the seeds. Lind. 

TOUCH-ME-NOT; JEWEL WEED, {Impatiens pallida, 
Nutt.; T. and G. Noli me tangere, Ell. Sk.) Grows in inundated 
swamps; vicinity of Charleston; collected in St. John's. Fl. 

Bull Plantes Ven de France, 166: "The whole plant is very 
acrid, and is used as a cataplasm." Elem de Bot. iii, 58. Six 
grains of the dried leaves will produce nausea. The U. S. Disp., 
1264, speaks of it as a dangerous plant, possessed of acrid 
properties; when taken internally, acting as an emetic, cathar- 
tic and diuretic. 

OXALIDACE^. (The Sorrel Tribe.) 

Leaves generally acid. 

WHITE WOOD-SOEREL, (Oica^zs acetosella, L.) Mountains of 
North Carolina and northward. Chap. 


'Vhc plnnt is t\ vorv ngrooablo ami \Yholosomo sahut, aiul pos- 
sesses i-etViiijerant, anti-seorbutie, ami anti-septie pn^perties. The 
juiee eoagulates milk, ami preoipiiates liino tVotn solmii>n. 
When boiled in milk, it ixives olV its aeidulousness to the whey ; 
and either this whey, or the expivssed juioe oi' tl>e plant, miu'h 
diluted with water, may be used as a gvUHl retVii;eiaut diink in 
levers. KuralCye. The herb is powert'uUy and n\ost aiiiveably 
aeid, making a retreshini:: and wholesome eonsorve with tino 
suixar; its tlavor resembles ureen tea. 

Dr. Wood states that it owes its aeidity to bino.ralate of potassa, 
whieh is sometimes sepanited for use, and sold under the 
name of salt of sornl ; the piveess of makimx whieh is furnished 
by him. It is sometimes ealled essential salt oC lemons, and is 
used lor removing iivn mold and ink stains. This and other 
speeies are refrigerant ; and he also adds that their inliision or 
u Avhey made with them in milk, may be used as a pleasant 
drink in tebrile and intlammatory diseases, and the fresh plant 
eaten raw is useful in seurvy. U. S. IMsp., 12th Kd. 

riKrLK AVOOP-SORUKL. yOxalis violacea, L.-) Cirows 
in rieh soils; vieiuity of Oharloston ; ooUeeted in St. John's. N. 
C. Fl. May. 

U. S. Oisp. tU5. It eontains the oxalate ol' potash, whieh im- 
pai'ts to it its pleasant, aeid taste. 

Oxalis corniculata, L. O.valis furcaUi, Kll. Sk. A'ieinity oi 
Charleston ; similar in jnvperties to the Ox. violacea. 

ROSACE.E. (The Bose Tiihe.) 

^«one ot' the s}HH'ies are unwholesome; they are generally 
characterized by the possession oi' an astringent principle. 
The sub-order. A>ni/ijdal(iv, are better known for yielding Prus- 
sie or hydroeyauie acid. 

Potentilla, (canadensis.^ Grows in meadows, in lower and 
upper disti'icts; St. John's, South Carolina. 

Dr. Kiehard Moore, o{' Sumter District, South Carolina, in- 
forms me that this plant, on account of its bitter, mucilaginous 
qualities, has been found, by repeated experiment, to be a most 
etlieient and usetul remedy in the treatment of chi>>nie colds, 
threatening phthisis. The decoction is used, lie refei-s to the 
plant as the F. reptans (?). 


JUNEBP:RRY; high bush blackberry, (Rubusvlllo- 
sus, Aii.) Diffused; collected in St. John's; vicinity of Charles- 
ton ; Xewbern. F\. May. 

Eberlc, Mat. Med. i, 386 ; Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 453 ; Ed. and Vav. 
Mat. Med. 1.34; Royle, Mat. Med. 374; U. S. Disp. 603^; Ball, 
and Gar. Mat. Med. 267; Big. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 160; Chap. 
Therap. and Mat. Med. ii, 474 ; Thacher's U. S. Disp. 341 ; Lind. 
Nat. Syst. 144 ; Barton's CoUec. ii, 157 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 270. 
Bigelow considers it a powerful astringent, and is satisfied of 
its efficacy, administered both internally and externally, in a 
variety of cases admitting of relief from this class of remedies. 
Dr. Chapman also speaks highly of it in the declining stage of 
dysentery, after the symptoms of active inflammation are re- 
moved ; he asserts that nothing in his hands had done so much 
to check the inordinate discharges in cholera infantum — two or 
three doses sufficing to bind up the bowels. The decoction is 
made q£ one ounce of the root in a pint and a half of water, 
boiled down to one pint, of which the dose for a child is two or 
three teaspoonsful ; for an adult, a wineglassful several times a 
day; orange peal may be added. Dose of the powdered root, 
twenty or thirty grains. No analysis has j^et been made I 
have little doubt, from my own examinations, (see Liquidambar,) 
that the astringency is owing to tannin. I have frequently 
used a tea made of the roots of the Blackbeny to check the 
diarrhoea of teething children, and in refractory cases of dysen- 
tery, after mercurials and other treatment had been employed, 
and have always been pleased with the result. I consider it one 
of the most useful of our astringents. 

Dr. Sneed, of Ga., (So. Med. Surg. J, 1867,) maintains that its 
usefulness in disorders of the bowels, does not depend princi- 
pally upon the tannic acid it contains, but that its most power- 
ful effect, in these instances, are attributable to the bitter, 
stimulant, or tonic properties, distinct from its astringent effects. 
He avers hat a small quantity of the fluid extract taken into 
the stomach increases the appetite. lie also uses the bark of 
the root grated in water in diarrhfjeas. Tilden's Journ. Mat. 
Med. Aug. 1867. 

I have known cases of chronic diarrhoea and dysentery which 
recovered after using a strong tea of blackberry root, which 
had resisted other and persistent efforts for their relief; and I 


have had cases of similar benefit folloM'ing its employment, de- 
tailed to me by others. 

In the old work on " Herbs," by Nicholas Culpepper, gentle- 
man, "Student in Physic and Astrology," the author observes 
of one of the genus Riibus : " Either the decoction or powder 
of the root being taken, is good to break, or drive forth gravel, 
and the stone in the reins and kidneys." " The berries, and the 
flowers, are a powerful remedy against the poison of the most 
venomous serpents." P. 48. 

I have noticed a yelloio fruited variety in Fairfield District, 
S. C, at Aiken's place near Winnsboro'. 

I received the following communication from Eev. M. A. Cur- 
tis, in answer to inquiries on the subject : 

"The White Blackberries, so-called, generally of a dirty amber 
color, are occasionally mot with in different States, from New 
York to Carolina. The 'New Eochelle' of the gardens, is of 
this kind. One found in North Carolina is coming into culti- 
vation. Its only advantage is that it makes a prettier jelly than 
the black." 

(^Riibus trivialis, Mich.) Diffused ; vicinity of Charleston ; col- 
lected in St. John's; Newborn. Fl. April. 

Watson's Pract. Physic, 820; U. S. Disp. 603; Pe Mat. Med. 
and Thcraj). ii, 543 ; Roylo Mat. Med. 375 ; Chap, on Dis. of 
Thorac. and Abdom. Viscera, 279 ; British and For. Med. Re- 
view, January 31, 1845; Ball, and Car. Mat. Med. 268. This 
is, no doubt, ])Ossessed of astringent pi-operties similar to the 
above; a decoction of the root is said to be a safe, sure and 
speedy cure for dysonter}' — a remedy derived from the Oneida 

As Blackberry wine is much used as a substitute for more 
costly foreign wines, I will introduce the following receipe for 
making it, communicated by Mrs. Summer, of South Carolina, 
which was said to have been introduced from Virginia by the 
Rev. Richard Johnson. Blackberry wine, as well as cordial 
made from the wild cherry, is a pleasantly stimulating beverage, 
useful as a cordial, capable of being medicated and very ser- 
viceable in families, as well as in camps and hospitals. It can 
easily be made with whiskey, or this may be omitted. It is 
only strange that so useful and pleasant a drink, and one 


within Iho reach of every one, should, until recently, have been 
80 little made : " To every three pints of berries, add one quart 
of water ; suffer it to stand twenty -four hours, strain through 
a colander, then through a jelly-bag, and to every gallon of the 
juice add three pounds of good brown sugar, the whites of 
thi'ee eggs beaten to a froth, and stirred in the juice; a little 
spice, with two dozen cloves, beaten together, and one nutmeg 
grated, should be put in a small linen bag and droi)ped in. 
After all are mixed, put it in a stone jug, filled up, and kept full 
with some of the same juice, reserved for that purpose, until it 
is done working, which will be in two or three weeks, Cork it 
tightly, and keep it in a cold place for three or four months, 
then pour it off into bottles, with a little loaf sugar in each 
bottle; cork and seal close. If the wine is kept for twelve 
months, it will be still better." It is not easy to over-value the 
great utility of so mild an alcoholic drink, combining slightly 
astringent vegetable properties and which may be placed 
within the reach of almost every one. 1 have seen this wine of 
such an agreeable flavor and taste as to be preferred to more 
valued wines. Cheap, good wines are certainly the greatest 
boon that could be conferred on any country. Sec "Grape," 
Vitis, and " Apple," Pyrus. 

The following is an approved method of making Blackberry 
ivine, in vogue in St. John's Berkeley, South Carolina. I insert 
it in a work of this kind for its general utility, and as it forms 
an appi'oved liquor which "cheers but not inebriates." Black- 
berries, six quarts ; boiling water, two quarts; brown sugar, 
two pounds. The whites of six eggs frothed, added when the 
jug is nearly full. Mash the berries, pour in the water — let it 
remain twenty-foui" hours. Sti'ain through a hair sieve and add 
the sugar. Leave the jug open for two weeks, until fermen- 
tation ceases — a glass of alcohol may then be added. An addi- 
tional pound of sugar would probably secure the wine from 
the acetous fermentation. 

The following modification is considered the most sure means 
of securing a good result: To every three quarts of berries 
well mashed add one quart of boiling water — some prefer to add 
no water ; allow it to remain twenty-four hours ; strain through 
a hair seive ; to every gallon add two pounds of brown sugar — 
to every five gallons add the white of four eggs well beaten ; 


tUl iho juj;; koop s^otno of tho {uvpurntiiMi niul julvl to tho jujj 
ovorv nvorniui;- utuil tonjuMitsvtion vH^asos. tl\vM\ jul^l ono glass of 
aUH^hol. ov>rk up (ijjhily until tho month ot' Mjuvh. koopinjj it in 
aiHH^ plaoo. Tho noxt is vorv sit»»plo, it* jj>^oii. 

fiUiK'li^ny \ViH<\ — Tho t'ollowinji- is said to bo an oxoollont 
ivoipo txM* tho ma»>utj»otm\^ of suporior wino fri>m hlaokborrios: 
Moasuw tho Ivrrios wml hruiso thorn, to ovorv jjallon addinij 
ono tpjj»rt of boilinii' wator; lot tho twixtiuv staml twonty-lour 
hours, stirrinv: oooasiottally ; thon strain otV tho liquor into a 
oask. to ovorv jjallon addiiig two pounds of suijar; tH>rk tiijht 
atul lot stand till tollowinj* t.>otobor. and you will havo wino 
ivady tv^r uso, without aj\y t\irthor strainiuii- or boilinj:^. 

A ov>rr\*spondont in tho Mobilo Uoijistor givos tho t*olIowiui;- 
mothiHi of makinji' blaokborry ooniial: 

"(\>»\fi".i//\»r v^ii"AHf.<,< in th<- .lr«»y. — To alloviaio tho svitVorinsjs 
and porhaps shvo tho livos of tnany of v>ur soKlioi-s. whoso siok- 
noss may bo ti*aovHl to tho uso of unwholosonto wator itt linu>- 
stot\o ri^ii-iv>tts, 1 rvH-onmtond tho uso t>f blaokborrv ootxlial. Tho 
toUowinii" is a i:>>vHl tvoipo : Hruiso tho borrios auvl strain tho 
juioo thnnigh a baij ; to oaoh quart of tho jui».H> allow a half 
pound of loal suijar, a hoapv\l tO{ispovM»t\il of powdorod oin- 
x\an\ott. tho Sivmo of powdoivd oK>vos and a iirjittHi nutmoij; boil 
thoso inj;r\\iionts t\t\oiM» or twonty minutws skimminn' thonv 
woll. Whot\ o<.>ol. stir into oaoh quart a half pita of brandy ; 
thon bottlo atui ivrk woll. lit oaso bmutdy and loaf suijar 
oatiuot bo had. substituto ijvH>d whiskoy ami suijar houso mo- 

" (\>w/H>M«</ iSyi-Mj* of JihH'kbcrricii — M^iicitttd BhickUrrie;si 

rsot\il as a drink itt diarrhan\. and ti> supply soldiors in oamp, 
oithor as a tvn\ody in mild oasos of diarrhoea or as a vohiolo tor 
modioinos. fo two quarts of tbo juioo of blaokborrios, add 
half an ounoo oaoh of ointtanuMi. allspioo and nutmo>;^. anvi otto 
vjuartor of an ounoo of olovos. woll pulvorir.od. Boil thom t«.>- 
ijothor for t\t\oon to twonty minutos in a prv^sorvo pan or kottK\ 
to l:^^t tho stnM\ijth of tho vspioos; strain thnniiih a piooo of 
tlamtol, thon add loaf supir to mako vorv swoot, atul whilo 
still hQt add to ovory two quai'ts of tho juioo onopittt of bnutvly. 
Tho doso of this tor an adult is about two tablospoot)st\il n^ 
poatod. t.^no-titVh portiot\ of tho mixtutv is bratidy.' 

Tho tollowing substituto tor tho spiood syrup of Uhubarb, is 


H' by \)r. I'arriHfi, (I'nii-i, |'harfnfu;y p. 2'{0,; nH*'A in tli<5 
<littfTli'i;a or f;hil'in;»), JJlackborry root ^'-Mku- hpt'/^f.Hj t-'tf^itl 
oniuu-.n; cinniifnon, cAovan and uitiuuip^n, nH^ih ihrw drfmhutH ; 
HUi/sir, four poiindM; wsihr, four pif)f> — boil tli<; rootn anrj th<! 
arojnuf,icH in t,h<; wuf^r for ori<; lioiir, <jxpr<'>H an'J strain, tb';n 
{kJ'I iJxj migor, rorm a f-ynip jju'J again hirairi, tb<;fi a'Jd VnsUcM 
bran'Jy, kix flui'J ouucMr., oil ol r;lov<;n aii'i oil of cinnafnon, of 
<;a''b four dropH, 1)om<; for a ';liil'J of two y<;ar»< ol'l a l';at^poori- 
ful — a tabU;Ki)OOfj for an adult, U> be r(rpr*at<;fi. 

Tb<5 blacl<b<;rry root \n an <ja«ily obtain<^i and valuabW; an- 
trifipj<;rit, A d<;cof;tion a*!t« a« an aHtrifi;<«;nt, and will (-.Ut.c.U 
diarrhoia. 'I"b«; rind of ponM;p^ranat<;, wbicli Ih oawily i<ortabl<r, 
boil<5d in milk, in an <5xc«;ll<;nt rctiicAy in diarrbo;a in tb<! 'army, 
\<, b<! iiH<;d during M;arclty of rnedicincn. Tbe tr4;<; grown 
abundantly in tin; HoutJiom Htat<;« ; all parlH of it nn: un> 

l''rofi» fn;'|in;nt, trials, I know of no n-rn';dy [i/v diarrbo;a and 
dyH<;rit<jry of t<;<;tliing 'hildr'ifi, hupcrior to tli«; d«'COf;fion of 
tb«! root of tliiM Mp<;';i(;H ; aiKO, durin^^ th'; (■J)UVd\t-M>'A:UfM from 
<JyMcnt<;ry in a^iultH. It miglit be mucb f»ior<; (xlenhively uw;d 
on our pluritatioriH, 

The following preparation from blaek berries will be found 
uMeful an a hxalivi-^ afid to present ^^onHtipation, Half a pound 
of brown hugar to every jiound of the fruit boiled together for 
an hour, till the blaekberrie.i are Koft, Htirring and mahhitig 
them well. ThiM nhould be preMervcd, and will prove a moht 
agr<;eable laxative for ehildren, on aeeount of the Haeehan'ne 
matter r;ofitain<;d in it and the rnee-hanieal irritation of tlic 
MeedH : 

^^ lil.o.d'.hcrrii.i',. — Trenerve ihewe an Htrawb«-rrieM or eurrantH, 
either li'juid, or an a jam, or jelly, iilaekberry jelly or jam in an 
e,xeellent medieine in hummer eomplaintn or dysentery. 'Y<> 
make it, cruHh a quart of fully ripe bla^^kberricH with a pound 
of the b(!Ht loaf-Mugar; put it over a gentle fire and ojtoli it until 
thiek ; then [»ut to it a gill of the bext fourth-proof brandy; 
Ktir it awhile over the fire, Htrain, then put in pots. 

" liLacMarry Hyrup. — Make a Himple nyrup of a fiound of Mugar 
to eaeh pint of wat«5r ; boil it until it Ih rieh and thiek; then 
add to it an many [>intM of the expreHHed juiee of ripe blaek- 
b<;rrieH aH there are poundM of Hugar; put half a nutmeg grated 

to each quart of tho syrui); lot it biMl fiftoon or twenty 
ininutos, thoi\ mid to it halt' a i::ill of t'oiirtli j)n>ot" In-andy tor 
oaoh i\ni\v{ ot' synii>; sot it by to booomo i-oKi ; thon botllo it 
tor uso. A tablospoontui tor a ohiUi, or a winoi;lass tor ai\ ailult, 
isrt lioso. 

'' Jihickherry Cordial Mt'dicatt'd, — It is 1*00011111101111011 as a do- 
liijhttul bovoraijo. aiul a romody tor iliarrluva ov ordinary 
disoaso oi' tho bowols : 

"To halt' a bushel of blaokberries, well niasluHl, add a quarter 
of i\ pound of allspioe, two ounoes of cinnamon, two ounoes of 
cloves; pulverize well, mix and boil slowly until properly done; 
then strain or squee/.e the juice throUi;-h homespun or tlanuel 
and add to each pint of the juice one pound of loafsui;ju'j 
boil ai:;ain tor some tiino, take it otf. and while cooliiijj add half 
a i^allon oi' bosi brauvly. Kor an adult, half ounce to an 
ounce; for a child, a leaspoonful or more, aocordiiii;- to aije." 

Jilackberry Jelly is made by wasliiuij;; tho berries, to each 
pound addiuix a half pound oi' sugar, place on a stove and 
sinnnor. pour otV the juice which is to bo boiled down to a jelly, 
tho seeds being thus excluded. 

The leaves of the blackberry and raspberry carefully dried are 
rooonunoiuloil as substitutes \\iv foreign tea. Upini experiment, 
1 tind tho tea drawn from tlioin agreeable and pleasant, and 
perhaps slightly stimulating or soilative, as the case may bo, 
but the fwrh taste is rather too prominent. 

YllUJlXIAX, OU Wll.n UASPBKRKY. ^h'nhus (VC/We/j- 
talis, liinn.) tJrows in the upper districts; ct>lloctotl in St. 
John's ; Newborn. 

Mor and do T-. Oict. tie M. Mod. vi, KU. Properties iilontical 
with tho above. It is thought to be a specific in dysentery. 

ST R AW R E U R V. {FYagaria vesca, Ex.) Cult. 

Flore Mod. iii. 169; Griffith Mod. r>ot. 277. Gosnor speaks of 
the good otYocts ot' the fruit in calculous disorders, and Lin- 
nanis extolls its ettteacy in gout, having, ho Sftys, piwentoil 
paroxysms of it in himself by partaking of this fruit very 
t'rooly. They are also supposed to possess vormit'ugo properties, 
and to be useful in phthisis. Tho leaves are astringent, and are 
recon\mondod in bowel complaints ; and tho roots are much 
used in Kurope as diuretics; frequently given in dysuria. in 
int'usion. made with an ounce to tho pint ot' water. Op. ivY. 


Iijill<;rnttrid, in Imh work on Hporrnutorrhoia, p. JilO, HtatoH that 
Hl,rawb<!ri'i«;H an; quil<; Hc.rvic.c.nliU; in rolicvin^ irritablo ^;on- 
diliofiH of th(! f)la'i'J<;i' an<J mvoaUih. RoiiHHcau mcntionH tliJH aH 
true of ljirnH(;ir, hoc liiw (I'mfcHHioWi ; and 1 have known of por- 
HOfiM in iil-li<;alth during the winter who rapidly recovered aH 
Kooti an thiH frait cotild l>e procured — f>win;i^ douhtleHK to the 
n(;<!d of flie V';(,^<!f.ahl'; ueidn they eon tain. 

W(JAItlJ':T VIl'JilNIAN STIiAWIiKJiliy, ( Frarjo/ria Vir- 
r/i.rdana, \'W\tu,n.) l(if;hwoodH; Florida to Virginia. Chap. 

It waH introduced into l'in(.dand in 1629 and pOHHCHKcd a fame 
(!<pjal to the haulhoiH. 'J'lic ]>n\\> liaH a fin<; flavor, liural Cyc. 
'I'liin plant iH well known, and it« economical value and appli- 
cation require no deHcri|jt,ion. TheuHcofthe fruit ofteri aclH 
hen(;ficially upon dyMj>epticH, who are hencfitcd fjy acidn. '"J'he 
old Carolina Htrawhcrry Ih a well known and mucli CKtcemed 
variety. The pulf) in colored and juic}-, and haw a fine vinouH 
flavor." \iy pinching off all the firnt flowerH of early hloorn 
vari<!tieH, the flowern will appear and fructify the prencnt 
autumn. Rural ^'yc. 'I'hey require conHtant watering to hear 
aIniOHt fioriHtantly. 

' ) " Caroiinianum, Walt. 

(iriffUh, Med. liot. 279 ; Jlaf. Med. i''l. i, 220. ThiH plant \h 
pOHH(!HHed of tonic and antrin^ent prop<;rtieH, recommended hy 
IvfrHand \'>\jj;(;\()W in dyH[>epHia, and debility of the vincera; em- 
|)loyed, alMO, with hucccmh in leucorrlujea and chronic hemorr- 
hai^cH. It iH not HiippoHcd, however, to be jiOHHCHHed of much 
power; one drachm of the j<owdered root may he UHed, or a 
decoction mad(5 hy one ounce to one pint of water, of which the 
doHO iH one ounce Hcveral timcH a day. In domcKtic j>ractice, it 
Ih given in the Hhape of a weak decoction, an tea. 

A(;UI.M()\V; FKVKRKKW; COCKLE lilJKR, (Ayrimonia 
I'/upatona, Ij.j DiffuKcd in cultivated lafidn ; Newbern. Fl. 

Parr'H Med. Did. Art A. Kup.; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 
76: Le. Mat. Med. i, 1251; il<.»yle. Mat, Med. 002; IIoffman'H 
ObH. PhyH. Chim. i; ObH. i; Ell. Hot. Med. Notew, i, 403, note; 
IJ. S. hiHp. Hf); Fd. and Vav. Mat. Med. i, 281 ; Hall and Car. 
Mat. Med. 4;il ; liergii, .Mat. Med. 287; Mer. and de L. Diet, de 
M. Med. j, 63; Woodv. Med. liot. ; Ann. de Chim. Ixxxi, 332; 

iVxo, Am. Oisp, K^ ; Sluv, Klorj* Oan^l. iH> ; Horn, KUm»\ vlo Ivm. 

orrh»^\>ix viinrrhvvrt Uniiwrha^rt snul ijimvMThvvn, :u>U juv Ulj;l»ly 
rvHHMumoiulovi as a vioolv>itnun\( i»» v^hst»'uotivM\s of tho sploou, juul 
in d\5H\»4s^vs rtrisinj* t\\MU torpor of tho livor. as d»v|v«»y, jaundioo. 
otv\ Tho rvHUs auvi K^avos huvo boot\ tvmtxvl otUoaoious in iuvol- 
untjirv \i\soh»rijv^ of urino ^^onurxViis,^ Kiev's OjU, Ph^nturum; 
Auk llorKnU by J. Stonrns, 85>; l.iiihttlHH's Kl. Sootioa. It is 
styptic ; it str\M>4iihons tho toi^o of tho stomaoh. and it has Khmi 
ompU\Yv\l in ohrvMuo liiarrluwn, Tho p^«nt^ di^J\^sto^i in whoy. 
atK^rvls a vory j»ratot\il viiot drink, Siv l.inn;ous Voj;\ M, Movl. 
SS. Tho Invlians usv\i it in intonnittont t'ovor. Oolonol 8t\H- 
Kxrn, of IVudloton Distriot^ S^ 0., wrilos n\o wo»l that ho has 
known tho plattt. IhmKhI in milk, jjivon suooosst\jUy in snjiko 
hitxvs »wd ii\jurio* arisinij tWm tho stings of spidors. Tho doso 
i^* tho iM»Nv\ior is ivno draohm; of tho int\ision of six v>unoos of 
rvvt in ono quart of UMlinjj wator. tho iloso is vn»o oxinoo. In 
jvpular pnu'tivv. tho U^avivii ar\^ appliod :is a ojvtaplastii to «.vn« 
tusions and tWsh wounds. It isus^ni by tho stoam praotitionor^. 
800 Uowarvi's Imp. Syst. IVt, Mini. ^S4. Tho loaviv* and stalks 
iwjv^rt a lHnu»tit\d and ponuanont j;^>ld ov^lor to animal wool, 
proviously imprv\4jt\ati\l with a woak sv^lution of bismuth, and 
tho floxrors aroomployovi by taunors t\>rourinij sot^ and dolioato 
skins. I havo v^btaiuoii a dolioato yollow dyo tV\>m tho loavos 
^^lS^»i^ which ntiijht bo usot\»l in ivloriuij kid ijlovos, morvXHH) 
skins, oto, ; alum should Iv usoii to tix tho ^vlor. 

v'^/Mnrvi trifx^uiUi tinJ ^f^nhuw*. Soo li illonia. 

HAIUMIAOK: STKKIM.K lU'SU. v^>^Ar\^ hm^HU\<.K l.inn.> 
l^rvnvs in tho uppor districts, anvl in GiK^rgia: Newborn. Fl. 

r. S. Pisp. t»S- ; Kat. Mod. Fl. ii. 5U. .\ valuaMo tonic and 
*stHugvn\t ; administorvHl in diarrhiva, chv^lcni intantum. and 
olhor t^>mplai«ts whcr\^ miHiicin*,^ uf this class arx> indicHtoil. 
AWxHi s»ys it is peculiarly adaptvsi. by its tonic ^x-kwors. to cases 
of debility, as it vioos not disajjiw with tho stonxach; but it 
should W a^^>idod duriivjj tho oxistonci^ of int\an\n\atorv action 
or tVbrilo excitement. It was empK\vovi by the Indians, and 
brvnvijht to the notiw of thepr\>tVssion by Or. (^^jjswell. of Oonu. 
Or. Ivvvj is wf thooj^uiou thai the r\H>t is the least valuable pv^r- 

J 75 

(i<j //, lij^'t. ci<; M- M<V1. vi, 5W, j\<'j'/>rtyutf^ t/> M^a/i'* 'Hn^h, »t 
in (^jv<jri with >»»j^^^j#« in th<j %*'/'/>w\ hIa'^*^ (/f 'lymuUiry and 
(UnrrUn^, having virtiU'M AilrihiiU'A Uf it urmlo'^onn U* ih'ff^. '/f 
qitUiinh. Ht-M, al«//, Jonrtinl \ju\v. <i",n. Hfsh M/Vi, zxiv, 238, and 
TUcHtu in >i<;w Vork M<;^i, lUi^M/n. OAhrnif ^/p, frU,j The frxtra'.'t 
»aid t/; b<i fully <5<i»Jal U/ ^^AUsahn, and might rery well takfc 
it# j;liu;<;, Ax it do<rt not (Vi'.A'/rcA', whit th<; Jttorfta/;h- it i« con' 
HulcrcA a v<rry v'Aun,\>\t a/idition U^ tho mAUjrin lafAUsA, Griffith, 
M<^J. iJot. 28^). From ftvis to fif\Ae*;u grainn of th<j <;xtra/;t may 
h<5 taken, or two ounr^;*, of th*; i\t-j/H'X\ttu. \irt',\rt%r*'A hy the ad- 
dition of on<; <mu''A; oi' tli<; plant t// on'; pint of watf;r. Ttie ex- 
'^u.'t w prafarahUi; mtu\it hy evaporating the decoction '^ the 
HU;mH, UiHVCM or root. Thin in tak<;n ry^ld, and r(s\it'.nUA several 
tinj(;M d»jririg th(j day, Great twj uiif^ht tth mufU; of thi<« plaot, 
IfurilcMarly by pra';tition<;nj r';Miding in the c^ntry. In a 
M/fnmunication from Or. 8. B. Mea/1, of Illinois, he infonwH me 
that he han employ<^i it in oSrHiiuaUi diarrho;a«4 in plac^; of 

>N INK-BA liK, ' iifiiro'.a f/^ Linn.; <^iTOw» along stream*. 
S. and \. G. 

<'jirittii\t H ShA. liot, 282. Thi« i« not w^ a>«.tringent a^j the »V. 
f.f/fMrUoM., though Jiafinfc»»que Offe'i. Flora; ••.ayji it i» i>f/m*smt;d 
of NJmilar properties. It han an unplea^tant o<ior, which reu- 
derH it ohje/rtiof<ahle a^i an internal remedy. It i.»», however, 
much employed a** ari external application, in the form of fomer>- 
tation, or aM a eataplaitm to nU^an &tnl tuition. The Hee^ift are 
iixUirwaWy hitlei-, and are Jiaid to ^^ U/nic, The hark nt;\tArAUi% 
in thin layer«, \hmom the name. 

INDIAN Fif ySIC, ' 25''"''''^ fn/''-''^^'^^, >'ntt. 

(irown in the rjp[K;r diritrictw; alj<o in Ge^^ Fl. Jaly. 

Big. Am. .Med. Bot. iii, 10; Bart. M. B<H. 1C5; U.S. I>>i-*p. 
'i.^. It Ih a mild emetic a/^y^rding to «*/^me writer*; largely 
employed a« a ^uhntitute for i[>*y;actianha. Bigelow thinks it ij» 
not a certain emetic, but Zollickoffer, Barton, Eherle and Grif- 
fith unite in t<5«tifying t/^ itJ* value; the latter entirely di.Hprove* 
Baume'H unfavorable ref^^rt. In small (U/Hea it act* a* a gentle 
tonic, (:Hp4J:'\ii\ly in torj/ul cooditionn of the HUjinnalu Accord- 


ing to Mer. and de L. Diet, de Med. 509, (seo Spircea trifol.,) its 
properties partake also of a stimulating character. Coxe, Am. 
Disp. 305 ; Carson's Illust. Med. Bot. pt. 1st, 40, 1847. Shreeves 
(Ex. in the Am. Journal Pharm. vii) found in it starch, gum, 
resin, wax, fatty matter, red coloring matter, and a peculiar 
principle, soluble in alcohol and dilute acids, but insoluble in 
water and ether. According to the statement of Dr. Staples, 
it contains no emetine. It may be conveniently given as an 
emetic, by boiling the root and giving one or two ounces of the 
decoction at a dose till vomiting is induced. "The tincture of 
the root is an infallible remedj^ for milk sickness. "Cherokee 
Doctor." The dose of the powdered root is thirty grains, per- 
sisted in till vomiting takes place ; two to four grains act as a 
tonic, and sometimes as a sudorific. The infusion will occa- 
sionally produce hyperemesis and catharsis. Lind. Nat. Syst. 
144 ; Frost's Elems. 80 ; Inaug. Diss, of Dr. De La Motta, of 
Charleston, published in Philadelphia; Schoepf, M. Med. 80; 
Bart. M. Med. 26; Griffith's Med. Bot. 283 ; Griffith, in Journal 
Phil. Coll. Pharm. iv, 177. 

AMEEICAN IPECAC, j f ^.^^^^"^ stipulacea, Nutt. 
' j Spircea, of Mich. 

Grows on the Saluda mountains ; N. C. Fl. July. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 144. It is emetic and probably tonic, 
and is possessed of properties similar to those of the S. trifol.^ 
though it is said to be more certain in its effects, and not to 
have been deteriorated by cultivation. U. S. Disp. 853 ; Grif- 
fith's Med. Bot. 284. 

COCKSPUR THORN ; HAW, {Crcetagus cms galli.) Grows 
in swamps. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 460. Dr. Darlington re- 
gards it as one of the best thorn plants for hedges ; it is much 
used in Delaware. Fl. Cestrica. It is better than the Washing- 
ton thorn, G. cordata. These and the species of Pear, Pyrus, 
should be examined for the alkaloids propylamin and secalina. 
See Sorhus acuparia. 

CRAB- APPLE, {Pyrus coronaria, Linn.) Newbern. Fl. May. 

It is not employed medicinally. The fruit is very acid to the 
taste, and is often made into preserves. The acid juice is known 
under ihe name verjuice, and has been applied to sprains and 
bruises. Phloridzine has been obtained from this genus — said 


to have succeeded in intermittente where quiriia had no eifect. 
Dungl. New Remedies. Ten to fifteen grains may be given dis- 
solved in a little ammonia and water. Mills, in his Statistics of 
S. C, says that the fruit makes the finest cider; that the 
leaves afl'ord a j-ellow dye, and tiiat the acid juice of the fruit 
id used in recent sprains, and as an astringent and repellant. 
The bark, with that of the white hickory, gives a yellow dye. 
Alum must be used as a mordant. The yarn should first be 
boiled with soap and water, then wz'ung out and boiled in the 
prep ai'at ion. 

APPLE, {Pyrus malus.) Cultivated. The apple, pear, (P. 
communis,) and quince, (P. cydonia,) grow very well in the South- 
ern States in districts removed from the seacoast. The pulp 
sui'rounding the seeds of the latter is often dissolved in water 
and used as a mucilage. See authors. 

Perry from pears is made very much like cider. Hitt's 
method^f keeping pears and apples is described by Wilson in 
his Rural Cyc. Art. " Fruit storing." Having prepared a num- 
ber of earthenware jars, and a quantity of drj'^ moss, (diff'erent 
species of Hypnum and SpJuignum,') he placed a layer of moss 
and of pears alternately, till the jar was filled ; a plug was 
then inserted and sealed around with melted rosin. These jars 
were sunk in dry sand to the depth of a foot — preferring a deep 
cellar for keeping them to any fruit room. Millar's plan is also 
described. After sweating and wiping, in which operation great 
care must be taken not to bruise the fruit, the pears are packed 
in close baskets, having some wheat straw in the bottom and 
around the sides, to prevent bruising, and a lining of thick, 
soft paper, to hinder the musty flavor of the straw from infect- 
ing the fruit. Only one kind of fruit is put in each basket. A 
covering of paper and straw is fixed on the top, and the basket 
is then deposited in a dry room, secure against the access of 
frost; and the less air is let into the room the better the fruit 
will keep. Some preserve apples and pears in glazed earthen- 
ware jars, with tops, by placing dried sand between each layer 
of fruit — the jars to be kept in a dry, airy situation, secure . 
from frost. 

The gum exuding from the apricot tree dissolved in water 
acts as a substitute for gum arabic as an adhesive agent; see, 
also, Bletia aphylla. I find that from the wild orange, in boil. 


ing water, acts admirably as a glue for paper. The wood of 
the pear and apple is very hard, and will probably supply some 
of our best material for wood engraving ; see Amelanchier, with 
which it is closely related. The pear and apple are employed 
to make wooden type for mammoth letters. The apple is the 
best material for plane stocks, as it becomes harder and nioi*e 
polished the more it is used. 

The bug, or plant louse, which in the shape of a hoary cov- 
ering destroys the apple tree, is generally an a'phis or an erio- 
soma ; see Wilson's Rural Cyclopoedia, a full account; also, 
papers on the "Insects destructive to Trees," in the Patent 
Office Eeport on Agriculture. In these the remedies are given. 
" The best of the methods, as to at once cheapness, cleanliness 
and efficiency, are syringing with soap suds and tobacco water, 
minutely brushing with spirits of turpentine, blushing with a 
mixture of soap lees and one of oil of turpentine, and brushing 
with brown, impure, pjToligenous acid." Wilson. Sec " peach," 
"pear," mode of keeping, etc. Planting apricots near by will 
divert the insects to their fruit. Turning hogs in orchards, 
which consume the fallen fruit, is one of the means of destroy- 
ing the larvffi, which produces the fly of the next season. 

A species of wine is made from apple cider by adding sugar 
and alcohol. Cider may be kept by digging under ground dry 
cellars, and covering from the sun. Vinegar made from cider 
is of the best quality. It is easily made in a warm place by 
adding a little mother of vinegar to the sour cider in a barrel. 
It is ready for use in a few weeks. The strength and purity of 
vinegar, as determined by the framers of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia, is as follows: "One fluid ounce is saturated by 
about thirty grains of crj'stallized bicarb, of potassa. It afl'ords 
no precipitate with solution of chloride of barium, and is not 
colored by sulphohydric acid." 

Good cider is deemed a pleasant, wholesome liquor during 
the heats of summer; and Mr. Knight has asserted, and also 
eminent medical men, that strong, astringent ciders have been 
found to produce nearly the same eff'ect in cases of putrid fever 
as Port wine. 

The unferraented juice of the apple consists of water and a 
peculiar acid called malic acid, combined with the saccharine 
principle. Where a just proportion of the latter is wanting, 


the liquor will be poor and watery, without body, rcvy difficult 
to preserve and manage. In the process of fermentation, the 
saccharine principle is in part converted to alcohol. Where 
the proportion of the saccharine principle is wanting, the de- 
ficiency must be supplied either by the addition of a saccharine 
substance before fermentation, or b}^ the addition of alcohol 
after fermentation ; for every one must know that all good 
wine or cider contains it, elaborated by fermentation, either in 
the cask or in the reservoirs at the distillery. The best and 
cheapest kind is the neutral spirit — a highly rectified and taste- 
less spirit, obtained from New England rum. Some, however, 
object to any addition of either sugar or alcohol to supply defi- 
ciencies, forgetful that these substances are the very elements 
of which all wine, cider, and vinous liquors are composed. 
The strength of the cider depends on the specific gravity of 
the juice on expression: this may be easily ascertained by 
weighing, or by the hydrometer. 

Newark, in New Jersey, is reputed one of the most famous 
places in America for its cider. The cider apple most celebrated 
there is the Harrison apple, a native fruit ; and cider made from 
this fruit, when fined and fit for bottling, frequently brings ten 
dollars per barrel, according to Mr. Coxe. This and the Hughs' 
Virginia Crab are the two most celebrated cider apples of 
America. Old trees, growing in dry soils, produce, it is said, 
the best cider. A good cider apple is saccharine and astringent. 

To make good cider, the first requisite is suitable fruit; it is 
equally necessary that the fruit should be not merely mellow, 
but thoroughly mature^ rotten apples being excluded ; and ripe, 
if possible, at the suitable period, or about the first of Novem- 
ber, or from the first to the middle, after the excessive heat of 
the season is past, and while sufficient warmth yet remains to 
enable the fermentation to progress slowly, as it ought. 

The fruit should be gathered by hand, or shaken from the 
tree in dry weather, when it is at perfect maturity ; and the 
ground should be covei'cd with coarse cloths or Russia mats 
beneath, to prevent bruising, and consequent rottenness, before 
the grinding commences. Unripe fruit should be laid in large 
masses, protected from dew« and rain, to sweat and hurry on its 
maturity, when the suitable time for making approaches. The 
eai'licr fruits should be laid in thin layers on stagings, to pre- 


serve them to the suitable period for making, protected alike 
from rain and dews, and where they may be benefited by cur- 
rents of cool, dry air. Each variety should be kept separate, 
that those ripening at the same period should be ground to- 

In grinding, the most perfect machiner}' should be used to 
reduce the whole fruit, skin and seeds, to a fine pulp. This 
should, if possible, be performed in cool weather. The late 
Joseph Cooper, of New Jersey, has observed emphatically, that 
" the longer a cheese lies after being ground, before j^ressing, the better 
for the cider, provided it escapes fermentation until the pressing is 
completed;" and he further observes, " that a sour apple, after 
being bruised on one side, becomes rich and sweet after it has 
changed to a brown color, while it yet retains its acid taste on 
the opposite side." When the pomace united to the juice is 
thus suffered for a time to remain, it undergoes a chemical 
change; the saccharine principle is developed; it will be found 
rich and sweet. Sugar is in this case produced by the pro- 
longed union of the bruised pulp and juice, which could never 
have been formed in that quantity had they been sooner sepa- 

Mr. Jonathan Eice, of Marlborough, who made the pi'emium 
cider so much admired at Concord, Massachusetts, appears so 
sensible of the important effects of mature or fully ripe fruit, 
that, provided this is the case, he is willing even to forego the 
disadvantage of having a portion of it quite rotten. Let me 
observe, that this rottenness must be the effect, in part, of 
bruises by improper modes of gathering, or by improper mix- 
tures of ripe and unripe fruit. He always chooses coo! weather 
for the operation of grinding ; and instead of suffering the 
pomace to remain but twenty-four hours or forty-eight hours at 
most before pressing, as others have directed, he suffers it to 
remain from a week to ten days, provided the weather will admit, 
stirring the mass daily till it is put to the press. See his com- 
munication in vol. vii, p. 123, IST. E. Fai-mer. 

The first fermentation in cider is termed the vinous; in this 
the sugar is decomposed, and loses its sweetness, and is con- 
verted into alcohol ; if the fermentation goes on too rapidly, 
the cider is injured ; a portion of alcohol passes off with the 
carbonic acid. 


The design of frequent rackings is principally to restrain the 
fermentation ; but it seems to be generally acknowledged that 
it weakens the liquor. It is not generally practiced, although 
the finest cider is often produced by this mode. Various other 
modes are adopted with the view of restraining fermentation — 
one of which is the following : After a few gallons of cider are 
jiourcd into the hogshead into which the cider is to be placed 
when racked off, a rag six inches long, previously dipped in 
melted brimstone, is attached by a wire to a very long, tapering 
bung ; on the match being lighted, the bung is loosely inserted; 
after this is consumed, the cask is rolled or tumbled till the 
liquor has imbibed the gas, and then filled with the liquid. 
This checks the fermentation ; yet the French writers assure 
us that the effect of much sulphuring must necessarily render 
such liquors unwholesome. 

Black oxide of manganese has a similar effect ; the crude 
oxide 13 rendered friable by being repeatedly heated red hot, 
and as often suddenly cooled by immersion in cold water. 
When finely pulverized, it is exposed for a while to the atmos- 
phere, till it has imbibed again the oxygen which had been 
expelled by fire. An ounce of powder is deemed sufficient for 
a barrel. If the cider is desired to be very sweet, it must be 
added before fermentation, otherwise not till afterward. Mr. 
Knight, from his long experience and observation in a country 
(Herefordshire, England,) famous for its cider, has lately, in a 
letter to the Hon. John Lowell, stated that the acetous fer- 
mentation generally takes place during the progress of the 
vinous, and that the liquor from the commencement is imbibing 
oxygen at its surface. He highly recommends that new char- 
coal, in a finely pulverized state, be added to the liquor as it 
comes from the press, in the proportion of eight pounds to the 
hogshead, to be intimately incorporated; "this makes the 
liquor at first as black as ink, but it finally becomes remarkably 

Dr. Darwin has recommended that the liquor, as soon as the 
pulp has risen, should be placed in a cool situation, in casks of 
remarkable strength, and the liquor closely confined from the 
beginning. The experiment has been tried with good success; 
the fermentation goes on slowly, and an excellent cider is gen- 
erally the result. 


A handful of well powdered cla}' to a barrel is said to check 
the fermentation. This is stated by J)r. Mease. Ami with the 
view of preventing the escape of the carbonic acid, and to pre- 
vent the liquid from imbibing oxygen from the atmosphere, a 
pint of olive oil has been recommended to each hogshead. The 
excellent cider exhibited by Mr. Eice was prepared by adding 
two gallons of New England rum to each barrel when first 
made. In February or March it was racked oif in c1ei\r 
weather, and two quarts more of New England rum added to 
each barrel. Cider well fermented may be frozen down to any 
requisite degree of strength. In freezing the watery parts are 
separated, and freeze first, and the stronger parts are drawn off 
from the centre. I finish by adding the following general 
rules — they will answer for all general purposes ; they are the 
conclusions from what is previously" stated : 1. Grather the fruit 
according to the foregoing rules ; let it be thoroughly ripe when 
ground, which should be about the middle of November. 
2. Lot the pomace remain from two to four days, according to 
the state of the weather, stirring it ever}" day till it is put to 
the press. 3. If the liquor is deficient in the saccharine prin- 
ciple, the defect may be remedied in the beginning by the addi- 
tion of saccharine substances or alcohol. 4. Let the liquor be 
immediately placed in a cool cellar, in remarkably strong, tight, 
sweet casks ; after the pulp has all overflown, confine the liquor 
down b}' driving the bung hard, and by sealing; a vent must 
be left, and the spile carefull}" drawn at times, but only when 
absolutely necessary to prevent the cask from bursting. The 
charcoal, as recommended by Mr. Knight, deserves trial. 

Fresh and sweet pomace, directly from the press and boiled 
or steamed, and mixed with a small portion of meal, is a valuable 
article of food, or for fattening horses, cattle and swine. 

Sour casks are purified by pouring in a small quantity of hot 
water and adding unslacked lime; bung up the cask and con- 
tinue shaking it till the lime is slacked. Soda and chloride of 
lime are good for purifj'ing. When casks are emptied to be 
laid by, let them be thoroughly rinsed with water and drained, 
then pour into each a pint of cheap alcohol, shake the cask and 
bung it tight, and it will remain sweet for years. Musty casks 
should be condemned to other uses. Cider should not be 
bottled till perfectly fine, otherwise it may burst the bottles. 


The bottles should bo strong and filled to the bottom of the 
neck. After standing an hour, they should be corked with 
velvet corks. The lower end of the cork is held for an instant 
in hot water, and it is then instantly after driven down with a 
mallet. The bottles must be either sealed or laid on their sides 
ill boxes, or in the bottom of a cellar and covered with layers 
of sand. 

Most of the above information relative to cider making is de- 
rived from the American Orchardist, by W. Kenrick, of Boston, 
Massachusetts, whose list of apple and other nursery trees com- 
prehends almost every kind desirable for any purpose. 

The reader will find very explicit instructions for the manu- 
facture of cider ill the Penny Cyclopcjcdia, vol. vii, p. 161; in 
the Lib. of Useful Know.; British Husb. vol. ii, p. 364; Low's 
Pract. Agr. p. 879 ; Croker, On the Art of Making and Man- 
aging Cider; in the (^uart. Journal of Agr. vol. viii, p. 332, by 
Mr. Tanvers; and in Baxter's Agr. Lib. p. 135, by Andrew 
Crosse, Esq., of Somerset. The following instructions for 
making cider are by a Devonshire lady : Gather the fruit when 
ripe ; let it remain in a heap till the apples begin to get damp, 
then grind them in a mill, (similar to a malt mill ;) take the pulp 
and put it into a large press like a cheese press, only on a much 
larger scale ; place a layer of reed in the bottom of the vat and 
a layer of pulp alternately until the vat is full. The vat is 
square, and the ends of the reed must be allowed to turn over 
every layer of pulp, so as to keep it from being pressed out at 
the sides. The layers of pulp must be five or six inches thick. 
When you have finished making your cheese, press it as hard 
as you can, and let it remain three or four hours ; then cut down 
the corners of it, and lay them on the top with a reed as before; 
then press it again and allow it to remain for another three or 
four hours; Repeat this process as long as necessary, or until 
the cheese is quite dry. It takes seven bags of apples for one 
hogshead of cidei', and the vat ought to be large enough to make 
from three to four hogsheads at a time. The best sort of apple 
to make mild cider is the hard bitter-sweet. Any sort of sour 
apple will do to make the harsh cider. The liquor must be 
strained through a fine sieve into a large vessel, and allowed to 
ferment for three or four days, taking off the scum as it rises; 
then rack it. and put it into casks stopped down quite close. 


Before the cider is pat into the cask, a match is made of new 
linen, and attached to a wire, is lighted and put into the cask 
and the bung is put in to keep the wire from falling into it. 
After a few minutes the match is removed and the cider poured 
into the cask while yet full of the smoke. 

A person would require three or four years experience before 
he would be qualified to superintend the making of sweet or 
mild cider. Much depends on the yeai-, or rather on the 
ripening of the apples ; it should be the second, not the first 
falling ; and the " green bitter-sweet," and the " pocket-apple," 
are the best for making it. After pounding, isinglass and 
brimstone are used to sweeten and fine it, and many other in- 

The sweet cider, above described, is distinct from the other 
two kinds of cider, (the harsh and mild.) Cider, according to 
Brande, contains about nine eight-sevenths parts per cent, of 
alcohol. It is a wholesome beverage for those who use much 
bodily exercise. Willich's Dom. Enc; McCulloch's Com. Diet. 

The Sumter Watchman, 1863, recommends a jelly made from 
cider : Boil cider to the consistency of syrup, and let it cool — 
no sugar need be added — said to be excellent for convalescents. 

Under this genus, I insert the following from Chaptal's Chem- 
istry Applied to Agriculture, as the subject of the manufacture 
of Liquors from fruits, grain, etc., is important in the pi-esent 
exigency of high duties, etc.: " Good water is undoubtedly the 
most wholesome drink; but man has almost everywhere con- 
tracted the habit of using fermented liquors, and this habit has 
created in hira a want of them ; so that if he be deprived of 
their use, he loses his strength and energy, and becomes less 
able to work. The best fermented drink is wine ; but excepting 
the wine countries, where the low price of ordinary wine 
renders the use of it common, the laborer has seldom the means 
of procuring it daily. It is, therefore, necessary that its place 
should elsewhere be supplied by such other liquors as will pro- 
duce nearly the same effect, and this is done by the fermen- 
tation of grains, fruits, milk, the sap of trees, etc., from the 
product of which there is formed in Europe a great variety of 
liquors; some of these have become very important articles of 
consumption and of commerce. The peasants, in the greater 
part of our districts, have acquired the habit of preparing their 


liquors from the fermentation of most of these substances ; and 
as the only object I have in view is to furnish information in 
regard to extending and perfecting the^^e processes, 1 shall 
confine myself to pointing out such methods as are easily exe- 
cuted, and which require the employment of such substances 
only as are everywhere in the hands of the agriculturist: 

" All mucilaginous fruits, all fleshy stone fruits, excepting 
those which yield oil, all grains which contain gluten, sugar, or 
starch, are capable of undergoing the spiritous or alcoholic fer- 

" The expressed juice of saccharine fruits may be made to 
ferment by exposure to a sufficient degree of heat. The method 
most commonly pursued is that of crushing or grinding the 
fruits, and thus fermenting the pulp with the juice ; in this 
manner are treated apples, pears, grapes, cherries, etc. 

" For such fruits as are not very juicy, but contain, however, 
some sugar and mucilage, and for such as can be made to keep 
better by being dried, some water is employed to mix and 
dissolve the fermentable principles. In this class of fruits may 
be placed those of the service tree, the cornelian cherry, the 
medlar, the mulberry, the privet, the juniper, the Neapolitan 
medlar, the thorn apple, the wild plum, etc., and with them the 
dried fruits of the plum and fig tree, and some of the other 
trees and shrubs before mentioned. 

"To produce the development of the saccharine principle in 
bread corns by germination, they must be moistened with 
water; the spiritous fermentation is afterward excited in them 
by immersing them in water containing the yeast of beer, or 
leaven made of wheat flour. The operation of germination 
may even be suppressed by mixing the meal with a portion of 
leaven and of lukewarm water. This dough may be allowed 
to ferment for twenty-four hours, and may then be gradually 
diluted with water; fermentation will take place in a few hours 
and will go on regularly during two or three days. As di- 
rections for the manufacture of cider, perry and beer for general 
consumption are much less necessary here than those for pro- 
curing for farmers, (or soldiers, I add.) wholesome liquors at a 
trifling expense, I shall confine mj' observations to this object. 
Grapes furnish the best liquor, and that in the greatest quantity • 
but when this is drunk clear, it serves but little purpose for 


quenelnno- thirst ; when mado use of in large qiiautities, it im- 
pairs the strength. The liquor called jt><(/»e^fg, which is manu- 
factured by our farmers, supplies advantageously the place of 
wine, serving as a tonic, and at the same time quenching thirst. 
Piquctte is made from the pressed and fermented mash of red 
gi'apes, by means of water filtrated through it till it acquires, in 
some degree, the color and appearance of wine ; it is, even in 
this state, a better drink than water, inasmuch as it is slightly 
tonic ; its good qualities may, however, be much increased by 
fermentation. Piqiiette can be kept but a short time unchanged, 
and. from this tendency to sour, it is necessarj' that it should be 
made only in such quantities as are immediately wanted, and 
that the manufacture of it should be continued at intervals 
throughout the year. For tliis purpose the pressed mash of 
red grapes is put into a cask, care being taken to crowd it in till 
the cask is completely full, after which it is hermetically closed, 
so as to exclude air and moisture, and set in a cool, dry place. 
When the piquettc is to be prepared for use, the head is taken 
out of the cask, and water is thrown upon the mash until the 
whole mass is moistened with it, and the water stands upon 
the top ; fermentation soon takes place, as becomes evident by 
the light foam which arises ; it is comjilcted by the end of the 
fourth or fifth day ; from this time the liquor may be drawn off 
for daily use — the place of the portion removed being supplied 
by an equal quantity' of water thrown in upon the top of the 
mash. In this manner a cask of mash, of the capacity of sixty- 
six gallons, ma}' furnish about four gallons of drink per diem, 
and will continue to yield it for about twenty days. 

"As the mash of white grapes cannot be made to ferment 
with the juice, this last is separated and put into casks to fer- 
ment by itself, and the piquefte is then made by adding to the 
mash the necessarj' quantity of water. This liquor is more 
spiritous than that made from red grapes, and keeps better; it 
is, therefore, reserved for use during the latter part of the summer. 
If instead of throwing pure water upon the mash as is every- 
where done, this liquid should first be slightly SAveetened and 
heated, and then receive the addition of a little yeast, piquette 
of a very superior quality would be obtained. In the absence 
of 3'east or leaven, the scum which arises upon wine, especially 
white wine, during fermentation, may be used for the same 


purj)08c ; this foam or scum may be dried, and thus preserved 
for use without undergoing any change. 

" Well made piqitetfe is a very wholesome drink for country 
people, for its tonic properties, as well as its power of quenching 
thirst ; it is far preferable, as a daily drink, to wine ; but this 
resource is only local, as in most countries that are most fruitful 
in grapes, if the harvest fall short, there can be but little 
piquette made ; it is necessary then to be able to supply its 
place from some other source, and this is done bj" the fermen- 
tation of certain fruits. 

" Apples and Pears, as being the fruits that are most abund- 
antly produced, are the most valuable for the purpose of manu- 
facturing Liquors. A mixture of the two produces a more 
wholesome article of drink than does either treated separately. 
The juices of plums and other fruits may likewise be added, 
as their astringency renders the liquor more tonic. Excellent 
liquor *aay be produced, both from apples and pears, by fol- 
lowing the well known method of making cider, which consists 
in grinding the fruit with a millstone and fei-men ting the pulp 
and juice together; but upon farms, where we seldom find the 
means of preserving liquors unchanged, it is necessary that the 
processes be simple, and such as can be made use of for pre- 
paring them as they are needed. I shall, therefore, recommend 
the following method : Begin to collect the apples and pears 
which fall from the trees toward the end of August, and con- 
tinue to do so till they have arrived at maturity; cut them in 
pieces as fast as they arc gathered; dry them first in the sun 
and afterward in an oven from which the bread has been drawn. 
If the fruit be well dried in this manner, though it may grow 
dark colored, it may be kept unchanged for several years. 
When drink is to be prepared from these dried fruits, put about 
sixty pounds of them into a cask, which contain sixty-six 
gallons ; fill the cask with water, and allow it to remain four or 
five days; after which, draw off the fermented liquor for use. 
The liquor thus prepared is very agreeable to the taste ; when 
put into bottles it ferments so as to throw out the cork as 
frothing Champagne wine does. Though wholesome and 
agreeable, it may become still more conducive to health by 
mixing with the apples and pears one-twentieth of the dried 
berries of the service tree, Amelanchier canadensis, (Aronia botrya- 


pium, Ell. Sk., which grows in the Cai'olinas,) and one-thirtieth 
of juniper berries; from these the liquor acquires a slightly 
bitter taste, and the flavor of the juniper berries, which is very- 
refreshing, and it is besides rendered tonic and auti-putrescent. 
The use of this drink is one of the surest means that can be 
taken by the husbandman for preserving himself from those 
diseases to which he is liable in autumn, and for the attacks of 
which he is preparing the way during the greatest heats of 

'After the spiritous portions of the liquor have been drawn 
off, very agreeahie piquette may be made from the pulp which 
remains in the cask; for this purpose it is only necessary to 
crush the fruit, which is already soft, and to add to it as much 
lukewarm water, to which a small quantity of yeast has been 
added, as will fill the cask, fermentation commencing in a short 
time, and terminating in three or four days. To flavor this 
liquor and render it slightly tonic, there may be added to it 
before fermentation a handful of vervain, three or four pounds 
of elder berries, and of juniper berries. 

" Cherries, and particularly the small bitter cherries, when 
ground and afterward fermented in a cask, in the same manner 
as the mash of grapes, and then pressed to separate the juice 
from the pulp, furnish a liquor containing much spirit. The 
wine made from cherries, when distilled, affords an excellent 
liquor, which, although not exactly the same as the good 
Kirschivasser of the Black Forest, is yet a valuable drink, and is 
sold in commerce under the same name. 

" The berries of the Service tree, dried in an oven, and put 
into a cask in the proportion of about sixteen or eighteen 
pounds of fruit to twenty -six and a half gallons of water, 
furnish, after four or five days fermentation, a very good drink. 
Plums and figs, dried either by the sun or in an oven, may be 
made use of for the same purpose. In order to render the 
liquor more wholesome or more agreeable, several kinds may 
be mixed together, and thus the defects of one kind may be 
compensated for by the good qualities of the other. . A few 
handfuls of the red fruit of the bird-catcher service tree coun- 
teract the flat, sweetish taste of certain other fruits. 

" In our farming districts the berries of the Juniper are care- 
fully collected and fermented, in the proportion of about thirty 


pounds of berries to thirty-eight and a half gallons of water. 
The drink procured from these is one of the most wholesome 
possible, but it requires a little use to reconcile one to the odor 
and flavor of it; those, however, who drink it, prefer it after a 
short time to any other liquor. The juice of the juniper con- 
tributes so much to health that I cannot too strongly recommend 
its being mixed, in greater or less quantities, Avith all fruits 
which are to be subjected to fermentation ; its flavor alone will 
disguise the taste of such liquors as, without being unwhole- 
some, are flat, sickish or otherwise unpleasant. Count Chaptal 
probably refers here to the juniper growing in Holland, from 
which gin is procured. Our common red cedar, growing in 
South Carolina, QJuniperus Virginiana,) is closely related to the 
European juniper, and the berries, perhaps, may be used in 
flavoring drinks and the leaves employed in place of savin. See 

" Thd* rinds of Oranges or Lemons, aromatic plants, Angelica 
roots, (grow in South Carolina,) Peach leaves, etc., may likewise 
be mixed with any of these fruits which are naturally too sweet 
and thus serve to raise the flavor of the fermented liquor, and 
render it more strengthening and efl[icacious in preventing the 
attack of disease. 

" I do not doubt but that by the application of the true 
princii)le8 of science, and by employing only those products 
which nature yields us abundantly and without expense, we can 
procure for the husbandman a variety of drinks more healthy, 
more agreeable, and better adapted for quenching thirst than 
the weak and imperfectly fermt^nted wines made from green 

"I have limited myself to pointing out the simplest methods 
in which such articles as are within the reach of every peasant 
may be made use of; if such liquors as are more spiritous be 
wished, they can be obtained by dissolving from four to six 
pounds of the coarsest kinds of sugar in from five and a half to 
ten and a half gallons of warm water, and throwing the solution 
upon the mash when the cask is filled with it, supposing the 
cask to contain sixty-six gallons. To this may be added any 
number of pounds of raisins. 

"Liquors suitable for drinking may likewise be manufactured 
from the sap of several kinds of trees. In Germany, Holland 


and soiuo parts of Prussia, as soon as tho roturnini;; warmth of 
sprinij bogins to oauso tho aseont of tho sap. holos two or throo 
inehosdoop aro boi-od with a ginilot in tho trunks of tho Birch 
troos; through tho straws which aro introduced into tho gimk>t 
holos thoro tiows out a dear, swoot juico, which after having 
boon forniontod for a foM' days, bocomos a sprightly liquor, that 
is drank by tho inhabitants of those countries with much pleas- 
ure. It is thought by them to be very serviceable in counter- 
acting atVe^'tions of the kidneys, stomach, etc. A single tree will 
furnish a quantity o( drink sutHcieut to last throe or four per- 
sons ft week. The natives of the Coromandel coast fabricate 
their cdloir from the sap of the cocoanut tree. The savages of 
America prepare their (7(/i'(/ from the juico of tho maize, and the 
drink of the negroes of Congo is made from the juice of the 
palm tree. 

"It cannot bo doubted that the sap of all those trees which 
attbrd a saccharine substance can bo made to yield & spiritous 
liquor, but I mention only these few as instances, because our 
own wants may bo abundantly supplied trom our fruits and 

• "The fermentation of Rye and Barley has atforded, from time 
immemorial, a liquor which has supplied tho place of wine for 
tho use of the common people in nearly all those countries in 
which tho vine cannot bo made to flourish ; in those where wine 
is made abuudautl}', the use of Beer is still very extensive, both 
on account of tho nutritive qualities whieh it possesses in a high 
degree, and its power of quenching thirst. Though boor may 
be brewed upon so small a scale as to supply tho wants of a 
single family, I shall enter into no explanation of the process. 
In Russia a wholesome drink (.ailed (juds.-^ is made. One-tenth 
part of the rye to be employed in its manufacture is stooped in 
water till it becomes soft ; it is then spread thinly upon planks 
in a place warm enough to produce germination, audit is there 
sprinkled occasionally with warm water. The remainder of the 
rvo, after having been ground, is mixed with the germinated 
grain, and tho whole is diluted with two gallons and a half of 
boiling water; the vessel is then set into an oven, from which 
broad has just been drawn, or exposed to an equivalent degree 
of heat, during twoDty-tbur or thirty houi-s; if tho vessel be 
put into an oven which it is necessary to heat every day. it may 


be removed dui-ing baking, arid returned again after the bread 
Im taken out. After thi.s firHt operation, tiie fermented .subHtanee 
in diluted by mixing with it two and a half gallons of water at 
the t<;mperature of 12'^ or 15^, (W of the Centigrade, 53'^ to 
59'^ ; if of iteaumur, to from 59'^ to fj'/^.) This mixture is Htirred 
for half an hour, and then allowed to .settle. Ah .soon as a de- 
posit is formed and the liquor beeome.s clear, it is then thrown 
into a cask, where fermentation lakes place; this is completed 
in a few days, when the cask is removed into a cellar, and the 
quasa soon becomes clear. It is in this state that it is drank by 
the peasants; but it is much improved by being drawn off in 
jugs as soon as it has formed its deposit in the cask, and bottled, 
after having been preserved in these vessels till it has become 
clear. The liquor prepared in this manner has a vinous and 
sharp flavor, which is not unpleasant. The color of it is not 
very precise, being of a yellowish white. The imperfections of 
quass rrWght easily be remedied by adding wild apples, or pears, 
orjunij>er berries, to the fermented substances. The fermented 
liquor might be racked off several times from its lees, and clari- 
fied by the same process which we use for wine. The different 
deposits which are formed during the manufacture of quass are 
entirely of malt, and afford a nourishing and fattening food for 
animals." The reader is referred to same authority for other 
methods of manufacturing drinks, beverages, etc., from articles 
furnished on our farms. 

On the subject of fermentation, Chaptal gives the following 
hints which may avail us in our experiments upon the produc- 
tion of wine. It seems to me that they convey some doctrines 
similar to those brought forward by Professor WilliaJu Hume, 
of South Carolina, in his ingenious essay: 

" Generally speaking, the French Grapes, when ripe, contain 
such proportions of sugar and the vegeto-animal principles as 
are well adapted for producing the vinous fermentation; but 
when the summer is cold or damp the proportion of sugar is 
less, and the predominance of the mucilage (\i is from this mu- 
cilage that vinegar is formed; renders the liquor weak. In this 
case the s/aall quantity of alcohol v)hich is developed is not sufficient 
to preserve the wine frdm spontaneous decomposition, and at the 
return of heat a new fermentation lakes place, the product of 
which is vinegar. This evil may be easily obviated by artificial 


means ; it is only necessary to add to the liquor such a quantity 
of sugar as would naturally have been found in it under usual 
circumstances." Professor Hume advises the addition of alco- 
hol, I believe, to preserve the wine from the acetic fermontation. 
See, also, " Treatise on Rural Chemistry," by Ed. Solly. F. R. S. 
From Lond. ed. Philada. 1852 ; articles on manufacture of wine, 
brandy, etc., from fruits and vegetables. Several articles on 
manufacture of wine can be found in Patent Office Reports. 
See " Grape." 

A harvest drink is made by adding ten gallons of water to 
half a gallon of molasses, a quart of vinegar, and four ounces of 
ginger. Let the water be fresh from the spring or well; stir 
the whole well together, and a refreshing drink is obtained. 

PEAR, (Pyrus coiiununis.) 

Fruit trees, particular!}^ the pear, were formally introduced 
into hedge-rows. It was objected that depredations would be 
made upon the hedge. Gerard, who wrote on the subject three 
hundred years ago said: "The poore will breake downe our 
hedges, and wee have the least part of the fruit. Forward, in 
the name of God; grafte, set, plant, and nourish up trees in 
every corner of 3'our ground. The labor is small, the cost is 
nothing, the commodity is great; yourselves shall have plenty, 
the poore shall have somewhat in time of Avant to relieve their 
necessity, and God shall rewarde your goode mindes and dilli- 
gence." See paper on " Best trees for hedges," in Pat. Office 
Reports, 1854, p. 416. To manufacture perry, cider, etc., con- 
sult Wilson's Rural Cyc.; Ure's Dictionary of Arts, etc.; see, 
also, "Apple." 

Dr. John Lindley has written a most instructive article on 
Fecundation inplants, phj'siological principles, and methods upon 
which fruits are produced. See his " Guide to the Orchard and 
Kitchen Garden," and a condensation in Patent Office Reports, 
1856, p. 244. He saj'S that some fruits of excellent qualities are 
bad bearers, and recommends the following modes of remedying 
these defects : 1st, by ringing the hark ; 2d, by bending branches 
downward; 3d, by training; 4th, by the use of ditferent kinds 
of stocks. All these practices are intended to produce the same 
effects by different ways: "Physiologist's know that whatever 
tends to cause a rapid diffusion of the sap and secretions of any 
plant, causes also the formation of leaf buds instead of flower 


buds ; and that whatever on the contrary tends to cause an 
accumulation of sap and secretions, has the effect of producing 
flower buds in abundance ;" so that a flower bud is often only a 
contracted branch. By arresting the motions of the fluids and 
secretions in a tree, we promote the production of flower buds. 
See, also, same volume, for mode of preservation and transpor- 
tation of seeds, with the longevity of seeds, their utility and 
germinative powers. A long list is given of the length of time 
which seeds can be preserved. 

MOUNTAIN-ASH; MT. SUMACH, {Pyrus Americana, D. 
C. Sorbus microcarpa, Ph., acuparia, Mx.) Highest moun- 
tains of North Carolina. Fruit acid. 

This plant yields malic acid. I insert the following from 
Ure's Dictionary, (Farmer's Encyclopcedia :) 

Malic acid. This vegetable acid exists in the juices of many 
fruits and plants, alone, or associated with the citric, tartaric, 
and oxalic acids ; and occasionally combined with potash or 
lime. Unripe apples, pears, sloes, barberries, the berries of the 
mountain-ash, elder-berries, currants, goose-berries, strawber- 
ries, raspberries, bilberries, bramble-berries, whortleberries, 
cherries, ananas, aff'ord malic acid ; the house-leek and purslane 
contain the malate of lime. 

The acid may be obtained most conveniently from the juice 
of the berries of the mountain-ash, or barberiies. This must 
be clarified by mixing with white of egg, and heating the mix- 
ture to ebullition ; then filtering — digesting the clear liquor 
with carbonate of lead till it becomes neutral ; and evaporating 
the saline solution till crystals of malate of lead be obtained. 
These are to be washed with cold water, and purified by re- 
crystallization. On dissolving the white salt in water, and 
passing a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen through the solu- 
tion, the lead will be all separated in the form of a sulphuret, 
and the liquor, after filtration and evaporation, will yield yel- 
low, granular crystals, or cauliflower concretions, of malic acid, 
which may be blanched by redissolution and digestion with 
bone-black, and recrystallization. 

Malic acid has no smell, but a very sour taste, deliquesces by 

absorption of moisture from the air, is soluble in alcohol, fuses 

at 150° Fahr., is decomposed at a heat of 348°, and affords by 

distillation a peculiar acid — the pyromalic. It consists, in 100 


194 , 

parts, of 41.47 carbon, 3.51 hydrogen, and 55.02 oxygen ; having 
nearly the same composition as citric acid. A crude malic acid 
might be economically extracted from the fruit of the moiintain- 
ash, (Sorbiis acuparia,) applicable to many purposes ; but it has 
not hitherto been manufactured upon a great scale. Dem. 
Elem de Bot. 655. The flowers are purgative. The oil from 
the young branches is caustic, and is employed against ring- 
worm. M. Dussauce says that the leaves are used for tanning 
leather. The bark, says Eafinesqtie, smells and tastes like cherry 
bark, but more astringent; is anti-septic, and contains prussic 
acid, used like cinchona in fevers and other diseases. This 
plant, Pyrus communis, and species of CraUegus, yield an alka- 
loid called secalina or propylaynin, considered by Dr. Awenarius, 
of St. Petersburg, to be a true specific for rheumatic affections, 
acute and chronic. He adds twenty-four drops of propylarain 
to six ounces of mint water with two drachms of sugar, and 
gives doses of a tablespoonful every two hours. Parrish, Pract. 
Pharm. and Proctor in Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1857 ; Am. J. 
Pharm. xxxi, 125 and 222. 

(^AmelancTiier canadensis, L. Aronia botryapium, of Ell. Sk.) 
Upper country ; Sarrazins PI., St. John's, S. C; woods Fla. to 
Miss., Chapman ; Newbei*n, Croom's Catalogue. 

Upon examining with a sharp instrument the specimens of 
various Southern woods, deposited in the museum of the Elliott 
Society by Professor L. R. Gibbes, Dr. A. M. Foster, and W. 
Wragg Smith, Esq., I was struck with the singular weight, 
density and fineness of this wood. I think I can confidently 
recommend it as one of the best to be experimented with by 
the wood engraver. It is also, it will be observed, closely 
allied to the apple, pear, etc., which are all hard. From my 
brief examination of the excellent and useful collection above 
referred to, I would arrange the hard woods as follows, those 
just cited taking the first rank : next in order. Dogwood, Far- 
cleberry, {Vaccinium arboreiini,) Redberry, (Azalea nudiflora,) 
and Kalmia latifolia. The Holly (Ilex opaca) I find to be quite 
hard when well dried. The beech, (Fagus sylvatica,) the horn- 
beam, (Ostrya Virginica,) indigenous plants, have all been recom- 
mended lor the purposes of the engraver. 

While engaged in completing a number of wood engravings 


for my Prize Essay for the South Carolina Medical Association, 
I used a piece of well seasoned dogwood, and obtained a very 
^ood impression from coarse figures cut with the graver's tools. 
I find that none, so far experimented with, equal the boxwood, 
but I have not yet fully tested the woods put to season. See 
Kalmia, etc. 

See apple, {Pyriis malus,') for stimulating beverages made from 
the fruit of the service tree. 

Pninus Virginiana. See Cerasus. Several South Carolina 
species furnish fruit, which is eatable, and often employed for 
various domestic purposes. 

WILD CHEERY, | p^^^^^^ Virginiana, Ell. Sk. 
Diffused in upper and lower districts ; Newbern. Fl. May. 

U. S. Disp. 576; Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. x, 197, and xiv, 
27 ; Bberle, Mat. Med. 300 ; Bell's Pract. Dicf. 389 ; Pe. Mat. 
Med. arfd Therap. ii, 538; Le Mat. Med. ii, 487; Phil. Trans. 
418, and Michaux, N. Am. Sylva, ii, 205 ; Ball and Gar. Mat. 
Med. 273; CuUen, Mat. Med. 288; Lind. ^^'at. Syst. Bot. 147; 
Woodv. Med. Bot.; Grriffith, Med. Bot. 288; Carson's lUust. 
Med. Bot. pt. 1. This is, undoubtedly, one of the most valuable 
of our indigenous plants. The bark unites with a tonic power 
the property of calming irritation and diminishing nervous 
excitability, " adapted to cases where the digestive powers are 
impaired, and with general and local iiTitation existing at the 
same time." It is peculiarly suited to the hectic fever attend- 
ing scrofula and consumption, owing to the reduction of excita- 
bility which it induces, it is supposed, by the hydrocyanic acid 
contained in it. Bberle states that the cold infusion had the 
effect of reducing his pulse from seventy-five to fifty strokes in 
the minute. In a case of hypertrophy with increased action of 
the heart, I tried the infusion of this plant, taken in large 
quantities, according to Dr. Eberle's plan, but without very 
satisfactory results. It was persisted in for three weeks ; the 
patient, a gentleman aged twenty-five, of nervous temperament, 
drinking several ounces of it three times a day. The force of 
the circulation was at first diminished ; but the abatement was 
not progressive; the individual was not made any worse by it. 
Tincture of digitalis had been likewise used with no beneficial 
effects. Dr. Wood speaks of the employment of the wild cherry 


in the general debility following inflammatory fever. It is 
valuable, also, in dyspepsia, attended with neuralgic symptoms. 
Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. v, 159 ; Bull des Sci. Med. xi, 
303. The bark is indicated whenever a tonic is necessary, from 
impairment of the constitution b}" syphilis, dyspepsia, pulmonary 
or lumbar abscess, etc. I am informed by a correspondent 
that he finds equal parts of this bark, rhubarb, and the gum 
exuding from the peach tree, {Amygdalus communis,') which like- 
wise aflbrds Prussic acid, when combined with brandy and 
white sugar, an excellent remedy in dysentery and diarrhoea; 
one ounce of each is added to one pint of brand}-, with a suffi- 
cient quantity of white sugar, a tablespoonful of which is taken 
every half hour. The sensible, as well as the medicinal prop- 
erties of this plant, are impaired by boiling ; cold water ex- 
tracts its virtues best. The inner bark is officinal. The bark 
of all parts of the tree is used, but that from the root is most 
active. The bark is stronger, if collected from the root in 
autumn, and it deteriorates by keeping. It is tonic, sedative, 
expectorant. The officinal infusion is thus made : liark bruised, 
half an ounce to one pint of cold water; macerate for twenty- 
four hours. Dose, two or three fluid ounces three or four times 
a day. To make the officinal syrup : Take of wdld cherr}' bark, 
in coarse powder, five ounces; sugar, refined, two pounds; 
water sufficient to moisten the bark thoroughly. Let it stand 
for twenty-four hours in a close vessel ; then transfer it to a per- 
colator, and pour cold water upon it gradually until a pint of 
filtered liquor is obtained. To this add the sugar, in a bottle, 
and agitate occasionally until it is dissolved. Dose one-half fluid 
ounce. By Proctor's anal}'si8, it contains starch, resin, tannin, 
gallic acid, fatty matter, lignin, salts of lime potassa and iron, 
and a volatile oil associated with hydrocyanic acid. This proved 
fatal to a cat in less than five minutes. See Journal Phil. Coll. 
Pharm. vi, 8 ; Am. Journal Pharm. x, 197. The leaves, also, 
are sedative and anti-spasmodic; used in coughs, angina pec- 
toris, etc. The dose of the powdered root is from twenty grains 
to one drachm. The infusion is the most convenient form. A 
syrup is also made ; beside several secret preparations. 

The method of making -^ Chen-y" cordial by the Southern 
matrons in the lower country of South Carolina, is as follows : 
Fill the vessel with cherries, (not washed, if gathered clean,) 


and cover with whiskey. After several weeks pour off all 
the clear liquor and press the cherries through a sieve. Put 
into the juice thus pressed out five pints of brown sugar, and 
boil with syrup enough to sweeten the whole. Pour five pints 
of water on the thick part ; boil and strain to make the syrup 
with the sugar. " Blackberry cordial " is made in the same 
way; or it can be stewed, strained, sweetened and whiskey 
added. In the above, the sugar is to be boiled in the water 
which is obtained from the thick part as directed. 

Plum cordial is thus made in S. C. : Fill the vessel with plums 
after sticking each one. Pour whiskey enough to cover them. 
After six weeks preserve the plums in half their weight of. 
sugar. Put all together and shake the jug well. The common 
wild plum is used. 

The gum which exudes from the red cherry, the plum and 
peach, is used in place of gum arable in increasing the brilliancy 
of starch and in sealing envelopes. 

The wood of this tree is highly valuable, being compact, fine 
grained and brilliant, and not liable to warp when perfectly 
seasoned. When chosen near the ramifications of the trunk, it 
rivals mahogany in the beauty of its curls. Farmer's Encyc. 

"WTT D OP^IVPF 1 ^'S^'^'^ws Cr/ro^iniana, Mich. 

' ) Prunus Caroliniana, L., Ell. Sk. 
Fl. March. 

This is one of the most ornamental of our indigenous ever- 
green trees, and is planted around dwelling houses. The berries, 
bark and leaves possess in a high degree the taste character- 
izing the genus. It deserves an analysis. 

This tree, the flowers of which are much frequented by bees, 
grows abundantly on the seacoast of our States, and is certainly 
one of the most beautiful and manageable evergreens that we 
possess. It can be cut into any shape, and is of a most attrac- 
tive green color. It forms an impervious hedge and grows 
rapidly. The black, oval berries contain an abundance of 
Prussic acid, as does the whole tree ; but I do not know of any 
use to which it is applied. Dr. Thompson has found great use 
from Prussic acid, largely diluted, as a local application in im- 
petigo. He used the infusions of bayberry ; no doubt the 
infusions of the wild orange would be equally useful. In the 
Patent Office Eeports, Agriculture, 1854, '55, p. 37G, are papers 


on "Live fences," or the planting and management of quick-set 
hedges. In this the reader will find a most full and satisfactory- 
account of the desirable plants for hedges, both American and 
European. This is not the place for a full description of these 
plants and shrubs ; but I will at any rate give a list of some of 
them, and refer the reader to the article. All are of course not 
adapted to our climate. The English sloe, or black thorn, (Pninus 
spinosa,) the hawthorn, {Cratcegns oxyacantha,) and the buck- 
thorn, {Rhamnus catharticus,) have been planted in this country 
with indifferent success on account of the intense heat of our 
Southern sun. " The ' Washington Thorn,' (C. cordata,) grow- 
ing in mountains of Georgia, was also brought into notice as a 
hedge plant toward the close of the last century, and was sub- 
sequently employed for that purpose in various sections of the 
Union ; but owing to improper management, and the tendency 
to disarm itself of its spines after a certain age, it has been 
discontinued. Similar results have attended the adoption of 
other species of thorny trees and shrubs in this country, with 
the exception of the ' Osage orange,' the ' Spanish bayonet,' 
(^Yucca,) and the 'Cherokee rose.'" These are natives of this 
continent. See article for modes of management, planting, 
etc., of hedges, with illustrations on wood. The Arbor Vit(v, 
(^TJuija occidental is,) one of our native plants, growing only in 
the highest mountains, is said to be " indigenous, and to grow 
abundantly on the banks of the Hudson, making the finest orna- 
mental hedge known to this climate." The hoUj' (Ilex opacn) 
and the hemlock spruce (Abies canadensis) should be mentioned ; 
also the willow box, (Buxus sempervirens ;) prickly ash, (Xan- 
thoxylum fraxineum ;) honey locust, (Gleditschia tiiacanthus) — 
all these are either natives or are cultivated in the Southern 
States. See Willow and Osage Orange. 

PEACH, (Amygdalus.) The peach produces abundantly in the 
Southern States. The root, leaves and kernels are sometimes 
employed in medicine, and in seasoning drinks, condiments, 
etc., being indebted for any virtues which the}" possess to the 
hydrocyanic acid contained in them. A tea of the leaves is a 
favorite domestic palliative in whooping-cough, and in most 
pectoral affections. A tea or syrup made with either the bark, 
leaves or flowers, will act freely as a purge. Dose for a child, a 
teaspoonful repeated every half hour till it operates. A syrup 


may be made by adding honey. The leaves are astringent and 
stj'^ptic, and used in domestic practice to arrest bleeding — em- 
ployed powdered as a snutf in the nose in epistaxis, to stop 
bleeding. The kernel, which is said to yield as much amygdalin 
as bitter almonds, is used in seasoning, and in making the cor- 
dial known as ratifia; also in adding to tonics. The leaves are 
used in seasoning creams in imitation of vanilla bean. The 
liquor known as peach brandy is distilled from the fruit. The 
leaves put in layers with cotton, and boiling water poured over, 
will dye yellow. The cotton or thread should first be boiled in 
a solution of alum. The leaves of artichoke (Cynara) also dye 
a yellow color ; see " Rhus." Fumigation with tobacco smoke, 
sy»i-inging with tobacco water, and washing with strong lime 
water, are requisite for destroying aphides whenever these exist 
in such swarms as to make a copious discharge of honey-dew. 
Wilson's Rural Cyclopoedia, Art. Aphis. 

Drymg Peaches. — Several modes of affecting this are pursued. 
When done in-doors, furnaces should be placed in the cellar, 
from which the heated air may rise into the building suitably 
provided with shelves, etc. 

In some of the Southern States, says Mr. Kenrick, the pro- 
cess is facilitated by a previous scalding. This is effected by 
immersing baskets of the fruit a few minutes in kettles of boil- 
ing water. The}' are afterward halved, the stones separated, 
and being laid with the skins downward, the drying is effected 
in the sun in three days of good weather. They then may be 
stored in boxes. 

In France, as we are informed, peaches and other fruits are 
thus dried whole: The peaches or other fruits, being pared, are 
boiled for a few minutes in a syrup consisting of one pound 
of sugar dissolved in three quarts of water, and after being 
drained, by being laid singly on board-dishes, they are placed 
in the oven after the bread is taken out, and when sufficiently 
dry they are packed in boxes. The following is the mode of 
drying practiced by Mr. Thomas Bellangee, of Egg Harbor, 
New Jersey: He has a small house provided with a stove, and 
drawers in the sides of the house lathed at their bottoms, with 
void intervals. The peaches should be ripe, and cut in two, not 
peeled, and laid in a single layer on the laths, with their skins 
downward, to save the juice. On shoving in the drawer, they 


arc soon dried by the hot air prodiiood by the stove. In this 
way great quantities may successively, in a single season, bo 
prepared, with a very little expense, in the preparation of the 
building and in fuel. 

The following may be adopted for preserving peaches in cans, 
by which they keep well and retain the flavor: Add half a 
pound of sugar to each pound of peaches. The sugar is put 
into a preserving kettle, with half a pint of water to every 
pound of sugar, heated, and the surface skimmed. Into this 
syrup the peaches, after being pared, are placed and boiled ten 
minutes. The peaches are then put into the cans while hot 
and immediately sealed up. 

1 publish, for the tirst time, in this edition, a suggestion do- 
rived from the observation of Mr. John Commins, a gentle- 
man of much practical ex}ierience, which, if it proves to be 
be true upon further trial, will be of the very greatest advan- 
tage to the whole country, as it will enable us to add largely 
to the production of our fruit trees. This a method to prevent 
the immense destruction b}' insects of the fruit of the peach. 
It consists in interspersing by planting among the trees alter- 
nately China berry or Pride of India trees, {Alelia azederavh.) 
The gentleman who communicated the observation to mo has 
noticed that peach trees shaded by this tree were never in- 
fested by the aphis. Their preventive etifect may depend upon 
the roots, or more probably upon the berries of the China tree 
covering the ground and proving deleterious to the worm which 
attacks the peach. The experiment is one easily made as the 
Pride of India is readily propagated and grows rapidly. Some 
persons adopt the plan of boring a hole in fruit trees and 
inserting calomel, w^hich is said to bo successful. 

The gum which exudes from the peach, plum or cherry, 
answers ihe purpose of gum arable in increasing the brilliancy 
of starch ; also in sealing envelopes. Peach leaves are used as 
a substitute for hops in making yeast biscuits for bread, and 
the leaves are often dried and powdered to flavor tobacco, to 
increase its bulk, and to diminish its strength. The leaves are 
cited by M. Dussauce in his Treatise on Tanning, Philada., 1867, 
as among those employed for Tanning Leather. 

BUFFALO- BEE JIY TEEE, {Shepardia magnoides, N.) Mo. 
Nuttall. I do not know the family of the plant. 


The fruit, resembling currants, of a fine scarlet color and 
growing in clusters, have a rich taste, and are considered 
valuable for making into tarts and preserves. Farmer's Ency- 

LUGUMINOSyi^: OR FABACE^. {The Bean Tribe.) 

The sub-orders are distinguished by nutritive, purgative and 
astringent properties. 

YELL(JWW00D, (Cladrastis tinctoria, Jtaf., VirgUia lutea, 
Mx.) Ilill-sides, Tennessee and Kentuck3^ 

The wood is yellow and dyes a beautiful saffron color. 

JAMAICA DOGWOOD, {Piscidia erythrina, L.) 8. Florida. 

The piscidia is said to be used in America for stupefying fish, 
which are taken as readily by this means as with nux vomica. 
Wilson's Kural Cyclopaedia. It yields a highly narcotic and 
diaphort;tic tincture. Griffith. The powdered bark relieves 

To the above, which was contained in the first edition of this 
work, I add the following from the 12th Ed. of the U. S. Disp.: 
Dr. Wm. Hamilton, of Plymouth, England, in a communication 
to the rharm. Journ. iv, Aug., 1844, speaks of this plant as a 
powerful narcotic, capable of producing sleep and relieving pain 
in an extraordinary manner. When a resident of the West Indies 
he had observed its eff'ects as a narcotic in taking fish of the 
largest kind. He was induced to try it as an anodyne in tooth- 
ache, and he found a saturated tincture exceedingly efficacious, 
not only affording relief when taken internally, but uniformly 
curing the pain when introduced upon a dossil of cotton into 
the carious tooth. The bark of the root to be effectual, should 
be gathered during the period of inflorescence in April. When 
chewed, it has an unpleasant acrimony like mezereon. It yields 
its virtues to alcohol, but not to water. He prepared the tinc- 
ture by macerating an ounce of the bark in coarse powder, in 
four fluid ounces of rectified spirit, for twenty-four hours, and 
then filtered it. The dose is a fluid drachm. He first tried it 
on himself, when laboring under severe toothache, taking the 
quantity mentioned in cold water on going to bed. He first 
felt a violent sensation of heat internally, which gradually ex- 
tended to the surface, and was followed by profuse perspiration 


with profound sleep for twelve hours. On awaking he was 
quite free from pain, and without the unpleasant sensations 
which follow a dose of opium. 

Erythrina herbacea. Grows in woods ; seeds scarlet. 

Dr. J. H. Mellichamp writes me that he has heard from an 
excellent source "of remarkable cures in tertiary sj-philis, hav- 
ing been effected with a decoction of the root of this plant." 

WILD INDIGO; HOESE-FLY WEED, (Baptisia tinctoria, 
Ell. Sk.) Grows in rich, shaded lands ; vicinity of Charleston ; 
collected in St. John's; Newbern. Fl. July. 

Barton's Med. Bot. ii, 57; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 153. Its 
virtues reside in the cortical part of the root. In large doses, 
it operates violently as an emetic, cathartic and sub-astringent 
anti-septic. It is said to have proved useful in scarlatina, typhus 
fever, and the condition attendant upon mortification and gan- 
grene. Dr. Comstock found it useful in the latter state, used 
both externally and internall}'. Eclectic Kepert. vi ; U. S. Disp. 
1231. It was employed by Dr. C. not only in existing, but as a 
prophylactic in threatening mortification and gangrene. Dr. 
Thacher speaks highly of its efiicac}' as an external applica- 
tion to obstinate and painful ulcers, and Eberle, (Diseases of 
Children, p. 98,) used a decoction with advantage in the aggra- 
vated cases of ulcerated umbilicus, so frequently met with in 
infants. It may be employed topically, in the form of a cata- 
plasm. The young shoots ma}^ be eaten as asparagus ; but after 
they assume a green color, they act as a drastic purgative. 
Gi'iffith, Med. Bot. 232. The decoction, made with one ounce 
of the recent root to one pint of boiling water, is given in doses 
of a tablespoonful every three or four hours. Dr. Stevens, of 
Ceres, Penn., has emploj-ed a decoction of the root advantage- 
ously in epidemic dysentery. N. Y. Journ. Med. iv, 358. The 
ointment, prepared by simmering the fresh root in lard, is ap- 
plied to ulcers and burns. Darlington in his Fl. Cestrica, says 
it yields a blue color of an inferior quality. See Indigo, {Indi- 
gofera amorpha.') The fresh plant attached to the harness of 
horses keeps off flies — much used in Virginia for this purpose. 
There is no gum exuding from it and the odor is not pungent, 
but it seems to prove hostile to them. I have noticed that they 
will not remain upon the plants. 

£. leucophcea, Nutt. B. bracteata, Muhl. Cat. Grows in dry 
^soils ; found in Georgia also. Fl. April. 


Sent to me from Abbeville District by Mr. Reed, by whom 
I am informed that a decoction of the leaves and branches is 
considered stimulant and astringent, and was used by Dr. 
Branch, of that district, with great satisfaction in all cases of 
mercurial salivation. 

lupuli7ia, L.) Introduced. Waste places Florida and westward. 

It has been planted extensively as a clover, but is not so 
valuable as other species — the M. sativa, for example. See 
"Wilson's Rural Cyclopoedia for a long article on "Clover" and 
" Lucern." 

MELILOT; SWEET CLOVEE, (MeUlotus officinalis, Ph.) 
Completely nat. says Elliott, around Charleston. N. C. 

Dem. Elem. de Bot. iii, 37. The infusion of the flowers is 
emollient and anodyne, and is employed in inflammation of the 
intestines, retention of urine, tympanites, etc. Am. Herbal 
222; T^. S. Diap. 1275. It is thought to be possessed of verj'- 
little efficacy in medicine, but is used as a local application, in 
the fo)'m of decoction or cataplasm, in inflammatory diseases. 
Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 153 ; Journal de Pharm. xxi, 152. A 
principle called coumarin exists abundantly in the flowers of 
the melilotus, and it j)osscsses an odor which is attributed to 
the presence of benzoic acid. See Vogel's Anal. Nouv. Journal 
de Med. viii, 270 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 293 ; Flore 
Med. iv, 229 ; Aubulet, Voyage, ii, 454 ; Haller, Hist. Stirp. Helv. 
362. The flowers are employed in flatulent colic, and in rheu- 
matism, and the decoction for fomentations. Wilson states that 
it is used in making the famous Gruyere, or Schabzieger cheese, 
and is the cause of its peculiar flavor — the flower and the seeds 
in a dried state being bruised or ground and mixed with the 
curd before pressing. Any mixture of the seeds with bread 
corn renders the latter very disagreeable. Melilot, Wilson adds, 
was long used in making a blister plaster which bore its name, 
and acquired from it a gi'een color and a disgusting smell, and 
was of exceedingly little value. Eural Cyc. 

EED CLOVER, (Tn/o/iMm^rflfense,L.) Vicinity of Charles- 
ton ; Newbern. 

Dem Elem. de Bot. ii, 36. All the species contain a mucous, 
nutritive principle. In Ireland, when food is scarce, the pow- 
dered flowers are mixed with bread, and are esteemed whole- 


some and nutritious. Fl. Scotica, of Lightfoot. Some are said 
to produce vertigo and tj^mpanites in cattle which feed on them. 

EABBIT-POOT; FIELD CLOVBE, {Trifolium arvense, 
Linn.) " Grows sparingly in the upper districts." Collected 
in St. John's, Charleston District; Newbern. Fl. April. 

Wade's PI. Rarioros, 56. Dickerson observes that the dried 
plant is highly aromatic, and retains its odor. It has been used 
in dj'sentery. Withering, 636 ; Fl. Scotica, 406. 

WILD BUFFALO CLOVER, (Trifolium reflexum.) Upper 
districts; vicinity of Charleston; collected in St. John's; N. C. 

It affects very sensibly the salivary glands. I have noticed 
horses in Virginia violently salivated from eating this or other 

WHITE CLOVER, (Trifolium repeyis, L.) Vicinity of 
Charleston; collected in St. John's ; JSTewbern. Fl. May. 

Ell. Bott. ii, 201. This also affects the salivary glands, some- 
times producing complete salivation. Fl. Scotica, 404, Its 
leaves are a good rustic hygrometer, as they are always r<?iaxed 
and flaccid in drj^ weather, but erect in moist and rainy. 

MILK-VETCH, (Astragalus.) There are five species of this 
genus within our limits. I refer to them because the seeds of 
A. boeticus, planted in Germany and England, are found to be 
the very best substitute for coffee yet tried, and so used — roasted, 
parched, and mixed with coffee. Our species of Vicia, tare, 
vetch, and Lathyrus should also be tried. 

EDIBLE PSORALEA, (Psoralea esculenta.) The bread 
root, growing in Missouri, is eaten by the inhabitants of the 
plain, and the Rocky Mountains. Rural Cyclopoedia. 

CAROLINA WILD INDIGO, (Indigofera (laroliniana, Walt.) 
Grows in dry soils ; vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. 
John's Berkeley ; Newbern. Fl. May. 

Not inferior, says Nuttall, to the cultivated indigo. It does 
not, however, possess so much coloring matter. The decoction 
of the leaves is said to act as an emetic when given in large 
quantities; in smaller doses it is cathartic. " F. I. S.," a cor- 
respondent of the Charleston Mercury, says: "Our country 
ladies gather icild indigo, and ferment from it a blue powder 
equal to the commercial indigo, which dyes a beautiful and last- 
ing blue. A solution of this powder in water is a speedy and 
certain relief for cramp and asthma. The red sumach dyes a 

rich dark or light purple, as in required." See Wild Indigo, 

Indigofera anil, L. Introduced. 

Formerly cultivated and employed in the manufacture of in- 

INDIGO, (Indigofera tinctoria.) Introduced. Once cultiva- 
ted in South Carolina to a large extent ; see Indigofera anil. 
Collected in St. John's Berkeley. Fl. June. 

Drayton's View of South Carolina ; Merat and de L. Diet, de 
M. Med. iii, 601. According to Laennec, the decoction of the 
root possesses the property of acting against poison, and is use- 
ful in nephritic diseases. In Jamaica, it is employed to destroy 
vermin. The leaves are alterative, and are given in hepatic dis- 
orders. Ainslie, Mat. Med. Ind. i, 180 ; ii, 33 ; Journal de Bo- 
tanique, v, 11 ; Ann. de Chim. Ixviii, 284; M. and de L. Sup- 
plem. 1846, 383; Martius, Syst. Mat. Med. 126; Perollet, 
Mem. •ur la culture dcs indigoferes tinctoriaux, Paris, 1833 ; 
L'Herminier, Resume des obs. faites sur plusieurs espeees indi- 
goferes de Guadeloupe ; see Journal de Pharm. xix, 257 ; A. 
Saint Hiliare, "Hist, of Indigo, from the first account of it till 
the year 1833," (Ann. desSci. Nat. vii, 110;) Mem. on Indigo, 
in the Comptes Jlendus Hebdom. of Acad. Nat. Sci. 19lh Dec. 
1836, 445 ; Dumas' Mem. upon Indigo, its Composition, etc., in 
the Journal de Chim. Med. iii, 66, 1837 ; D. Erdmann, Rech. 
upon Indigo, (in French, also,) in the 26th vol. Journal de Pharm. 
460, 1840, and the report upon the proposed extraction of indigo 
from Polygonum tinctorium. See Journal de Pharm. xxxvi, 274. 
Indigo itself has acquired some celebrity in the treatment of 
epilepsy — results doubtful, as large quantities may be taken — 
an electuary or syrup was used. Dungl. New Remedies, 361. 
Griffith. See, also. Roth in PereirasMat. Mediea. The remains 
of the indigo plantations, with the vats in which indigo was 
prepared, are still to be seen in the lower districts of South Car- 
olina, bordering on the Santee River. Since the introduction of 
cotton and rice it is cultivated, though not very largely. 

On the cultivation, preparation, etc., of indigo, Woad, (^Isatis 
tinctoria,) see Chaptal's Chemistry applied to Agriculture, p. 
295; lire's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines, arti- 
cles " Indigo," "Calico Printing;" also, Penny Cyclopoedia. I 
must content myself simpl}' with a reference to the source of 


information. The 1. anil is also used for the production of in- 
digo. The vSo. Cultivator, vol. ii, p. 58, contains a full account 
of the preparation of indigo. To avoid the deleterious effects 
of fermented indigo, Dr. Roxburg, of India, states that he suc- 
ceeds perfectly by the " scalding process." This is doubted. 
See, also, Southern Cultivator, p. 15, vol. 6, report of a Commit- 
tee of the Georgia Agricultural Association. They recommend 
the Indigofera argentea, or wild indigo of Georgia, which is not 
included by Chapman in his Fl. of So. States. I insert the fol- 

The directions for preparing I obtained, many years ago, 
from an old and respectable planter in South Carolina. The 
manuscript which he delivered to me was from the pen of one 
who had been extensively engaged in the cultivation and prep- 
aration of indigo for market, before the Revolution. It has 
never been published ; and may, therefore, impart information 
on a process little known by the present generation : 

" The pigment, or dyeing substance of the indigo, is obtained 
from the leaves. There are several species of this jilant. The 
French indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, yields the greatest quantity, 
and is cultivated in India; but the quality is inferior to the In- 
digofera argentea, or wild indigo. The former is distinguished 
by its pinnate leaves, the smaller ribs expanding from the prin- 
cipal rib like the feathers of a quill, similar to the leaves of the 
pear and of the lime tree, and by a more slender, ligneous stem. 
It rises, in a rich soil, and when well cultivated, to the height 
of six feet. 

" The seeds are sown as early in the spring as the climate and 
season will warrant. In the West Indies, the planting com- 
mences in March, in trenches about a foot asunder ; and the 
weed is cut doAvn in May. In South America, six months elapse 
before it can be cut. In the former, generally four cuttings are 
obtained of the same plant in the course of a year ; but in the 
latter, never more than two, and often only one. The cutting 
takes place when the plant is in blossom, and is done with the 
sickle. Fresh plantings of the seed are required yearly. 

" Commence the cutting of the weed in the evening, in time 
to have the steeper set before it is dark. The plants are laid in 
strata, and pressed down by weights. When a sufficient quan- 
tit3^ of them are Laid, pour in water to the height of about four 


inches above them. One inch and a half above the surface of 
the watei' bore a hole through the side of the vat, and directly 
over the trough which is to convey the liquor into the beater. 
When the fermentation has commenced the liquor will rise and 
run over. Let it remain until the stream has ceased, or nearly 
so. This, in hot weather, will be from ten to fourteen hours 
after the water has been poured upon the weed, or on the follow- 
ing morning. Immediately draw off into the beater, and com- 
mence the agitation. Continue this for about twenty minutes, 
and then let in the lime water until you have plenty of grain, 
but not very coarse. The agitation must be carried on, and 
frequent use be made of the plate. As soon as a change in the 
color is perceived, from a muddy green to a purple or blue, the 
beating should cease. This operation usually requires an hour. 
There can be no certain rule as to the quantity of lime water 
to be used, or the length of time for continuing the agitation. 
If the indigo be not sufficiently steeped, it will require more lime 
water, and longer beating, and vice versa. Having obtained the 
fine blue tint you wish, stop the agitation, and pour in an addi- 
tional quantity of lime water, which will cause the grains to 
collect and settle in a short time. Be careful, however, not to 
add so much as to give the liquor a yellow or red tinge : it 
should be of a clear, but pale green. As the sediment subsides, 
commence drawing off the water through the upper plugs, and 
so on to each successively, until the mud alone remains at the 
bottom of the vat or beater. In the evening this should be re- 
moved into the drainer, and by the morning following it will be 
well drained and cracked, which it should be before it is taken 
out. Having first pressed out the water remaining in it, work 
up the mud ; give it a second pressui'e, and work it up again 
until it becomes stiff. After this, submit it to a third pressure, 
for cutting. Should your indigo incline to mould on the drying- 
boards, as it is apt to do in rainy or damp weather, the mould 
must be wiped off; otherwise it may turn to a gray color. Let 
it remain upon the drying-boards until you plainly see the qual- 
ity ; afterward it may be put up in small barrels. In continued 
damp weather, during the manipulating and drying process, 
put the greenish indigo in the sun, and turn it frequently. As 
soon as it begins to crack, take it in. 

"Good indigo is known by its lightness, or small specific 


gravit}', indicating the absence of earthy impurities; by the 
mass not readily parting with its coloring mattei', when tested 
by drawing a streak with it over a white surface ; but above all 
by the purity of the color itself. The first quality, esteemed by 
this last test, is called, in commercial language, yine blue; the 
next, ordinary blue ; then fine purple, etc. The most inferior is 
known as ordinary copper." 

The most satisfactory information can be got in the Patent 
Office Eeports, and from Mr. Spalding, Liebig, Chaptal, the En- 
cyclopoedia, etc., etc. Several varieties are cultivated. The 
Indigofera disperma is used in Gruatemala, and makes the best 
and most beautiful article. The Indigofera tinctoj'ia, formerly 
cultivated in South Carolina and Georgia, is the most productive, 
and the increase in quantity will make up the deficiency in 

The following is the account of the method of cultivating and 
manufacturing indigo, furnished by Mr. T. W. Glover, of 
Orangeburg, S. C, and published by Mr. Tuomey, in his Geology 
of S. Carolina, 1848 : 

" Indigo was planted in South Carolina at any early period, 
and was extensively cultivated, and constituted an important 
item in the exports of the colony, till rice, in the lower country, 
and cotton, almost everywhere, supei'seded it. 

"In Orangeburg District it has never been abandoned, and 
the following exhibit will show the number of acres planted, 
and the amount made in three several years : 

Years. Acres planted. Amount made. 

1831 953 27,700 lbs. 

1841 1,091 34,150 lbs. 

1842 1,337 35,935 lbs. 

" The average production per acre, therefore, was 29 lbs. in 
1831, 31 lbs. in 1841, and 26 lbs. in 1842. Some planters, how- 
ever, in 1842 made upwards of 60 lbs. per acre. 

"The price of Carolina indigo varies from 40 to 80 cts., and 
much of it is vended in the interior or in the neighboring States. 
Light and sandy land, which will not yield more than 500 lbs. 
seed cotton per acre, is generally appropriated to this culture, 
the better soils being reserved for cotton. 

" Two species of indigo have been cultivated here — the tame, 
which is an annual plant, and the wild, which is septennial. The 


latter, reproducing Beven years successively and affording a 
better and finer dye, has almost entirely supplanted the former. 

" The seed is planted about the 15th April, in trenches eighteen 
inches asunder, made sometimes with the plow, and it is after- 
ward worked with the hoe. The wild indigo may be cut once 
during the first year, but it is frequently not touched till the 
second. The ground is hoed over every subsequent year, 
about the last of March, and before the plant appears. One 
bushel of seed is enough, and is used for four acres planted in 
drill. The weed is cut (after the first year) twice annually, 
early in June and again in September; and the hoe is used, 
even after the second cutting, that the land may be left free of 

^^Manufacture. — Three vats or tanks, made of wood, and 
water tight, are employed in the manufacture of indigo. First, 
the steeper, which is sixteen feet square and twenty-six inches 
deep ; second, the beater, sixteen feet by twelve, and four feet 
deep ; and third, the lime vat, which is ten feet square and three 
feet deep, into which is put two bushels of lime, and, in the 
process of manufacturing, one-half bushel is added to each sub- 
sequent vat made. When the plant begins to bloom, it is cut 
with hooks, early in the morning, and two wagon loads are put 
in the steeper, which is filled with water by pumps, or, if the 
locality admits, by troughs from a hill-side. Laths are placed 
over the weed, which is entirely immersed under the water, 
where it remains until sufficiently steeped. The indications by 
which the sufficiency of the steeping is judged are various, and 
mainly depend on experience. If the fermentation stops, or the 
leaves cease to be brittle, or the water subsides, it is drawn 
from the steeper into the beater, the former being elevated above 
the latter to admit the free passage of the liquid through 
troughs. When in the beater, a wheel, with arms placed on a 
shaft, is used to stir and agitate the liquid for about fifteen 
minutes. Lime water is then added from the lime vat till a 
cloudy hue appears; with an addition of lime water, it is again 
agitated thirty or forty minutes, until granulation begins. 
After beating, or this process of agitation, the liquor remains at 
rest about four hom's, when, from its affinity for and combina- 
tion with the lime, and from its greater specific gravity, the dye 
stuif is precipitated and the liquid is drawn ofi'. The drug 


deposited at the bottom of the beater is then collected and re- 
moved into a box five feet square and fourteen inches deep, 
called the drainer, which is placed on a bed of t^and, and inside 
of which, and in contact with the sand, is a coarse cloth, (cot- 
ton osnaburghs.) Prom the drainer the indigo is placed in a 
box three feet long and fourteen inches wide, called the press, 
in which a stout cloth is also put and folded over the indigo. 
It is then pressed until sufficiently drj-, and cut into pieces 
about two inches square, which are placed separately for several 
days, and then put into barrels for the market. 

Culture and Manufacture of Indigo. — A writer under the 
signature of " Oconee " says : " The soils best adapted to it are 
the rich, sandy loams, though it grows on most lands mode- 
rately well, provided they are not wet. The ground should 
be well broken, and kept light and free from grass by the plow. 
The nature of the manure used exerts a great influence upon 
the quantity and quality of its coloring principle. Those sub- 
stances that act as stimulants to vegetation, such as lime, pou- 
drette, ashes, etc., etc., favor the growth of the plant without 
injuring the coloring matter. When barn-yard manure has been 
largely used, a crop of grain should first be raised on the land. 

" The seed should be mixed with ashes or sand, and sown in 
drills fourteen inches apart, four quarts of seed to the acre. In 
this climate, (Middle Georgia,) the seed should be sown the first 
of April. When it first comes up it should have the grass picked 
out with the hand. When an inch or two high the grass 
between the rows should be cut out with the hoe or scraper, 
and the soil loosened about the roots. Three weedings are 
enough before the fii'st cutting, which should commence as soon 
as the plant throws out its bloom. It is so easily injured by 
the sun after being cut, that the operation should be commenced 
and end in the afternoon. After cutting with the reap-hook, it 
is put under the shed until it can be put in the vats. In Greorgia, 
the two cuttings yielded sixty pounds of indigo to an acre, pro- 
vided the roots were not injured in the first cutting, which, at 
three acres to the hand, would be one hundred and eighty 
pounds ($180.) The price varies from 30 cents to $2 25 per 
pound for the best Guatemala. 

'•Like other plants, it has its enemies. The leaves are fre- 
quently seen covered with yellow spots, owing to some change 


in the atmosphere. It often happens that in consequence of a 
degree of heat and drouth, the plant is not fully developed ; 
the leaves are not more than one-third their proper size, yet 
exhibit all the properties of a perfect plant. If the plant is cut 
in this imperfect state the crop is lost, for the indigo is not well 
developed. An insect (the flea) often destroys the first crop of 
leaves. Next, a louse destroys the plant later in the season ; 
this, however, is not so bad as the first. The cutworm also 
commits some depredations upon it. 

" Manufacturing Process. — Two methods are used, the cold and 
the hot. The cold is the safest; the plant must be in a certain 
state to use the hot. 

" 1st. By Gold Water. — The weed is put in the vat and cov- 
ered with clear water, where it remains until the color of the 
liquid becomes a light olive ; this is about ten hours; the weed 
must be pressed down by heavy scantling laid upon it,. Draw 
the liqwid off into the churn or beater. The churning must now 
be commenced, and kept up until the fluid becomes lighter in 
its general shade, and the blue fecula are seen in the water ; 
which sooner begins from small quantities of lime water being 
added from time to time during the process of beating. The 
quantity of lime water that is used should be not more than 
one-tenth of the liquid that is in the vat. If the lime water bo 
all thrown in at once, the lime more than saturates the carbonic 
acid, and the carbonate thus formed will be precipitated, and 
thus injure the indigo. After the fecula shows itself distinctly 
in the water, the vat is allowed to be still for four or five hours, 
then the clear water is drawn off by faucets at different heights, 
so as to allow the indigo to be precipitated in the bottom. 

" 2d. The Hot Process. — The weed is put in the vat, boiling 
water is let on so as to saturate the plant, and full}^ cover it. 
The weed is kept down by scantling thrown upon it. Allow 
the water to stand from five to fifteen minutes, according to the 
effect above mentioned. Draw it off through a faucet and sieve 
into the beater ; repeat until all the coloring matter is extracted ; 
beat or churn as above, omitting the lime water; remainder of 
the process the same. 

" The precipitated indigo still requires some further operations 
to bring it to a state of perfection, (though it can be dried and 
sent to the market as it now is.) It contains particles that are 


imperfectly oxydated ; consequently it has neither the color nor 
propei'ties of the best indigo. Continued beating would bring 
these to a proper state ; but it would cause the particles first 
oxydated to imbibe an additional quantity of oxygen, by which 
the color is too much deepened, and the article would be rejected 
in commerce as burnt. To avoid this, throw over the liquid fe- 
cula a volume of warm water double the quantity of the fecula, 
stirring it all the while; by this means the perfect indigo will 
be precipitated, the other held in suspension. This water is 
drawn off, and lime added, etc., as above, by which the green 
color becomes a j^ellow brown, and the indigo is rendered insol- 
uble and precipitated. That indigo may be pure and brilliant, 
it should be twice washed — once in cold, and once in hot water. 
After washing, allow the fecula to settle, then draw off the 

"The last purification now is to mix the fecula with another 
quantity of water, in a vat having several faucets. While it is 
suspended, the earths are precipitated; draw off while stirring, 
and allow to settle. The last operation consists in putting the 
fecula in a coarse bag of hemp or wool, and this bag in an open 
basket to drain, placing weights upon it until it becomes tightly 
compressed. These last operations are not requisite if a very 
common article is to be made ; but it is well to follow all the 
purifications. The increase in price will cover the increase of 

" Indigo Vat. — Description. — For every set of ten hands there 
should be what are called a set of works. These formerly cost 
about one hundred dollars or more, and were a vat or tank, 
made of plank two inches thick, well joined. This vat is twenty 
feet square, stands upon posts four feet from the ground, and is 
kept tight by wedges driven into the sleepers upon which the 
plank rests. The vat is three feet deep, and is called the steeper. 
Alongside of it is another vat, twenty feet by ten, occupying 
the space between the bottom of the steeper and the ground, 
into which the water is drawn in which the indigo is steeped 
when ready to be beat, or churned, as we may say. At the end 
of this last vat a small tank or cask must be placed, to furnish 
lime water in the process of beating. The liquor is drawn from 
the steeper by a spigot at the bottom of the vat along the beater. 
Lengthwise of this is stretched a beam, resting on its upper 


ends, and revolving on journals, and furnished with cross arms, 
to the ondH of which are fixed open buckets without bottoms, 
containing about two gallons each. Two men, standing on this 
beam, with a handspike fixed to the long beam, alternately 
plunge the open buckets right and left, thus churning the liquid 
until it begins to show a blue fecula, which is produced by small 
quantities drawn from the lime cask." 

The following is the method successfully used on the planta- 
tions in St. John's Berkeley, South Carolina, to prepare a dye 
from the wild and naturalized indigo : 

"Cut the plant, put in a bai-rel, and cover with water. In 
about three days it commences to foam, and it is then ready to 
churn; take out the leaves, and press the liquid out of them. It 
is then to be wliijtped up in a churn with a stick made like a 
dasher. When it foams, a greased feather applied to the sur- 
face will check the foam. In order to test whether the process 
is Huffici15ntly advanced and the blue color extracted, it may be 
tested in a white plate put in the sunlight; the thickened 
grounds will be visible. About a quart of strong lye-water, or 
lime soaked in water, should be first thrown in to settle it. 
This should be done before it is churned. If the coloring sub- 
stance appears to be sufficiently separated by the test mentioned 
above, drain the supernatant water carefully away. The re- 
mainder or sediment, should be placed in a bag to drain. This 
contains the indigo. This indigo may subsequently be moulded 
into cakes. I have seen yarn excellently dyed by it ; also wool, 
which was dyed before it was carded, and made into cloth, 
(1862.) The woods have been eagerly searched for indigo 
plants during the recent war. 

The following process of manufacturing indigo in small quan- 
tities for family use is extracted from the Southern Agri- 
culturist : 

"Cut the indigo when the under leaves begin to dry, and 
while the dew is on them in the morning; put them in a barrel, 
and fill this with rain water, and place weights on to keep it 
under water; when bubbles begin to form on the top, and the 
water begins to look of a redish color, it is soaked enough, and 
must be taken out, taking care to wring and squeeze the leaves 
well, so as to obtain all the strength of the plant ; it must then 
be churned (which may be done by means of a tolerably open 


basket, with a handle to raise it up and down") until the liquor 
is quite in a foam. To ascertain Avhether it is done enough, 
take out a spoonful in a plate, and put a small quantit}' of very 
strojig lye to it. If it curdles, Ihe indigo is churned enough, and 
you must proceed to break the liquor in the barrel in the same 
"way, by putting in lye (^which must be as strong as possible) by 
small quantities, and continuing to churn until it is all sufficiently 
curdled ; care must be taken not to put in two much lye, as that 
will spoil it. When it curdles freely with the lye it must be 
sprinkled well over the top with oil, which immediately causes 
the foam to subside, after which it must stand till the indigo 
settles to the bottom of the barrel. This may be discovered by 
the appearance of the water, which must be letotf gradually by 
boring holes first near the top, and afterward lower, as it con- 
tinues to settle; when the water is all let off, and nothing 
remains but the mud, take that and put it in a bag (flannel is 
the best) and hang it up to drip, allerward spreading it to dry 
on large dishes. Take care that none of the foam, which is the 
strength of the weed, escapes ; but if it rises too high, sprinkle 
oil on it." 

Seven or eight species of indigo are found in the United 
States, most of which grow in the South. The wild indigo, 
(^Dyer's bajptisia,) common in Pennsylvania and other Middle 
States, yields a considerable proportion of blue coloring matter 
of an inferior kind. (Flora Cestrica.) Sec Baptisia, Amorpha 
and Hob i Ilia. 

Blue Dyes. — The materials employed for this purpose are- 
indigo, Prussian blue, logwood, bilberry, ( Vaccinium myrtillus,') 
elder-berries, {Sambacus nigra,) mulberries, privet-berries, (L/gu- 
strum vulgare,) and some other berries whose juice becomes 
blue by the addition of a small portion of alkali, or of the salts 
of copper. I shall here describe the other, or minor blue dyes : 
To dj^e blue with such berries as the above, Ave boil one pound 
of them in water, adding one ounce of alum, of copperas and of 
blue vitriol to the decoction, or in their stead equal parts of 
verdigris and tartar, and pass the stuffs a sufficient time through 
the liquor. When an iron mordant alone is employed, a steel- 
blue tint is obtained ; and when a tin one, a blue with a violet 
cast. The privet-berries, which have been emploj'cd as sap 
colors by the card-painters, nitxy be extensively used in the 


dyeing of Hilk. The berries of the African night shade (Solanum 
guineensc) have been of lute years considerably applied to silk on 
the continent in producing various shades of blue, violet, red, 
brown, etc., but particularly violet. 

i introduce the following general directions, at the risk of 
some repetition, from an article in the Charleston Courier dated 
Gowansville, 1862: 

First. It is important to cleanse the wool, or other material 
to be dyed, from grease and all foreign matters which might 
prevent it from taking the dye. Wool must be well washed in 
warm soap suds, rinsed in warm water, squeezed as dry as 
possible, and then put wet into the dye. Cotton and linen must 
be thoroughly wet in boiling water, and then squeezed or wrung 
out of it and put into the dye wet. 

Secondly. Use a copper caldron for all light and delicate 
colors, and an iron pot for black and all dark colors. The shades 
of colo* will be regulated by the strength of the dye, the num- 
ber of times the article is dipped, or the length of time it re- 
mains in the dye. 

Thirdly. Many dyes that will color cotton will leave wool and 
linen untinged, and some that will color wool deeply will dye 
cotton a very light shade. 

Fourthly. AVhat is used for brightening and making the 
colors durable are called mordants. The mordants used here 
are copperas, (sulphate of iron,) blue vitriol, (sulphate of copper,) 
alum, wheat bran, lye, and lime water. Those who cannot ob- 
tain copperas, use the water from one of the mineral springs, 
which is strongly impregnated with iron. 

Fifthly. The best seasons for dyeing with bark are the spring 
and summer, while the sap is in the tree Autumn is the best 
season for dyeing with leaves, and winter is the season for dye. 
ing with roots, because the sap of the tree then goes into the 

Sixthly. Bark and roots must be cut into small pieces; let the 
caldron be two-thirds filled with the pieces, then fill up with 
water, and boil for several hours until the color is as deep as 
desired. If leaves and twigs are used, fill the boiler with them 
and cover with water. Two or three hours steady boiling will 
extract the color from bark, roots, and leaves. Then strain ofi" 
the liquid carefully from the sediment, and put it back into a 


vUan boil<i\ mid to i( tho nlum ^m- ^opporsjv'^, or both, uooordini; to 
tho ot^lor dosirod ; lot it bo I'lMuplololy dissv>lvod juid \voll mixod 
in tho dyo. ul'lor whioh inuuorso tho uui wool, yaiii, or oloth in 
tho dyo, mul prooood nooovilim; to tho dothuio dirootions lor 
osvoh ooUm". Hv inixino" ditVoroi\t b:»rks. roots, suid Kmwos to- 
y,othor in tho s:uno vivo :i vnrioty ot' sluuios ot" ililVoront oohu'.s 
:iro obtaiuoil by thosv^ who :uv sUiUoil in t ho art ot' proparin;:; 
domoslio dyo.^. Tho toUow iny; nan\od troos aro nnuh usihI lioro 
for dyoinn' wool and ootton: 

Sassafras, (^7.<it(n/,< ^'(^^>^J//•|^<.^ Tho bark and roots aro usod 
tor dyoino- woi\<(i\l a pornianont and boauiit'nl yolUnv and oran^o 
ooU>r. I'so a oopjuM- boilor anil tivo ounoos oi' alinn to i>no 
pou»\d of wool or worst od yarn. 

Kahnia, {^iUhjusti folia,) or dwart" laurol, liyos cotton a lino drab 
color Uso a ooppor boilor. Tho loavos ai\d twin's ot" tho K a I 
inia and abont ono tablospoonttd of oopporas to throo ji'allons ot' 
dyo. Si'ald tho ootton »»iatorial in tho dyo t'or twoniy nunutos, 
thon in cold wator and hany; to dry in tho air. 

^Villow•. (^»\vj/«'.r I'ttpiratii f) Tho bark dyos wool and linon u 
doop bhio blrtok. and dyos ootton a ilark slato ooh>r. Uso an 
iron boilor. For blaok. tluvo ounoos ot oopporas to t'our gallons 
ot' dyo; t'or slato ooKm", ono ounoo ot' oopporas is suthoiont. 
Hoil in tho dyo tor twonty numiios, rinso in oold wator anil 
hatii:; to dry. Tho dyo may bo dooponovl by a ropotitii>n ot' tho 
samo proooss in t'rosh dyo. 

l\od Oivk, \^Qfurcus sinuo^iii.) Tho baik and roota dyo a tino 
shado ot' ohooolato brow n. Tso an iron boilor and two ounoos 
vU' oopporas to t'our gallons ot dyo. Hoil twonty minutos in tlto 
dyo and rinso in oold wator. This dyos ootton. Tho Spanish 
(.hik dyos ai\othor shado of brown. 

Whito «.>ak. {^Qucivus iilba.^ Tho bark dyos ootton load color. 
Uso an iron boilor; two ounoos of oopporas to t'our i;allons of 
dyo; scald in tho dyo twonty n\inutos an*l rinso with cold 
wator. O.'ik bark will not dyo w v>ol. 

rino bark, ^^all tho variotios tound in our woods.") dyos cotton 
slato color; oonibinod with tho Kahnia, it dyos dovo color. For 
oaoh oolor, put ono ounoo ot" copperas to t'our gallons of dyo, 
and boil in it t'or twonty minutos. Kinso tho slato oolor in oold 
w ator and tho dovo color in oold lyo. 

Swoot (ium bark dyos ootton dovo oolor. Iso a ooppor boilor; 


rt H])i><iui'ii\ oC <:<)\>\K-.rtiH to l,lir<;<! ^ulloriH of dyo, uri'l mcuM in tlio 
rjyo inv l,w(;ril,y u,iintU:H; ririH*; in f.oid water. To i»ro'lij';<}'.r i'.h/i(l,i:, rinH*; tlio ^-otton HtuH' in <;ol'J )}'«;-wator, and lia/i^ 
1,0 (\\y in (,li<; Jiir. 

fJuifK^a On-n, ( IIoLcuh i^(>r<jhum.) 'I'lx: «(!<;<! 'JycH j/xa// load 
<:olor, and will not <ly(! cotton, Uhc an iron hoil<;r, a little cop- 
pcraH, and rifiMO in lye, 

^i\.\Ai:^ (Acer cMmpcMtriH^ ) Tlio Icirk dy<;h f;oi,li wool and cot- 
ton a fine dark Kliad<; of purple IJhc an iron hoilcr and two 
OMiiccM of coppcraH to four ^allorm of dy<j; Hcald in liot, dy<; for 
tw'ifity niinutfjH a/id ririMo in cold wat(5r, 

|{<;acli, ( l'\ufun Hijlwdka.) Tlio hark dycH dove color. (Jho 
an iron toiler atid one f>unc,<!of coppcraH to four gallonH of dye; 
ririHo in cold water, or in lye for another whade. 

Hurfiac,li, ( Uhm (ilahrum.) The leavo« and herricH dye hiack, 
Uhc an iron hoihir and four ounccH of coppcraw to four ^alloriH 
of dye,* Hoil the cotton yarn or cloth in the dye for an hour, 
and rifiHc in cold water, (See "Hurnach," for dyen without cofj- 
p< TUH ; vi»i(;^ar and old iron Hcrve the pla<'(! of coppcraH. y 

Wain lit, (.JiKjI.anH nujro..) 'I'he hark and n^otH dy<! cotton 
fawn hrown and root color, according to the proportion of hark 
or of rof^tH arid coj»p(;raH liscd. The IcavcH hoiled into dye eolor 
cotton j>urple a»id wool hIack ; when UHcd without hoilin;^ the. 
leaveH dye wool fawn «;olor. The \rrcA'.u HhellH of the full ^rown 
nutH dye filack, with coppcraH. What in dyed hIack muHt he 
ririHcd iri cohJ water; the cotton fo he dy';d purple muHt ho 
rinHed in ly(;. 'I'he fawn, hrown, and root color rniiHt he rinned 
in cohl water, 'riie pro|)ortion of copperas UHcd for hIack \h 
two ounciJH to four ^allonH of dye; for the other HhadcH, uho 
much IcHrt coppcraH. 

To make a cold dye for wool, fill a tuh with alternate layerH 
of walnut loavoH and wool, then pour on water till all \n cAjvcrcA. 
The next day tak(5 out the wool ari'l dry it in the Hiin, then ro 
{)lac(5 it in anotlnir tuh with alternate layerH of frcKh walnut 
leaveH. Strain off the water from the old walnut IcaveH and 
pour it over the wool and frcHh walnut leav(!H ; let it remain 
again till the next day. lie[M!at thin proccHH for one week, add- 
ing as much wat(!r, from day to day, an to make the dye Hufll- 
cient to cover the wool and freHh leav(;H. This in a fine, j)crma- 
nont /aM;n colored dye. 


Madder dyes loool red. Mix four quarts of wheat bran with 
four gallons of water, and set it to ferment. When it is quite 
sour, strain off the water and dissolve in it a lump of alum the 
size of a fowl's egg. Set the liquid on the fire in a copper kettle, 
and just before it boils mix well into it a half pound of fresh 
madder for every pound of wool. Then put into the dye the 
wet wool or worsted stuff to be dyed, and let it remain im- 
mersed in the dye for an hour, turning and pressing it frequently; 
during which hour the dye must be kept very hot, but must not 
boil, lest the color should be tarnished. When the wool is taken 
from the dye pot, it must be rinsed immediately in cold strong 
lye, or in lime water, and then dried. 

Spanish brown is used for dyeing cotton red. Put a pound 
of Spanish bi'own, powdered, into a little bag, and rub it out in 
a gallon of hot water till the bag is completely emptied of its 
contents. Then put the cotton yarn into the painted water, 
and rub the color into the yarn till all the coloring matter is 
transferred from the water to the yarn. After which, put two 
tablespoonsful of linseed oil into the water and boil the yarn in 
it for fifteen minutes, then hang the yarn to dry. If linseed oil 
cannot be obtained, boil the painted yarn in new milk for fifteen 

Solferino pink. Cut a piece out of the end of a pumpkin 
large enough to admit the hand, take out all the seeds and leave 
the strings in. Mash pokeberries into pulp and fill the cavity 
of the pumpkin with them, stir them up well with the strings 
and put the worsted yarn into the mixture, then cover it up 
close with the piece of pumpkin that was cut out. The next 
day take out'the yarn and dry it in the air; when dry, put the 
yarn back into the pumpkin as before, and cover it up again till 
next day. Eepeat this process every day till the desired shade 
of pink is obtained, then rinse the worsted out in cold, strong 
vinegar, and dry it for use. It will take a week to dye the 
deepest shade of pink. 

Glyceria tomentosa Grows in pine lands. Fl. June. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 387. In Pondicherry, this 
is given to horses in place of oats. Mem. du Museum, vi, 326. 

giniayia, Ph.) Vicinity of Charleston ; IST. C; grows in dry soils. 
Fl. July. 


Lindlej's Med. Flora, 244 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 238. The roots 
were used by Indians, and are now employed in popular prac- 
tice as a vermifuge ; a decoction is said to act as powerfulh' and 
as efficiently as the pink root, (Spigelia.') Attention is invited 
to it. 

Dr. Wood, in the 12th Ed. U. S. Disp., quotes from the Am. J. 
Pharm., xxviii, 218, an account of the experience of Dr. B. O. 
Jones, of Atlanta, Ga., with this plant. He used it with advan- 
tage as a mild, stimulating tonic and laxative, and he found it 
especially useful in typhoid fever. He prepares it by boiling 
eight ounces of the plant with two of Rumex acutus, in four 
quarts of water to a quart, and straining; adding, when the 
preparation is to be kept, an equal bulk of diluted alcohol or 
brandy, and half its weight of sugar, and macerating for several 
days. The dose is one or two tablespoonsful. 

BASTARD INDIGO, (Amorphafruticosa, L.) Florida, S. and 
N. Carolina, and Mississippi. 

This was formerly used in Carolina as an indigo plant, and 
continues to be extensively cultivated in Britain as an ornamen- 
tal shrub. Wilson's Rural Cyclopaedia. 

{Rohinia pseudacacia, L.) Grows in the mountains of N. and 
S. Carolina; vicinity of Charleston; collected in lower St. 
John's Berkeley, near Ward's plantation; Newbern. Fl. May. 

Dem. Elem. de Bot. The flowers are aromatic and emollient. 
An anti-spasmodic syrup is prepared from ihem; and Gendrin 
states that when given to infants, it produces sleep, vomiting, 
and sometimes slight convulsive movements; he relates a case 
where it was swallowed by boys, in whom acro-narcotic effects 
were induced. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 101 ; Desfont, 
Traite des Arbres, ii, 304; Ann. d'Hort. ix, 168; Ann. Clin, de 
Mont, xxiv, 68. 

Dr. Wood, in the 12th Ed. U. S. Disp., states that the bark of 
the root is said to be tonic, and in large doses, emetic and pur- 
gative, and he reports from the Ann. de Therap. 1860, p. 64, 
three cases of poisoning, in children, from eating the root; they 
all recovered; the symptoms were like those produced by an 
overdose of Belladonna. One of them who happened to be 
laboring under intermittent fever at the time, had no return of 
the paroxysm. He adds, "these facts render caution advisable 


in the use of the root, yet are also well calculated to stimulate 
inquiry." Mills states that "the best bows of the Indians were 
made of this tree." 

The inner bark is fibrous, and may be spun into cordage; the 
wood is of a fine, compact grain, and is used for manufacturing 
purposes. Mem. sur la Eobinia, Mem. de la Soc. d'Agricult. 
1786 ; Francois, Letters on the Eobinia, Paris, 1803 Griffith, 
in his Med. Bot. 239, says that it has not received sufficient 
attention, for "every part is endowed with some good qualit3^'' 
On account of its durability, the wood is much used for tree- 
nails in ship-building ; the leaves, prepared in the same manner 
as those of the indigo, may bo employed as a substitute ; they 
afford an excellent nourishment for cattle, either in the fresh or 
in the dried state. Willich, Domestic Encyc. i, x. Grossier 
(Desc. de la Chine) says that they are used by the Chinese to 
produce the beautiful yellow color so remarkable in their silks. 
It is prepared by roasting half a pound of the half expanded 
flowers in a copper pan over a gentle fire, and stirring them 
continually ; after turning yellow, water is poured over, and it 
is boiled till it acquires a deep color. It is then strained, and 
half an ounce of alum, and the same quantity of shell lime are 
added, when the dye is fit for use. It is possible that this author 
may have confounded this plant with the R. flava. Merat says 
the flowers furnish a palatable dish when fried. The seeds are 
somewhat acrid, but afford a large quantity of oil on expression. 
By infusion in water, they become perfectly mild, and contain 
an excellent farina. 

This tree, both the leaves and flowers of which are beautiful, 
has attracted great attention in England, and its seeds are 
largelj^ imported, to be planted as a hedge and ornamental 
plant, and for various purposes. Almost a mania prevailed 
upon the subject. "No other tree grows more rapidly than 
this, excepting some species of the willow and the poplar." A 
sucker at Chiswick grew twenty feet in one season, with a cir- 
cumference of three inches. When the tree is felled suckers 
spring from the trunk in gi'cat profusion. 

Large quantities are exported to Liverpool for fastening bolts 
in ship-building. C. W. Johnson and others write of it thus : 
" The wheelwright and the coach-builder have employed it for 
axle-trees of carriages; the turner has used it for various pur- 


poses of bis art, and has been delighted with its smooth texture 
and beautifully delicate straw color; fence-makers have used it 
for rail fencing and have found it to stand wet and dry near 
the ground betterthan any other timber in common use, and to 
be as durable as cedar ; landscape gardeners have planted it for 
a combination of ornament and utility. * * Farmers might 
try it for the formation of hedges, and were they to transplant 
it from the nursery when it has a height of about four feet, they 
would find it forming a hedge quite equal in compactness, 
strength, economy and manageableness, to hedges consisting of 
tried and approved plants, and a hedge available as a fence far 
earlier than any other, and capable of being raised to any de- 
sirable elevation. The flowers of the acacia tree are used in 
St. Domingo for making a distilled liquor, and its roots, and 
leaves, and juices contain a considerable proportion of sugar." 
Wilson's Encyc. Eural. The plants are easily propagated by 
pouring boiling water over the beans in the fall ; let them re- 
main twenty-four hours and plant. They grow six or seven 
feet the first season. 

The following highly interesting account of this tree, and the 
mode of cultivating it in the United States, is given by Dr. S. 
Ackerly : 

" The cultivation of the locust tree on Long Island, and in 
other parts of the State of New York, has been attended to 
with considerable profit to the agricultural interest, but not 
with that earnestness which the importance of the subject de- 
mands. This may have arisen from the difficulty of propa- 
gating it by transplanting, or not understanding how to raise it 
from the seed. * * * * * * 

"The locust is a tree of quick growth, the wood of which is 
hard, durable, and principally used in ship building. To a 
country situated like the United States, with an extensive line 
of seacoast, penetrated by numerous bays and giving rise to 
many great rivers, whose banks are covered with forests of ex- 
traordinary growth, whose soil is fertile, rich and variegated, and 
whose climate is agreeably diversified by a gradation of tem- 
perature ; to such a country, inhabited by an industrious and 
enterprising people, commerce, both foreign and domestic, 
must constitute one of the principal employments. As long as 
the country possesses the necessary timber for ship-building, 

and the other advantages which our situation aflPords, the gov- 
ernment will continue to be formidable to all other ]x)wors. 
^Ye have within ourselves four materials necessary for the com- 
pletion of strong and durable naval structures. These are the 
live-oak, locust, cedar and pine, which can be abundantl}^ supplied. 
The former is best for the lower timbers of a ship, while the 
locust and cedar form the upper-works of the frame. The pine 
supplies the timber for decks, masts and spars. A vessel built 
of live-oak, locust and cedar, will last longer than if constructed 
of any other wood. Naval architecture has arrived in this 
place, and other parts of the United States, to as great per- 
fection, perhaps, as in any other country on the globe. Our 
' fir-built frigates' have been compared with the British oak, and 
stood the test ; and in sailing, nothing has equalled the fleet- 
ness of some of our sharp vessels. The preservation and culti- 
vation of these necessary articles in ship-building is a matter of 
serious consideration. It might not be amiss to suggest to the 
Congress of the United States to prohibit the exportation o 
them. The pine forests appear almost inexhaustible, and the 
will be so in all probability for many generations to come ; but 
the stately cedars of Mobile and the lofty forests of Georgia, 
where the live-oak is of a sturdy growth, begin to disappear 
before the axe of the woodsman. The locust, a native of Vir- 
ginia and Maryland, is in such demand for foreign and domestic 
consumption that it is called for before it can attain its full 
irrowth. It has been cultivated as far eastward as lihode 
Island, but begins to depreciate in quality in that State. Insects 
attack it there, which are not so plentifull}' found in this State, 
nor its native situations. These give the timber a worm-eaten 
appearance and render it less useful. The locust has been ex- 
tensivelj'' cultivated in the southern parts of the State of New 
York, but the call for it luis been so great that few trees have 
attained any size before they were wanted for use. Hence they 
arc in great demand, and of read}' sale, and no ground can be 
appropriated for any kind of timber with so much advantage 
as locust. Beside its application to ship-building, it is exten- 
sively used for fencing; and for posts, no timber will last longer, 
in or out of the ground. On Long Island, where wood is 
scarce and fencing timber in great demand, the locust becomes 
of much local importance from this circumstance alone, inde- 


pendent of its great consumption in tliiH city among Hhip- 
builders. In naval KtriictureB it in not exclusively applied to the 
interior or frame. In many placeH where Htrength is wanting, 
locust timber will bear a strain which would break oak of the 
same size. Thus an oak tiller has been known to break near 
the head of the rudder in a gale of wind, which has never hap- 
pened with a locust one. Tillers for large sea vessels are now 
uniformly made of locust in New York. It is the best timber 
also for pins or tree-nails, (con)monly called trunnels,) and pre- 
ferable to the best of oak. The tree gencrail}' grows straight, 
with few or no large limbs, and the fibres of the wood are 
straight and parallel, which makes it split well for making tree- 
nails, with little or no loss of substance. These are made in 
considerable quantities for exportation. 

"The locust tree does not bear transplanting well in this part 
of our country, but this in all probability arises from the custom 
of cutting off the roots when taken up lor that purpose. Most 
of the roots of the locust are long, cylindrical and run horizon- 
tally not far under the surface. In transplanting, so few of the 
roots arc left to the body of the tree removed that little or no 
support is given to the top, and it consequently dies. If care 
was taken not to destroy so much of the roots a much larger 
proportion of those transplanted would live and thrive. So 
great has been the difficulty in raising the locust in this way 
that another method of propagating ii has been generally re- 
sorted to. Whenever a large tree was cut down for use, the 
ground for some distance around was plowed, by which ope- 
ration the roots near the surface were broken and forced up. 
From these roots suckers would shoot up, and the ground soon 
become covered with a grove of young trees. These, if pro- 
tected from cattle by being fenced in, would grow most rapidly, 
and the roots continuing to extend, new shoots would arise, 
and in the course of a few years a thrifty young forest of locust 
trees be produced. The leaves of the locust are. so agreeable to 
horses and cattle that the young trees must be protected from 
their approach. When growing in groves they shoot up straight 
and slender, as if striving to out-top each other, to receive the 
most benefit from the rays of a genial sun. 

" Another difficulty has arisen in propagating the locust from 
inability to raise it from the seed. The seed does not always 


come to perfection in this part of the State of New York, and 
if it does, it will not sprout, unless prepared before planting. 
The method best adapted to this purpose was proposed by Dr. 
Samuel Bard ; but it is not generally known, or if known, is not 
usually attended to. When this shall be well understood and 
practiced, the locust will be easily propagated, and then, instead 
of raising groves of them, the waste ground along fences and 
places where the Lombardy poplar encumbers the earth will 
be selected to transplant them, as by having them separated 
and single there will be an economy in using the soil, the trees 
will grow much better, and the timber be stronger. 

On account of its rapidity of growth and its use in making 
cross-ties on railroads, I would suggest that it be planted along 
railroad embankments for this purpose, 

EOSE ACACIA, (Robinia hispida ; also, Va. rosea.) Moun- 
tains of Georgia and North Carolina. Chapman. 

Wilson speaks of it as a "remarkably beautiful shrub." Its 
shoots of each year, or newest and freshest twigs, cany the 
flowers; so that its old wood may be annually pruned away to 
any extent which the taste of the cultivator or the situation of 
the plants may require. The flowers are large, odorless, and of 
a beautiful rose color. See, also, nearlj' all the English and 
Scotch authorities. 

" Dr. Bard's method of preparing the seeds was to pour boil- 
ing water on them, and let it stand and cool. The hard, outer 
coat would thus be softened, and if the seed swelled by this 
operation, it might be planted, and would soon come up." 

CLAMMY LOCUST, (Eobinia viscosa, Vent.) Grows among 
the mountains of S. and N. C, and in Georgia. Fl. May. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 101. The young branches 
afford an abundant, glossy exudation, secreted by little super- 
ficial glands, wiiich is dissolved by ether ; Vauquelin considers 
it a peculiar product : An. de Chim. xxvii, 223. Chevalier, 
however, doubts it: Diet, des Drogues, iii, 15. 

JAPAN CLOVER; WILD CLOVER, {Lespedeza striata, 
Hooker and Arnott.) Introduced ; Miss, to N. C. 

This plant has recently (1868) attracted great attention as a 
new forage plant, springing up everywhere and attracting uni- 
versal inquiry from farmers and phmters in eveiy portion of the 
Southern countrj^. I have received letters from a number of 


persons asking for information concerning it, as it seemed to 
take the place of other plants, and was greedily eaten by horses, 
cattle and Iiogs. It causes slight salivation in the former. It 
grows abundantly on waste lands, under pine saplings, and 
drives out joint, nut and Bermuda grasses. It is a mistake to 
suppose, however, that it is of recent introduction, as my 
friend, Mr. H. "W. liavenel, of Aiken, S. C, had noticed it in St. 
John's Berkeley, S. C, many years since, and I had sent him 
specimens from Fairfield District, S. C, fifteen years ago. Mr. 
R. having ascertained that it was a Lespedeza has recently 
obtained the specific name from Prof Gray, and the former, in 
an article written in the Aiken Press, first proposed the name 
Japan Clover for it, as it is a native of that distant country. 
Dr. Jno. Bachman has also made it the subject of a communica- 
tion in the Charleston Courier. 

It covers the earth as with a carpet of green ; it is highly 
nourishing and has proved a great acquisition to our people. 
The seed is not winged, and it must be rapidly propagated 
through the instrumentality of animals. See, also. Dr. L. E. 
Berckman's paper before the Agricult. Club of Augusta, Ca., 
1866. I introduce the following slip as a specimen of numerous 
notices concerning the plant. It is from the Laurensville (S. C.) 
Herald : 

" Wild Clover. — A new grass, which is generally called in this 
section by the name of Wild Clover, is springing up luxuriantly 
all over this district, and, we see from our exchanges, all over 
the Southern States. It grows almost everywhere, and seems 
to take hold even on the washed and galled parts of land, as if 
it would redeem both the looks and fertility of the country. 
It appears to be a dwarf clover, is very thick set, and covers 
the earth with a beautiful carpet of green. We have heard 
that a single root sends out as. many as six hundred branches. 
It is much relished by cattle, and is said to be exterminating 
the Bermuda, Joint, Sedge, and all other grasses. We see that 
it is attracting much attention in Middle Georgia." 

A friend in Orangeburg writes: "The plant grows best on a 
rich clay soil, but does well on sandy lands — and even in the 
shade, up to the roots of trees, but is not seen on lands worked 
within a year or two. It sometimes grows to two feet high. 
The St. Matthew's planters (where it abounds) speak of it as a 


blessing, as fodder has been scarce, and it puts out very earl}', 
and cattle and horses are fond of it ; although, like Clover, it 
salivates them at first. I have a lawn with a number of mules 
and cattle feeding on it ; but like rye they do not appear to 
destroy it." 

Mr. Eavenel has published an article on this plant in " The 
Land we Love," 1868, January and February, I have exam- 
ined the roots, which are long and fibrous, and which penetrate 
and flourish even in sandy roads and in yards. The seed should 
be gathered for sale. 

DOLLAE-PLANT, {Rhyncosia tomentosa ?) Diff'used in dry 
pine lands. 

This plant, receiving its name probably from the shape of 
the leaf, is reputed, in the neighborhood of Aiken, S. C, and 
elsewhere, to be a valuable agent in arresting troublesome 
diarrhoea. A tea is given several times a day. Several cases 
have come to my knowledge where it was successfully em- 
ployed — no doubt on account of the tannin contained in it, as 
is evident from the taste. 

TAEE, {Vicia sativa, Linn. Walter.) Grows abundantly 
around Charleston. N. C. Fl. June. 

In England, a decoction of the seeds in water is used as a 
sudorific in small-pox and measles. The seeds are a good food 
for pigeons. Fl. Scotica, 396 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 
vi, 892. 

GAEDEN BEAN, (Ficia/a6a.) Cultivated. 

Pisum sativum. Pea. 

Great use is made of the varieties of the pea on our planta- 
tions in South Carolina, as articles of food for men and animals. 
The species called the cow-pea is most in use. I have been 
unable to find any accurate botanical description of this very 
valuable plant. It seems, however, from my examination, to 
be included under the genus Vicia. 

A soup made of the cow-pea, which is a very common dish 
at the South, is much used by nursing women to increase the 
amount of milk, as it is believed to be endowed with some 
special virtues as a galactagogue. It failed completely in a 
case where I had it used most assiduously. See, also, castor 
oil plant. 


David Dickson, one of the most successful planters in (xoorgia, 
in his letters, republished in So. Cultivator for January, 1869, 
says that the chief thing added to the soil by a clover crop, are 
carbon and ammonia. " In the South the cow-pea will answer 
the same end, if sown early, manured with two hundred pounds 
of Peruvian Guano, and turned under from the Ist of July to 
the Ist of August ; then at the same time seeded again with 
peas, using one hundred pounds guano. Peed off with hogs and 
beef cattle, which will generally pay for all expenses, and leave 
the land twenty dollars better. * * All acknowledge the 
importance of turning under green crops. The only thing lost 
by their drying is their ammonia." '' The farmers of the North- 
ern States are improving their lands almost entirely by in- 
creasing their supplies of ammonia, growing hay, clover, oats 
and rye, and keeping stock to eat these crops annually ; not 
gaining, but losing phosphates and gaining nitrogen — making 
the land rich, and the land making the owner rich. Ammonia 
is the foundation of English agriculture. Ammonia from the 
atmosphere, ammonia from Peruvian Guano, ammonia from the 
turnip, hay and clover, etc., returning merely the bone earth to 
the soil, which has been extracted by ammonia, which last is 
constantly increasing in its relative amount." 

Amjyhicarpa monoica. Grows in rich lands. Fl. July. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, ii, 322. The subterranean pod is culti- 
vated as a vegetable. 

(Arachis hypogma.) Brought by the negroes from Africa. Fl. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med.; Supplem. 53, 1846. The 
fruit preserves its germinative powers for forty years. Boudich 
Excurs. 392. Large quantities are exported from Senegal on 
account of the oil which is expressed ft-om them, and which is 
much valued. Ermandel "on the cultivation of the groundnut, 
and its employment as a substitute for coffee," Journal de la 
Litter. Etrang. ix, 169 ; Du Buc, Mem. on the use of A. hypog., 
and an examination of its oil, (in French ;) see Journal de 
Pharm. viii, 231 ; Rivoli, Lettre sur I'Arachis hypogaea, Milan, 
1807 ; Donmen, Notice sur I'Arachis, Montpellier, 1838. Ac- 
cording to the analysis of Pagen and Henry, it is very difficult 
for the oil to become rancid. Journal de Chim. Med. i, 435 ; 


Ann. de Hist. Nat. iv, 206 ; Gurnin, Mem. sur I'Arachis, Bib- 
lioth. Physice Econ. i, 145 ; Tessier, Mem. sur I'Arachis, Avig- 
non. The seeds, parched and ground, can with difficulty be 
distinguished trom coifee, as I have myself experienced. In 
some portions of South Carolina it is employed as a substitute. 
The okra (Hibiscus esmlentus) sei'ves the same purpose. 

In a letter from Mr. W. G. Simms, dated Woodlands, 1863, 
he writes as follows : 

" You speak of the groundnut as a substitute for coffee. But 
as coffee it is a very inferior thing to its use as chocolate. The 
manufacture of chocolate cakes out of the groundnut alone and 
without a particle of cocoa, is an immense and most profitable 
part of jSTorthern manufacture. We make it in my family of a 
quality not inferior to any you buy. To prepare it for the table 
it is beaten in a mortar. At the North, I have been told that 
the hulls are ground up with the nut, and I do not doubt that 
this is an improvement as "qualifying the exceeding richness of 
the nut, which I have usually found too rich prepared as choco- 
late in our way." 

The groundnut and bene make rich and nutritious soup, and 
act as substitutes for meat. They are often parched, and beaten 
up with sugar, and served as a condiment or dessert. The 
groundnut is cultivated to some extent in the Southern States, 
and great, use is made of it on the plantations as an article of 
food, and for various domestic purposes ; it is exported with 
profit, but troublesome to prepare. I am not aware of any use 
being made in the Carolinas of the oil which it affords on ex- 
pression. The authorities cited above will afford much valuable 

The above was published in my report on Med. Botany of S., 
1849. Since the war it is largely emploj^ed. The superintend- 
ent of the Rockfish Factory in North Carolina, writes that he 
has " used the peanut oil by the side of the sperm, and that 
it works fully as well." 

The N. C. Advertiser publishes the following: "The vine, 
when the pea is removed, makes an excellent forage for cattle, 
said to be equal to the best Northern hay. From the nut is 
expressed a valuable oil. During the war this oil was exten- 
sively used in our machine shops, and its lubricatory properties 
are pronounced by competent authority to be superior to those 


of whale oil, for the reason that it does not gum at all. One 
quality of the oil is extensively employed in the composi- 
tion of medicines ; another is used for burning purposes, and 
possesses the virtue of not smoking, while a third makes a 
really excellent salad condiment. Such, and so varied and 
important, are the uses to which this simple product can be 
devoted — uses which the uninformed, who have, perhaps, re- 
garded it only in the light of an indigestible bulb, would never 
suspect to proceed from its cultivation." 

The oil was expressed by screw pressure by parties near 
Manning, S. C. Mr. Dyson obtained three quarts of oil from 
a bushel of the nuts. 

Dr. Wood states that it is a non-drying oil and will not do 
for painting, but is used for various purposes in the arts, for 
lubricating machinery and in the manufacture of. woollen cloth; 
and would serve, adds Dr. Wood, for burning in lamps, giving 
even a better light than sperm oil. Am. J. Pharm., July, 1860. 
U. S. Disp., 12th Ed. 

SWEET LOCUST; HONEY LOCUST, {Gleditschia triaf:an- 
thus, L.) Diffused. As far west as Mississippi ; 1 have seen it 
in the lower and upper districts of South Carolina ; N. C. 

Beer is sometimes made by fermenting the sweet pods while 
fresh. The pores of the wood are very open. When perfectly 
seasoned, the wood is extremely hard. It is far inferior to the 
black walnut, or wild cherry for cabinet-making. Hedges of it 
are rendered impenetrable by its long thorns. Michaux, in 
Farmer's Encyc. Mills' Statistics of S. C. 

WILD SENNA, (Cassia Marylandica, Jj.) Grows along the 
banks of rivers ; vicinity of Charleston ; N. C. Fl. July. 

Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 135; Griffith's Med. Bot. 261. It is 
said to be as safe and as certain in its operation as the imported 
senna, but more apt to gripe ; this may be corrected by infusing 
fennel seed or some other aromatic with the leaves. It is pre- 
pared in large quantities by the Shakers, and is generally col- 
lected after the seeds ripen ; one ounce of the leaves is added 
to one pint of hot water, of which the dose is one to three 
ounces, repeated, I have specimens of the leaves of the offi- 
cinal senna, which is cultivated successfully by Mr. W. Lucas, 
of South Carolitia, for use on his plantation. He says that it 
does not appear to degenerate. 


STYPTIC WEED ; FLOEIDA COFFEE, (Cassia occidentalis, 
L. Cassia Caroliniana, Walt.) Common around old buildings ; 
collected in St. John's; vicinity of Charleston ; N. C. It is be- 
coming a pest to the farmer. Fl. July. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 130; Marcgrave, in his 
Hist, of Brazil, mentions it as a remedy in the poison of ven- 
omous animals and in strangury. In the Supplem. to Merat, p. 
150, 1846, properties are ascribed to it similar to those of the C. 
hirsuta, which is diuretic, acting on the lymphatic system, and 
employed in obstructions, debility, dropsy caused by derange- 
ment of the digestive organs, and as a vermifuge also ; forty 
grains, parched like coffee, are used. It is useful as an applica- 
tion, in the form of a decoction of the leaves, in itch, erysipela- 
tous eruptions, irritation and inflammation of the rectum. The 
negroes apply the leaves, smeared with grease, as a dressing for 
sores. Griffith, Med. Bot. 262; Bouditch, Exper. 392; Cher- 
noviz. Form. 222. Once thought lo be very valuable as a sub- 
stitute for coffee; roots said to be injurious to hogs. 

GOLDEN CASSIA, (Cassia chamaicrista, L.) Diffused in dry, 
sandy soils ; collected in St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston ; 
Newbern. Fl. July. 

Trans. Am. Phil. Soc; Shec. Flora Carol. 390 ; Mer. and de 
L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 129. The leaves are said to be purga- 
tive. It grows in abundance in South Carolina and elsewhere 
and should be examined. It is emploj^ed in poi'tions of the 
country for the recovery of worn-out lands ; those that are 
sandy being particularly benefited by it. See Greenway's ac- 
count of its domestic uses. Op. ant. cit. 

Cassia tora, L. Diffused in cultivated soils ; vicinity of 
Charleston. Fl. Sept. 

Supplem. to Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 1846,150; 
Ainslie's Mat. Med. Ind. ii, 405. Used in India. 

EEDBUD; JUDAS TEEE, {Cercis canadensis, Ij.) Swamps 
vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. John's; N. C. Fl. March. 

Shec, Flora Carol. 380. " The wood is of great value for 
mechanical purposes, as it polishes exceedingly well, and is ad- 
mirably veined with black and green." Mills, in his Statistics 
of S. C, states that the blossoms are used as a salad. 

Pithecolobium ungiiis-cati, Benth. Inga U7iquis-cati, Willd. S. 
Fla. Chap. Said to be a good remedy in urinary complaints 


and obstruction of the liver and spleen ; a decoction of the 
bark is very astringent. Macfadyen. 

ci-oTVTOTrrTT7-o T7-TTVT-C1 ] SchninJiia cinqustata, T, and G. 
SENSITIVE VINE, | Schrankia uncinata, Ell. Sk. 

Grows in pine lands ; N. and S. C. Fl. July. 

The leaves of this plant possess a remarkable degree of sen- 
sibility or irritability, closing up immediately upon contact with 
any surface. I have repeated upon this plant, and in a measure 
verified the experiments with chloroform and sulphuric ether 
upon the Mimosa sensitiva, made by Prof. Marcet, of Geneva, in 
illustration of the relations existing between animal and vege- 
table irritability.* After trying a number of substances, in- 
cluding the tinctures of opium, capsicum and camphor, and the 
solutions of tartar emetic, sulp. morphine, and hyd. potash, 
without producing any impi'ession, I ascertained that the two 
anaesthetic agents alone, when placed on the main petiole of 
the leaves, had, in about five minutes, their influence gradually 
extended to those above, causing the leaflets to contract seriatim. 
Though sensibility to impressions was impaired by each suc- 
cessive attempt, yet it was never entirely lost. The result of 
my observations differed from those of Prof. Marcet, but agreed 
with De Candollo in his analogous experiments with nitric and 
sulp. acids, in its not disclosing any impressions transmitted 
downward, or at any rate beyond the junction of the branch 
experimented on with the main limb of the plant. A drop of 
the oil of aniseed placed on a leaf-stalf seemed to have the 
effect of arresting the transit of any influence beyond it; hence, 
we may be led to suspect that the impression is conveyed by 
organs of sensation or of contractility or irritability, arranged 
not far from the surface. In the examination I was assisted by 
Dr. Bene Eavenel. 

In sensitive plants. Mimosa, for example, the movements of 
the leaves, says Mr. C, Mackensie, quoted by Wilson, have their 
origin in certain enlargements situated at the articulation of 
the leaflets with the petiole, and of the petiole with the stem. 
If by a longitudinal section the lower half of this swelling be 
removed, the petiole will remain depressed, having lost the 
power of elevating itself. If the superior half be removed, the 

*Read before the Soc. de Phys. et d'Hist Nat., Oct. 19th, 1840. See, 
also, Sill. Journal, July, 1849. 


petiole will remain constantly elevated, having lost the power 
of depressing itself. These facts prove that the motions of the 
petiole depend on the alternate turgescence of the upper and 
lower half of the enlargement, situated at the point of articula- 
tion, and that contractility is not the principle of these mo- 
tions. The irritation of a burning lens, for example, is felt 
either above or below. This interior movement, M, Dutrochet 
found, was transmitted equally well, even though a ring of bark 
has been removed ; that it is transmissible even though the 
bark and pith be removed, so that nothing remains to commu- 
nicate between the two parts of the skin except the woody 
fibres and vessels; that it is transmissible even when the two 
parts communicate merely by a shred of bark ; and that it may 
be transmitted even when the communication exists by the pith 
only ; but that it is not transmissible when the communication 
exists only by the cortical parench3^ma. From these very in- 
teresting experiments, it results that the interior movement 
produced by irritation is propagated by the ligneous fibres and 
the vessels. The propagation is more rapid in the petioles than 
in the body of the stem, the rapidity having been computed. 
Absence of light during a certain time completely destroys the 
irritability of the plant. The return of the sun's influence 
readily restores the plant to its irritable state. " It appears, 
therefore, that it is by the action of light that the vital proper- 
ties of vegetables are supported as it is by the action of oxygen 
that those of animals are preserved ; consequently, etiolation is 
to the former what asphyxia is to the latter." Eural Cyc. 

M. M. Bert and Blondeau have been experimenting on the 
contractions of the Sensitive Plant, as I see by a paper sent me 
by Prof Gray, of Boston, (1868.) 

M. Blondeau experimented on plants with the induced gal- 
vanic current of a Euhnkorff's coil. He submitted three plants 
to the influence of the electric current. The first was operated 
on for five minutes ; the plant when left to itself seemed pros- 
trated, but after a while (a quarter of an hour) the leaves 
opened and it seemed to recover itself. The second was acted 
on for ten minutes. This specimen was prostrated for an hour, 
after which it slowly recovered. The third specimen was gal- 
vanized for twenty-five minutes, but it never recovered, and in 
twenty-four hours it had the appearance of a plant struck by 


lightning. A fourth plant was etherized, and then exposed to 
the current. Strange to say the latter bad not any effect, the 
leaves remained straight and open ; thus proving, says M. Blon- 
deau, that the mode of contraction of the leaves of the senitive 
plant is in some vfnj allied to the muscular contraction of ani- 

CALYCANTHAaE. {The Carolina Allspice Tribe.) 

Flowers aromatic and fragrant. 

SWEET SHEUB. {Calycarithus Floridus, Linn.) Specimens 
from Aiken : I have observed it growing wild in Fairtield Dis- 
trict, S. C. Fl. May. 

One of the most aromatic and sweet scented of our indigenous 
plants; cultivated on tliis account in gardens. Dr. Jno. 
Douglass, of Chester District, S. C, sends me a communication 
rom his correspondent, Mr. McKeown, who says he has fre- 
quently*used it with satisfaction, as an anti-spasmodic tonic, in 
the cure of chronic agues. A strong decoction of the seed or 
bark of the root is given. The wood is strongly camphorated, 
especially the root, and Mr. Nuttall thinks will probably pro- 
duce this drug as abundantly as the Laurus camphora. The 
seeds seldom mature. 

MYKTACB^. {The Myrtle Tribe.) 

Eugenia^ Micheli. Allspice family. 

Several species of this genus are found in South Florida. See 
Chapman's Southern Flora. The oil from the berries should bo 
examined, as they are closely i-elated to the clove bearing trees, 
Caryophilus. The timber of most ^^^^enias is useful and good. 
Like the myrtles, their bark abounds in tannin, their soft parts 
contain a more volatile oil, and the fruit of some, though ren- 
dered somewhat disagreeable by the aroma of the oil, are edible. 
Wilson's Eural Cyc. 

SAXIFRAGACE^. {The Saxifrage Tribe.) 

De Cand. considers the whole order as more or less astrin- 


Heuchera Villosa, Mx. Heuchera caulescens, Pursh. Moun- 
tains of North Carolina and Tennessee. The roots are ex- 

tremoly iiatringont, and wore used as styptics and in apthous 
sore mouth. Rafincsquo Med. Flor. Properties same as those 
of Jl. Americana. 

ALUM-ROOT, (IfeMchera Americana, L.) Grows in damp 
soils; Richland; collected in St. John's; Charleston District; 
found also in (Jeorgia; Newhern. 

Coxo's Am. Disp^ 112 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 163 ; U. S. Disp. 
390 ; Barton's Collec; Mich. Flora Boreal. Americana, i, 171. 
"A powerful astringent." The powder was employed by the 
aborigines in wounds and cancerous ulcers. Bart. M. Bot. ii, 
159 ; Mer and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 490. It is also admin- 
istered as a substitute for Colocynth. It is used in decoction, 
tincture or syrup, wherever an astringent is required — as in 
diarrhoea, piles, menorrhagia, etc., etc. These plants may serve 
the purposes of Rhatany, Kino and Catechu. 

Hydrangea arborescens, L., Hydratu/ea vulgaris, Mx., Hydrangea 
cordata. Ph. Florida to Mississippi and northward. 

Dr. S. W. Butler, of Burlington, New Jersey, introduced this 
plant into notice through the New Jersey Medical Report. He 
states that his father whilst on a mission to the Cherokees, 
learned of them (he merits of this plant in the treatment of 
gravel and stono, and has himself emploved it foi' many years in 
an extensive practice among a people peculiarly subject to those 
complaints. He considers it a most valuable medicine, jiossessed, 
perhaps, of speciric properties. Dr. Parrish, in his Practical 
Pharm. in noticing the above, has modified Dr. B.'s formula for 
its preparation thus: Hydrangea, sixteen ounces; water, six 
pints or sulticient, boil the root in successive portions, mix theni 
and evaporate to half a pint ; mix this with two pints of honey 
and evaporate to two pints. In the summer season push the 
evaporation somewhat further and add a half a pint of l)randy. 
The dose of this tluid extract is a teaspoonful twice or three 
times a day. Dr. P. says he has prepared it for several j'ears 
and has dispensed it under the direction of several practitioners 
to numerous patients, and with general satisfactory results, in 
irritable conditions of the urethra, though its value as a specific 
remedy requires confirmation. Op. cit. 205. 

In the 12th Ed. U. S. Disp. an analysis by Mr. Laidley, of 
Richmond, Ya., is referred to, (Am. J. Pharm. xxiv, 20.) Drs. 

Atlee, Horslcy and Monkun, are also said to have confirmed 
the opinion of its utility "in sabulous or gravelly deposits." N. 
J. Med. Eeport, September, 1854, October, 1854, and March, 
1855. In overdose it occasions vertigo and oppression of the 
chest. U. S. Disp. 

BTJRSEEACEiE. {The Torchwood Tribe.) 

TORCHWOOD, {Amyris Floridana, Nutt.) South Florida. 

Nearly all the species afford fine materials in both their resin 
and their wood for fragrant incense and delightful pastiles. 
AVilson's Rural Cye. Our species should be examined. A South 
American species yields a gum which makes one of the best of 
known varnishes. Frankincense is said to be got fi'ora the 
Pinus tceda. The Bursera gummifera, Jacq. of Florida, also 
yields a balsam called Chibou resin. 

ANACARDIACE^. {The Cashew Tribe.) 

Trees abounding in a resinous, sometimes acrid, highly 
poisonous juice, are the ordinary representatives of this order. 

POISON OAK, (BMis toxicodendron, T. & Gray ; Rhus radi- 
cans of authors.) Diffused; common in pine lands; vicinity of 
Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. July. 

Trous. et. Pid. Mat. Med. i, 524; Bell's Pract. Diet. 453; 
Eberle, Mat. Med. ii, 116 ; Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 603; Ed. and Vav. 
Mat. Med. 345 ; U. S. Disp. 718 ; Ball, and Gar. Mat. Med. 241; 
Royle, Mat. Med. 341 ; Bergii, Mat. Med. i, 248; Mer. and de L. 
Diet, de M. Med. vi, 78 ; Orfila, Toxicologic Gen. i, 45 ; Ann. de 
Chim. XXXV, 186 ; An. Journal de Med. Ixxx, 136; Eberle, Mat. 
Med. ii, 117; Ell. Bot. 363; Alibert, Elems. de Therap. i, 452; 
Big. Am. Med. Bot. iii, 20 ; Du Fresnoi, quoted in Ann. of Med. 
V, 182, and 483 ; Med. and Phys. Journal, i, 308 ; vii, 273; and 
x,486; Duncan's Disp. 294; Bu'l. Plantes Ven. de France, 146. 

It produces in those who come into its vicinity an erysipela- 
tous inflammation. It is stimulant and narcotic, employed in 
paralysis and herpes ; of the former disease, seventeen cases are 
reported by one physician to have been successfully treated with 
it. The juice which exudes on plucking the stem makes a good 
indelible ink. It is dissolved by ether. Bigelow thinks it is 
composed of a resin and an essential oil. Pui*ging with neutral 


siilts, (ho iiso t>l' opium, blood-letting utul cold applications of 
ttcetjito of load arc oinployod in caso of poisoiiiiii«; from those 
plants. Tho hruisod loaves of tho Collinsonid c<ind(U'Hfiis (which 
grows in tho Southern States) are also employed for the erup- 
tions caused by tho emanations from the poisonous sumachs, 
and tho W'rbt'iia urtici/olia, growing in tho South, is likewise 
considered an antidote. Dr. A. Livezej', of Ponn., as quotectby 
Dr. Wood, strongh' recommends a saturated tincture of lobelia 
as a local application in this atVection. Ho applies it by means 
of linen cloths, (Boston JMed. and Surg. Journal iv, 2G2.) Dr. 
Proctor uses an alkaline solution applied immediately after ex- 
posure with excellent eftbct, and he tinds that Monsel's solution, 
introduced bj- a jiointed instrument into the vesicle, renders it 
abortive. (Am. J. Pharm. lSli3, JSov.) U. S. Disp., 12th Ed. 
Ilorsofield, in his Diss., states that ho administered the infusion 
in consumptive and anasarcous patients. Dn Fresnoi reports 
cases of herpetic eruption cured by preparations of this plant; 
also 'four cases of palsy. Dr. Aldorson, of Hull, has given it 
with good ertect in doses of one-half to one grain, three times a 
day, in pai-alysis. Mer. and do Ij. Drct. do .M. Med. Supplem. 
1840, 627. Dr. Baudelocquo employs it with success in the 
chronic ophthalmia of scrofulous infants, a coUyrium being made 
of tho alcoholic tincture. Four drachms in two ounces of water 
is used, afterward augmenting the dose. Ivov. Mod. Nov. 183G; 
A. Howroarth's Hist. li. Toxicod. in Essai Mod. du Docteur Al- 
dorson, Lond. 1793; Fontana, Traite do la vip«^-e, ii, 169; Ali- 
bort, M. Mod. i, 450. Some have inoculated themselves with it 
without injury. Biblioth. Med. xxvi, 3^5. "On cite un cas 
mortel par suite d'atlouchemeut des parties sexuelles aprcs 
avoir manio des ramoaux do co vegetal:" Mor. loe. cit. See 
Annal. in Journal do Chim. In employing it lor ring-worm Du 
Fresnoi increased the dose of the extract till it amounted to 
eight grains a day. "Novel effects concerning a dangerous 
American plant," by Gloditch, (in French ;) see Journal do 
Physic, 1782; Du Fresnoi, in Actes do la Soc. do Mod. do Brux- 
ollos, i, 136 ; Wursur, sur lo P. Toxicod.; Actes do La Soc. Econ. 
do Florence, iii, 138 ; and observations by AVilhmot on the effects 
of this plant, in Journal de Med. de Courv. i, 209; Employ. R. 
Tox. in Thesis, at Montpellier; Ann. de Clinique, vi, 343. 
Heinning's case of paralysis, cured by R. rad. in Bull, des Sc. 


Med. do Ferus, iv, 262. It in employed in maladies arising from 
general debility, and defective inriervation. A French writer 
testifies to the efficacy of this plant in homoeopathic doses, in all 
cutaneous diseases. Dr. Alderson prefers the infusion of the 
recent leaves ; Van Mons the extract of the dried leaves. By 
analysis, it contains a very combustible " hydrocarbonate," 
tannin, gallic acid, resin, gummy substance, fecula, etc. Grif- 
fith's Med. Bot. 185; and Stephenson and Churchill, iii, 167; 
Bull, des Sc. Med. vi, 98 ; Bull de la Facult. v. 439. An acrimo- 
nious vapor, combined with carburetted hydrogen, exhales from 
a growing plant of the poison oak sumach during the night, can 
be collected in a jar, and is capable of inflaming and blistering 
the skin of persons of excitable constitution who plunge their 
arms into it. The yellow, milky juice turns dark, and forms 
one of the best indelible inks for marking linen, and is used by 
the Japanese as a varnish. Rural Cyc. See varnish sumach, 
(R. vefhix.) 

SMOOTH SUMACH, (Rhus glabra, Linn.) Grows in the 
upper districts; found near Columbia, and Augusta, Ga., in wet 
soils. N. C. Fl. May. 

"If the bark of the root is boiled in equal parts of milk and 
water, forming, witli flour, a cataplasm, it will cure burns with- 
out leaving a scar." The excrescences have been preferred, as 
an astringent, to tannin or gallic acid. Dr. Walters employed 
and substituted them for galls; their sourness is supposed to be 
owing to malic acid, which is contained in the pubescence. 
According to Dr. Cozzens, also, of New York, they are astrin- 
gent and" refrigerant, furnishing with water a cooling drink, 
useful in inflammation and ulceration of the throat. The 
excrescences on the leaves of the R. glabra, which I have 
gathered (1862) on Tiger Creek, Spartanburg District, are as 
large as persimmons — resemble fruit in appearance — are power- 
fully astringent, and contain moving bodies resembling seeds 
attached to the inner walls, surrounded by a white, cottony sub- 
stance, probably . embryo animals. These glandular excres- 
cences are showy. I would recommend them as a perfect sub- 
stitute for tannin. I have dried and powdered them. They 
are a pure astringent. From the experiments of Dr. Stenhouse, 
(U. vS. Disp., 12th Ed.,) it appears that the tannic acid of sumach 
is identical with that of galls ; malic acid and binoxalaleof lime 


coexist in the berries, (W. J. Watson,) and Prof. Eogers sug- 
gests the procuring of malic acid from this source. Dr. Fahne- 
stock states that an infusion of the inner bark of the root is 
employed as a gargle, and is considered almost as a specific in 
the sore throat attending mercurial salivation. An infusion of 
the leaves sweetened with honey is serviceable, applied in the 
same way, and for cleansing the mouth in putrid fevers. The 
bark is considered a febrifuge. Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 166 ; U. 
S. Disp. 598; Am. Journal Med. Sci. 561 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, 
de M. Med. vi, 77, where its employment as a gargle is alluded 
to; Eev. Medicale, i, 1830, 307; Griffith, Med. Bot. 106. The 
decoction of the root is used by the Indian doctors in the treat- 
ment of gonorrhoea and gleet, and as a wash in ulcers. In 
other words, it is an astringent. The bark of this, the R. copal, 
and the R. typhmum, and of the European species, acts as a 
mordant for red colors, and much use is made of it in the tan- 
ning of morocco leather. A vinegar may be prepared from the 
berries of this species. 

I introduce the replies of several correspondents of the 
Charleston Courier (1862) to inquiries concerning the sumach. 

Dr. Abner Lewis Hammond writes : 

" The Rhus Glabra I consider identical with that so exten- 
sively grown for export and manufacturing purposes in Sicily. 
The difference, as seen in the size of the leaves, tree, etc., is at- 
tributable, no doubt, only to a difference in locality, soil and 
cultivation, and to no other. I have seen it flourishing alike on 
the mountain slopes and in the valleys of Virginia ; on the rich 
table lands and bottoms of Kentucky, Tennessee and Illinois; 
on the flinty ridges and barren mineral lands of Missouri. Under 
cultivation it suckers freely. Looking at its value and impor. 
tance as a manufacturing agent or material, and its easy pro- 
duction, I have long wondered at its total neglect, and feel no 
hesitancy in saj'ing that with the same care given to its culti- 
vation by our people as by the Sicilians, it could be as suc- 
cessfully and profitably raised in the one as the other country, 
and should, under existing circumstances, be neglected no 
longer. Hundreds and thousands of bags, at heavy expense, 
are annually imported into the United States for tunning and 
other purpoi^es, yielding to the growers (after expense) a remu- 
nerating profit. The berries, the bark of the tree and roots, 


have for years furniehed the country people here and in the 
West a most substantial dyestuff, (a brilliant black,) while its 
prepared leaves (ground) have been as steadily used (to the 
full extent of the available quantit}') in the preparation of mo- 

A correspondent from South Carolina saj-s : 

" Your article and a subsequent communication lead me to 
believe there is more importance in the sumach than I ever at- 
tached to it. I have gathered bushels of the berry on the 
mountains in this State for the purpose of having the wool dyed 
black for the woof of our home-made jeans. I will try its use 
in shoemakers' wax (as recommended.) There can be any 
quantity gathered in this section. 

"Should any one wish to try dyeing wool, they will find it 
one of the handsomest black dyes known to me." 

Dr. Wm. Jeuson, of Charleston, writes : 

" Sumach — Rhus Glabra — figured also as Rhus Yirginicum, 
better known as smooth sumach, and variously called Pennsyl- 
vania sumach, upland sumach, is a native of most parts of the 
continent of North America. Grows in dry, uncultivated places 
flowering early in July, and succeeded b}' dense clusters of 
crimson berries, which, when mature, (about early autumn,) are 
covered with a whitish and very acid efflorescence (often used 
to make vinegar in country localities.) The bark and leaves are 
astringent, and said to be used in tanning leather and in dyeing. 
Excrescencies are produced under the leaves resembling galls in 
character. These have been used by Dr. Walters, of New York, 
who thought them in every respect preferable to imported 
galls. The only officinal part is the berries, which are used as 
a refrigerant and febrifuge, though Dr. Fahnestock speaks 
highly of an infusion made from the inner rind or bark of the 
root, for a wash and gargle in the sore mouth attending inor- 
dinate mercurial salivation. The writer's own experience has 
been to use the berries in impure water, or when that was not 
to be obtained, to put them into the mouth to allay the thirst 
attendant upon riding through the hot, unsheltered and fre- 
quently waterless prairies of the far West. He also knows that 
a syrup made with the berries is successfully used in the fall 
fluxes, while a drink made with them is a favorite remedy in 
many localities in febrile attacks. In the sickly year of 1853 

240 I 

the Avritor used thoiu (the borrios") eonstiuitly, although tiv- 
qiiontly chauixing his atmOv^phoro iVom the iVoo, open prairio 
to tho I'onliuod postiKnuial air of a eity with yellow tVvor 
ravaging it, ami without oxperionoing tho slightest indispo- 

James reokliain. of Columbia, South (.\u-oUna. ailds : 

"1 have often wondered that no one here luis engageii in its 
eultivation, or rather in gathering and preparing it for market, 
as it gi-ows all over the eountrv." 

The following was eommunieated bj^ Mr. C\ II. Woodin. of 

"1 notieo in the Courier an impiiry in reganl to the use of 
the sumach, which grows so abundantly in the lower portions 
of our State. Your correspondent informs us that it is very 
beneticial in making shoewax, consequently it was called shoe- 
mach. But the sumach is not only used for making wax, but it 
is extensivel)* used in the New England and Northern States 
for tanning purposes. 

"The sumach leaf is invaluable in tanning tine hog skins ami 
skirting, and it is shipped in great quantities from South 
America to all the principal tanneries in the North. 

>'The process is this: It is well known to every tanner that 
the most important thing in making good leather is to have it 
pivperly colored, and that it is not crisped or parched on the 
grain in the ' handlers.' " 

The shoemae leaf is put into a vat which is intended tor a 
" handler," and then the vat is tilled with clean, fresh water, 
and when it has stood UTitil the strength is entirely out of the 
leaf, the skin or stock is taken from tho"fttnY,'' rinsed in the 
"pool," and then placed in the -handler." The stock is then 
turned or handled as in other processes, until the grain is 
properly colored. It is then taken through the regular pro- 
cess of tanning, and when it is scoured it is perfectly white. 
The stock should be tanned with white oak, or some other kind 
of mild bark. "The advantage of the sumach is this: That 
the stock comes out fair and good, while in other processes the 
grain has to be made white by acids, which injures the stock 
very much. Tanners intending to make fair leather would do 
well to make a note ot' this information." 

See " Sweet Gum " (^Zi"(/M/(/(;//i')(;r) for my examination ot' this, 
the sumach and other /t*art>\ as substitutes for oak bark. 


Sumach hcrrian in layerw with wool and boiled will dyo 
hiaek 'wUhout coppc/rdH. Vifiegar and ruwty iron will often fix 
colorH without the aid of copperaH. Sumac herrieK ground up 
are used for flavoring tobacco. The powdered leaves are Home- 
times mixed with tobacco to dimininh the strength. The writer 
liaH often uHcd them in tliiw way. In Danville, Va., the peach 
leaf Ih often em[>loyed aluo to flavor tobacco. 

DIOR, (Rhus vernix, L., Ell. Sk., Rhus venenata, D, C.) Grows 
in the upper districts and in Greorgia; collected in St. John's; 
vicinity oi' Charleston. Fl. June. 

Mer. and de L, M. Med. vi, 82 ; Lindley, Phil. 'J'ran«. 
vi, Abndg. 507; Sherard, do. 508; Kalm's Travels, i, 77 ; Mar- 
shall's w\bstract, l'>0 ; Cutler, Am. Acad. 427; liig. Am. Med. 
Hot. i, 80; Hart. Coll. 24; Thatcher's Disp. 321; see Big. E. 
vernix; Nouv. Journal de Med. xv, 43 ; U. S. Disp. 718. This 
also gijies out a poisonous exhalation ; some are even affected 
by the atmosphere around it. It is thought to be identical with 
one in Japan, which furnishes a fine varnish much used in that 
country. l)v. liigelow ascertained that the juice, which flows in 
large quantities from our tree when wounded in the spring, 
affords a brilliant, glossy, black varnish. Mer. and de L. Diet, 
de M. Med. Supplem. 1840, 028. See Thunberg's Voyage, vi, 15, 
for a notice of the oil extracted from the seeds. Lind. Nat. 
Syst. 168; Jjinn. Veg. M. Med. 50. It is styptic and astringent 
and the resin is used as an ointment in piles. Higelow, in his 
examination of the juice referred to above, believes that it 
consists of a resin and an essential oil. He first boiled it till 
the volatile oil had escaped ; the remainder being reduced 
almost to the state of a resin, was applied warm as a varnish. 
J>r. Pierson reports an interesting case of poisoning from this 
plant; and it is said that some individuals have been injuriously 
affected by the fumes from the wood of this and the Ehus radi- 
cans, accidentally burnt on the fire. A swarm of bees was 
poisoned by alighting on one of these trees. New York 
Medical Kepos. 

( Rhus, Linn. Walt.) Diffused. Vicinity of Charleston ; 
Florida and Mississippi and northward ; collected in St. John's; 
Newbern. Fl.July. 


Ell. Bot. 302 ; Ed. and Yav. Mat. Med. 136. A wash is ap- 
plied to ring-worms. The root is used by the Chippeway In- 
dians as an anti-venereal. The excrescences on the leaves are 
powdered and made into an ointment as an application to 
hemorrhoids. Griffith, Med. Bot. It does not atford copal. 
The leaves were mixed with tobacco and used by the Indians 
for smoking. The sumach is said to form an ingredient in the 
manufacture of " Killickinick " tobacco ; since the war the 
leaves dried have been much used by soldiers in camp to render 
tobacco milder and increase its bulk. The berries are quite 
sour, and afford, with water, a cooling drink. 

Wilson asserts in the Eural Cyc. that the R. copallina does 
contain copal. " The resin from this shrub exists in smooth 
brittle, translucent, roundish, small masses; has litttle ta»te and 
scarcely any odor; is fusible by heat, inflammable by ignition 
insoluble in water, very sparingly soluble in alcohol, and fully 
soluble in sulphuric ether and some essential oils. It is the 
characteristic ingredient of the well known copal varnish, an 
article requiring operose and careful manufacture, but dis- 
tinguished for the brilliancy, durability, hardness and resistance 
of its exquisite polish." Consult '■^ Liquidambar" for detail of 
experiments. By my experiments the leaves of the Rhus contain 
more tannin than either the sweet gum, myrtle, or any of the 
fifteen or twenty that I examined by reagents. I am also con- 
vinced that the excrescences abundant on the Rhus glabra (or 
smooth sumach) would furnish an excellent material for the 
supply o? tannin. Upon drying and examining them, I find the 
tannin in a highly concentrated state. They would be suitably 
used wherever an astringent is required in medicine, and should 
be added with the leaves to the tan-vat. See article " Quercus 
tinctoria" in this volume, for trees furnishing tannin and gallic 

DWARF SUMACH, (Rhus pumila, Mich. Ph.) Upper dis- 
tricts ; Newbern, Fl. August. 

U. S. Disp. 719 ; Mx. Flora Americana. According to Pursh, 
it is the most poisonous of the species. 

STAGHOEN SUMACH, (Rhus typhiana, Walt. Flora Carol.) 
S. and North Carolina. Fl. July. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 82; see Analysis, in 
Journal de Chim. Med. iv, 511. Lassaigne says that this con- 


tains malic acid. The incised bark yields resin. It is employed 
in preparing morocco leather. See R. vernix, etc. 

Rhus metopiiim, L. A tree fifteen to twenty feet high. South 
Fla. Chap. 

This, which is also a West India species, furnishes a gum 
known as "Doctor's gum," which, in large doses is emeto-ca- 
thartic, and is said in smaller ones to be a useful remedy in dis- 
orders of the bowels and respiratory organs. A spoonful of the 
fresh juice is mixed with two ounces of boiling water; the dose 
is a teaspoonful given occasionally, (Jam. Phj's. Jour.) Des- 
courtilz, (Fl. Med. Antill., ii., 49,) states that the bark is an 
excellent astringent. Griffith. 

The Rhus aromatica grows in West Florida and Mississippi 
and northward, is aromatic but not poisonous and should be 
examined. Our R. cotinoides, Nutt., which Buckley found in 
the interior of Alabama, may approximate in qualities to the 
R. coifnus of Europe " which furnishes most of the sumach of 
commerce," and the wood of which is the basis of a bright 
yellow dye, 

Rhvs coriaria. This species of sumach is [exotic, and is the 
principal plant cultivated in Sicily for export. I insert the 
following, in case it shall be found expedient to "exploit" or 
plant for tannin our wild sumachs which arc found so abund- 
antly in rank meadows throughout the South ; particularly 
abundant, I have observed, in the Dismal Swamp, Va. I think 
it is sufficiently abundant there to supply almost any amount 
for the purposes of the tanner or dyer. 

" In the best sumach one hundred grains of the leaf should 
give thirty to thirt3'-five grains of pure tannin. The proper 
adaptation of the land can be ascertained by testing the leaves 
with sulphuric ether. ' Use as much sulphuric ether as will 
dissolve the sumach, or pass it through the sumach till it runs 
clear, then draw off the ether by heat, and the deposit will be 
pure tannin.' A rough test for tannin is prepared with a solu- 
tion of sulphate of iron, or may depend upon its coagulation of 

"The sumach is thus cultivated near Palermo: The soil is 
prepared as for potatoes, with furrows from two to two and a 
half feet apart, in which in January or February are placed 
the young suckers two and a half feet apart. In August of the 


first year the leaves on the lower part of the branches are 
drawn off with the thumb and finger, leaving a tuft on the top. 
In October the whole head is taken off, or sometimes broken, 
and left hanging by the bark till dry. The second year, in 
June, the branches are stripped of I'ipe leaves ; and in August, 
as soon as the whole plant is mature, it is cut with a sickle 
down to six inches. It is then spread out and dried thoroughly 
on each side till entirely cured. The June gathering is omitted 
in many cases when the plants are not strong. After being 
dried the branches are put upon a floor and threshed, when the 
leaves will separate from the wood, which is of no value except 
for fuel. The leaves are then ground between two millstones, 
one of which is on edge, and revolving around a centre. We 
visited a mill driven by steam-power, which threw out the pow- 
dered sumach in large quantities. The air was filled with fine 
particles of dust, which covered our clothing and entered the 
lungs. It is not injurious, however, for although it seemed 
suffocating, the workmen will sleep three or four hours success- 
ively in it ; and are always remarkably healthy. They were 
particularly exempt from cholera. The leaves are readily re- 
duced to powder while the stems are not. These last are then 
separated by sifting, and the pure sumach is placed in bags of 
one hundred and sixt^'-three pounds for shipment. Two thou- 
sand pounds of ground sumach to an acre is considered a good 

This corroborates my own suggestion regarding the employ- 
ment of leaves for the supply of tannin. See article Tannin 
and Sweet Gum, {Liguidambar,') for my comparative experiments 
upon the leaves of gum, myrtle, etc., for tannin. Both these 
trees grow abundantly everywhere, and will easily supply a 
large amount of tannin, to bo used as I suggest — in place of 
oak bark. 

Most of the plants containing tannin will furnish a black dye, 
with iron. " The basis of black dyes for all organic fibres is the 
tannogallate of iron ; but the modes of application vary with 
the nature of the fabric, whether silk, wool, or cotton. The 
finest blacks are obtained by a combination of colors ; thus, a 
rich black is imparted to wool by grounding it with a deep, 
indigo blue, then passing it through logwood, galls, or sumach, 
and finally through a bath of these, with copperas and verdi- 


gris, or immediately through the latter." "Wilson's Eural Cyc. 
See, also, [Jre's Diet, of Arts, article " Calico Dyeing." Any of 
our plants containing either tannin or coloring principles can 
be used as dyes, with alum or iron ; vinegar also adds to the 
intensity of the color. 

There is a paper by John M. Marston, on the cultivation of 
the sumach in Sicily, in Patent Office Reports, 1851, p. 60. I 
believe that the great abundance of sumach in Virginia, would 
supply for a long time all we would require — besides, it grows 
abundantly in our savannas, and among myrtles throughout 
the country. Mr. Marston thinks that the superiority of the 
Sicilian sumach lies in the mode of cultivating it — "all the 
leaves are the production of the young sprouts that spring up 
from the stump every year." The middle Southern States he 
thinks adapted to its growth. "The export of sumach to the 
United States last year was 65,000 bags." 

I quote as follows from the letter : 

" Sumach is an article of commerce to the Sicilians of great 
importance, as it is also with the Americans. And, it is my 
opinion that this article, so valuable for manufacturing pur- 
poses, for tanning, etc., can be produced in the United States in 
sufficient quantity to supply the world, if the mode of its cul- 
ture be understood, and proper attention be paid to it. 

"I have no idea that it is the same kind that grows in the 
United States, which there runs to the size of trees. In Sicily 
they plant the roots or small plants from two to three feet 
apart ; rows about four, so that the plow or harrow can save 
the hand labor of the hoe. They hoe it two or three times 
before the rains finish in May, and gather it in July and August. 
The leaves are the only parts made use of. After being sepa- 
rated from the twigs by threshing, (or, in this country, both 
ways — by threshing and treading off with oxen and horses,) 
the leaves are then ground to the state of fineness in which 
you see it in the United States, being passed through sieves or 
bolting-cloths of sufficient fineness, and put into bags of one 
hundred and sixty pounds each. The proper season for plant- 
ing the roots or plants is in November, December and January. 
When the season is rainy, the plants take root better. The 
root or stump is cut off from four to six inches above ground. 
The scions or sprouts spring up four to six out of each root; 


and when at maturity, which in this island is in July or August, 
they are all cut off at the stumps, and laid in small handfuls to 
dry, say for a day or two. Do not spread them out much, as 
the sun will turn the leaves yellow, and great care must be 
taken that no rain falls on them. Perhaps, in this country, it 
may answer to plant nearer together than would be advisable 
in America, on account of the greater heat of the sun here, and 
thus shade the ground better. The leaves are ground in mills 
mostly by horse-power; but water or steam-power would be 
much cheaper and better. The perpendicular running stones 
weigh nearly three thousand pounds; they run double or single 
round an upi'ight shaft. The nether or foundation stone is 
heavier, and one-third greater in diameter than the running 
stones. The grinding surface of these latter is slightly rough, 
being occasionally touched with the pick or cold-chisel. Hard 
granite stones answer; here they use a volcanic stone, which is 
as hard as marble. There follows round the running stones a 
little piece of wood that keeps the leaves always under the 
stones. When ground fine enough, it is sifted or bolted in a 
large, tight room, with a door to enter and fill the bags. In 
Sicily the article is more or less adulterated with spurious stuff, 
such as other kinds of leaves, and an article called bucca, which 
resembles the juniper bush of New England ; this has no value 
in itself I believe the first year they do not cut off the sprouts. 
In the second and following years, a curious freak of nature 
produces a single plant a foot or so distant from the original 
root ; and this little plant it is which they usually make use of 
to transplant. Now, the plow or harrow would prevent these 
from growing, as they would be in the track, and this ma}^ be 
the reason why they hoe it. Still, I think the j)low or harrow 
must be used in our country, and some way or other contrived 
to save these little plants if wanted." 

The above was printed in the first edition of this volume. 

It will be observed that I had called attention to the exploita- 
tion of the sumach, as above, in the first edition of this work, 
printed in 1863, and also to the great abundance of the plants. 
I hope that my suggestions have been productive of good. It 
is now become an extensive business throughout the State of 
Yirginia, giving employment to many persons, and in time I 
hope that a large number of our population may derive profita- 


ble employment from the same, and by cultivating or collecting 
medicinal plants, when depots for their purchase in small quan- 
tities shall be established in the large cities. 

Dr. H. Baer, of Charleston, in a communication made to me 
requesting a series of popular articles upon these subjects, 1868, 
states : " I see that Virginia exports a large amount of sumach, 
and by some of my last circulars from Liverpool, I see it quoted 
at 8s. per cwt." The analysis was as follows: 

Vege table matter 83. 10 

Tannin 15.50 

Sand 1.40 

The following letter, which I find in the Norfolk Journal, 
will, no doubt, interest all dealers in sumach. It is fi*om Alex. 
S. Macrae, merchant of Liverpool, and is dated Sept., 1868: 

"1 have to-day received a sample of Philadelphia brand 
American sumach — a very superior quality. Our first chemical 
analysis make it : 

Tannin 20.80 

Sand 0.75 

Vegetable fibre 78.45 


" The best sumachs in this market average 16 a 20 per cent. 

of tannin, and sell at £13 a £24 per ton. I, therefore, make the 

value of the Philadelphia £16 per ton, at which price there 

should be a handsome remuneration. 

" If, as you say, sumach leaves are to be had in Virginia for 
the gathering, what a trade has been neglected, which at once 
may be developed." 

I see it stated that Fredericksburg has received one thousand 
tons this season ; and a merchant of Fauquier County paid out 
last year $5,000 for sumach, a commodity which any person 
seems licensed to gather free of charge by merely requesting 
the privilege from landowners. 

The Norfolk Virginian, (1868,) says of the "sumach trade:" 
" This new item of interest to our industrial classes is now 
attracting much attention in this State, throughout the entire 
length and breadth of which it flourishes in profusion in a wild 
state. The material is used largely for the essential principle of 
tannin, which it contains, and factories for its extraction have 


been established in this State and elsewhere. Our attention has 
been particularly called to the establishment of Messrs. Chisinan 
and Crocker, in Hampton, who have gone into the business on a 
large scale, and from whose circular we make the following 
extracts, for the guidance of those who may wish to engage in 
its collection : ' Sumach must be of a good color, free from stems, 
dirt and berries.' * * * * 'It should be gathered from Ist 
July until frost, after which it will turn red, and then it will 
be worthless. It should be cured as much as possible under 
shelter, or in the shade, to preserve its color and strength — 
carefully threshed (and not cut) on a plank floor, or sheet, to 
keep it free from dirt and sand. The sticks, stems and berries 
should be carefully raked and picked out before sending to 

They also give the following direction for gathering and cur- 
ing the product : 

" Gather as you would fodder of this year's growth, except 
the blossoms and berries; dry it under shelter ; stir it as you 
would hay; be careful it does not heat; do not dry it in the 
sun — both will soil it; when dry put it in bulk. AYhen dry, 
windy days set in, then lay it in beds as you would wheat or 
oats, thresh it with a flail, when the leaves and stems will break 
up fine; take out the large stems and throw them away; all 
the fine is called threshed sumach. Be careful not to have an}'- 
sand on the floor before threshing. There is no weight in the 
large stems, being mostly pith and no strength; to bring them 
to market will only reduce the price of your sumach, and when 
you gather the large stems you have to wait that much longer 
for your sumach to cure. The strength of the sumach is in the 
leaf and leaf stem. 

" With these instructions a large class of the population in 
the surrounding country can spend their leisure time in light 
but very remunerative employment, at no cost beyond the labor 
of gathering." 

VITACE.E, (Vine Tribe.) 

Vitis bipinnata, T. and G. {Ampelopsis, Mx.) Margins of 
swamps, Florida and northward ; abundant, bearing black ber- 
ries in bunches. 

Attracted by the sweetish taste and the purplish black hue 


of the berries of this plant, which is closely related to the 
grape, I succeeded (1862) in extracting a beautiful dark purple 
by the following process : The berries were mashed in a mortar, 
vinegar was added, with a small quantity of powdered alum. 
The mixture was then boiled, and the yarn, or other material^ 
previously wrung out of water, put in while hot. The color of 
articles dyed is said to be fixed more firmly by subsequently 
dipping them when thoroughly dried in boiling salt and water. 

Vitis, Grape. Dr. Fair, of Columbia, S. C, informs me that 
the root of the winter grape (F. cordifolia) is powerfully diur- 
etic. He had used it in several cases. See Pereira's Mat. Med. 
and Griifith's Med. Bot. for much information concerning the 
grape, wine, etc. 

My friend, the late Major John Leeonte, in a paper on the 
" American Grape Vines of the Atlantic States," expresses the 
opinion^, that a grape adapted to the production of wine in the 
Southern States would be ill adapted to the Northern States, 
which are colder, and less humid, and dry. "Thus, the Scup- 
pernong grape can never perfectly ripen north of Virginia, and 
the fox grapes of the North will scarcely grow in the lower 
parts of Carolina and Georgia ; the Isabella, or Catawba varie- 
ties of this last, which were originally brought from the upper 
regions of South Carolina, do not flourish in the low country, 
and will scarcely live in lower Georgia." To remedy the want 
of the sweet principle in a grape, nothing more is necessary 
than to boil down the must, before fermentation, until it is con- 
siderably reduced. 

Major Leeonte considers it quite possible to make wine that 
will keep without alcohol ; also, that our American grapes do 
not require the pruning adopted in Europe. See, also. Patent 
Ofiice Eeports, 228, 1857, for a critical account of the species of 
grape growing in the Atlantic States, and Chapman's Flora of 
the Southern United States, under genus "Vitis," for grapes 
exclusively Southern. " Bland's Grape," V. palmata, so highly 
praised by Major Leeonte, as being equal to any variety of the 
European grape, which he says grows in the mountains of 
North Carolina, is not included by Chapman as a native. It is 
the V. Virgiyiiana of Poiret. Dr. A. P. Wylie, of Chester, S, 
C, has been for several years engaged very successfully in the 
cross-breeding of the diff'erent species of grape. The varieties 


he has obtained by hybridizing possess as high flavor as the 
best foreign grapes, (1868.) 

A writer recommends the use of natural caves as wine cellars. 
Drs. Gall and Petiol's " method of wine making, according to 
the modern principles adopted in Germany and France," is 
published in Patent OflSce Eeports, 1859, p. 95. The same 
volume also describes the construction of cellars and vats, etc. 
Governor Hammond, of S. C, has had a large cellar built for 
wines, sugar cane juice, etc. These seem to me essential. 

A correspondent says that foreign grapes must be laid in 
straw during the winter. 

H. W. Eavenel, also of Aiken, S. C, who has been investi- 
gating the native grape with his known ability as a botanist, in 
a paper published in Patent Office Reports, 1857, and in his 
essay on the "Glii'ssification and nomenclature of Fruits," before 
the S. C. Agricult. Soc, gives an enumeration of our four 
American species of grapes so far studied, growing west of the 
Mississippi. Under these, viz : V. labrusca, L., fox grape, V. 
cestivalis, Mx., summer grape, V. cordifolia, Mx., winter or frost 
grape, V. Vuljnna, L., bull grape, or BuUace, he classes the 
varieties which have proceeded from them, and to which all the 
others can be reduced;. this also is the opinion of the best botan- 
ists of the day. Dr. Chapman has added another, the V. cari- 
haca, of D. C.; confined to lower F'la. The V. rupestris of Scheele 
is found in Texas. 

Mr. Ravenel makes a statement which is instructive: "All 
the species of American grapes are dicecia polygamous ; that is, 
some of the vines bear staminate or barren flowers only, and 
are forever sterile; others bear perfect flowers, and are fruitful. 
All the species of the Eastern hemisphere are hermaphrodite ; 
that is, every vine bears perfect flowers, containing stamens and 
pistils in the same corolla, and are fruitful. In the absence of 
other evidence, this fact would be conclusive of the parentage 
of an unknown seedling, whether it be of exotic or indigenous 
origin." The varieties of foreign grapes are referred to a single 
species, V. vinifera, L. 

Professor C. T. Jackson, in a communication in Patent Office 
Eeports, p. 42, 1859, remarks, in reference to the preservative 
power of sugar in making wine, as follows : 

" We must find out the proportion of saccharine or alcohol- 


producing matter in the American grapes, for if they will not 
produce alcohol in sufficient proportions to keep the wine from 
souring, we should have to add saccharine matter in some form 
to make a sound wine." In many portions of the country, it is 
found necessary to add sugar to wine. Jackson says that those 
grapes "which contain less than 15 per cent, of saccharine 
matter will require sugar or alcoholic spirit to be added to 
them, in oi'der to make a wine that will keep." See, also, notice 
of Prof W"m. Hume's paper, further on, and Patent Office Ee- 
ports, 1859, p. 59, for proportions of acids and sugar in Ameri- 
can grapes, cultivation, preparing wine, gathering grapes, ap- 
paratus, and making of wine in detail, p. 55, et seq. 

See a paper with full description and mode of cultivation of 
wine, with manufacture of wine near Cincinnati, in Patent Office 
Eeports, 1848, pp. 6-14. The value and amount of yield per 
acre is also given in this paper. I will extract a portion of it : 

Selecting and preparing the ground. — A hill-side with a southern 
aspect is preferred. If the declivity is gentle, it can be drained 
by sodded, concave avenues; but if too steep for that, it must 
be benched or terraced, which is more expensive. In the 
autumn or winter, dig or trench the ground with the spade all 
over two feet deep, turning the surface under. The ground 
will be mellowed by the frosts of winter. 

Planting. — Lay off the ground in rows three by six feet ; put 
down a stick, twelve or fifteen inches long, where each vine is 
to grow. The avenues should be ten feet wide, dividing the 
vinej^ard into squares of one hundred and twenty feet. Plant 
at each stick two cuttings, separated six or eight inches at the 
bottom of the hole, but joined at the top. Throw a spadeful of 
rich, vegetable mould into each hole, and let the top ej-e of the 
cutting be even with the surface of the ground, and if the mat- 
ter is dry, cover with half an inch of light earth. The cuttings 
should be prepared for planting by burying them in the earth 
immediately after pruned from the vines in the spring. By the 
latter end of March, or early in April, which is the right time 
for planting, the buds will be swelled so as to make them strike 
root with great certainty. Cut off close to the joint at the 
lower bud, and about an inch in all above the upper. 

Pruning. — The first year after planting cut the vine down to 
a single eye, (some leave two,) the second leave two or three, 


and the third three or four. After the first year, a stake, six 
and a half or seven feet long, must be driven firmly down by 
each plant, to which the vines must be kept neatly tied with 
willow or straw as they grow. Late in February, or early in 
March, is the right time for spring pruning in this climate. 
Summer pruning consists in breaking off the lateral sprouts 
and shoots so as to leave two strong and thrifty canes or vines — 
one of which is to bear fruit the ensuing season, the other to be 
cut down in spring pruning to a spur to produce new shoots. 
These may be let run to the top of the stakes, and trained from 
one to the other, until the wood is matured, say in August or 
September, when the green ends may be broken off. One of 
these vines is selected next spring for bearing fruit, and cut 
down from four to six joints, and bent over and fastened to the 
stake in the form of a bow. The other is cut away, as well as 
the fruit-bearing wood of the last 3'ear, leaving spurs to throw 
out new wood for the next, and thus keeping the vine down to 
within one and a half to two feet of the ground. Nip off the 
ends of the fruit-bearing branches two or three joints beyond 
the branches of grapes, but do not take off any leaves. If both 
the cuttings grow, take one up, or cut it off under ground, as 
but one vine should be left to each stake. 

Culture. — The vineyard must be kept perfectly clean from 
weeds and grass, and hoed under two or three times during the 
season. Keep the grass in the avenues around down close. 
About every third year put in manure by a trench the width of 
a spade, and three or four inches deep, just above and near each 
row ; fill in with two or three inches of manure, and cover it 
up with earth. 

Wine making. — Gather the grapes vvhen very ripe ; pick off 
the unsound and unripe berries. The bunches are tl)en washed 
in a washing tub, or passed through a small mill, breaking the 
skin, but not the seed, and thrown into the press, and the screw 
applied until the skins and seeds are pressed dry. 

Fermentation. — This process is very simple. The juice is put 
into clean casks in a cool cellar, and the casks filled within 
about four or five inches of the bung, and the bung put on 
loosely. The gas escapes, but the wine does not run over. In 
two to four weeks, generally, the fermentation ceases and the 
wine clears; then fill up the casks and tighten the bungs. In 


February or March rack off into clean casks. In the spring a 
moderate fermentation will again take place; after that the 
wine fines itself and is ready for bottling or barrelling. Use no 
brandy or sugar if the grapes are sound and well ripened. Keep 
bunged or corked tight, and in a cool cellar, and the wine will 
improve by age for many years. A paper on " North Carolina 
Grapes," p. 48, may be consulted in Patent Office Report on 
Agriculture, 1851. It gives an account of wine made from the 
wild fox grape, and others, and discusses some of the native 
varieties. Johnston's Chemistry of Common Life, vol. 2, Chap- 
tal's Chemistry, in its relations with Agriculture, chapter on 
"Fermentation," Uro's Dictionary of Arts, article, AVine, "Fer- 
mentation," etc., may be consulted for information as to the pro- 
cesses of wine making. See DeBow's Review and DeBow's 
"Industrial Eesources of the South and West," in three volumes, 
for articles on cultivation of grape aud wine making at the 
South ; also. Patent Office Reports, 1859, p. 72, for a very full 
and detailed account of cultivation of grape, manufacture of 
wine, construction of vats and cellars, by Dr. Weber, of Wash- 
ington. I regret that I cannot condense this article. 

In Missouri and Ohio it is found that the Catawba grape, a 
native of the Atlantic seacoast, is liable to rot, and to be al-. 
fected by mildew. A writer in Patent Office Reports, 1854, p. 
453, recommends several hardier varieties, viz: The Halifax, 
(wine mild and spicy,) Worton's Virginia seedling^ (wine fiei-y and 
aromatic,) the Rockhouse Indian, which is said to produce a wine 
not inferior to the best Burgundy. The writer gives some di- 
rections about the culture, and adds: "In the place of putting 
the 'bung loosely' on your casks during fermentation, put on 
the bung-hole first a grape leaf, and upon that a small bag filled 
with fine and not quite dry sand. In good cellars and large 
casks your wine will, and must not clear in less than six or 
eight weeks. Rack off in March, then again in midsummer, 
and again just before the time of the next harvest. Before 
every racking, have your cask well sulphurated. Then j'our 
juice is real wine and may be bottled; it will keep as long as 
you please and improve considerably for a series of years." I 
introduce the above, as it peems to contain some practical di- 

The " rot " in grapes is caused by an excess of moistui-e about 


tho roots, and moist and damp weather. Vineyai'ds located 
upon " stiff, cold, clayey sub-soils, which unavoidably retain the 
excess of moisture and produce injurious effects, can be ob- 
viated by thorough draining, or by selecting soil which is warmer, 
lighter and richer in the ingredient most favorable. to the vine." 

The " mildew" is often a most serious cause of disease in 
grapes, extending over entire sections of country, as almost to 
discourage the cultivation. It is considered to be a parasitic 
fungus. See a paper on this subject in Patent Office Reports, 
1854, p. 311, by J. F. Allen, of Massachusetts. In the New 
England States the presence or absence of this fungus depends 
upon the condition of the weather, and the progress in maturity 
of the vine in August and July. There the fungus appears during 
foggy weather, resembling a white mould. In Reports for 1853, 
p. 311, an engraved illustration is given of this mildew fungus. 
" When a grape becomes affected by it, the fruit will either dry 
or crack open, unless checked or destroyed before it makes 
much progress. The so-called disease is a living plant, most 
rapid in its growth and wonderful in its powers of reproduction 
and multiplication. When a vine has once been infected by it, 
the seeds or sporules in countless millions lie waiting a favorable 
atmospheric change to spring into life ; and when this does 
occur, so rapid is their growth that in one day the under side of 
the leaf will be almost covered." The plan of dusting the 
leaves with sulphur is impracticable. The writer says he has 
found a wash quite effectual in destroying this fungus, and it 
can bo applied on a large scale with the garden engine ; on a 
smaller, by tbe syringe or the nose of a watering-pot. 

" To prepare this wash, take one peck of lime, not slacked, 
and one pound of sulphur; put them together in a barrel, and 
pour hot water over them sufficient to slake the lime; pour on 
this three gallons of soft water, and stir the mix lure well to- 
gether. In twenty -four hours it will have settled and become 
perfectly clear. This should be drawn off as clear as possible. 
Half a pint of this mixture added to three gallons of water will 
be sufficiently strong, and may be applied over the fruit when 
mildew first appears. It can be repeated every few days, if 
occasion requires. The first application I have found would 
kill the most of it; a second and third are all that I have ever 
found necessary for the season. The fruit and foliage have 


ripened fully on the European varieties. The American or na- 
tive varieties are less subject to the attacks of this fungus than 
the European. There is also a difference in these, the Catawba 
and Isabella being more attacked than some other kinds. That 
this mildew or fungus requires a peculiar condition of the at- 
mosphere to allow of its vegetating is a hopeful fact for the 
people of the European grape growing regions. A series of 
seasons unpropitious to its gi-owth, may destroy millions of 
sporules or seed vessels deposited upon their vineyards." 

I have seen grapes attacked with a disease, an apparent black- 
ening or rot of the internal portion of the fruit, which had 
never been attacked until the arbor was covered over, and thus 
the requisite amount of light was diminished. In this case, 
they become diseased from too much shade and moisture, and 
the remedy is plain ; but in some cases this occurs under a full 
supply of light. The IT. S. Commission to the Paris Exposition, 
in thoir report published in P. O. Rep. for 1867, state that the 
application of sulphur to the leaves is the best remedy for 
diseases affecting the vine. 

Wilson in his Rural Cyc. furnishes from several sources recipes 
in his article on " Wine," for making '• Wine from the leaves, 
tender shoots, and tendrils of the vine; if judiciously prepared, it 
is so excellent that Mr. MacCuUoch compared it to ' white her- 
mitage.'" See, also, MacCuUoch's Treatise on Wine Making 
Excellent wine is also prepared from the unripe berries, loc. cit., 
where the method is given. It is as follows: The claret vine 
leaves, as he observes, will produce a red color, and this tree 
could be cultivated for the express purpose. Having repeatedly 
prepared red and white leaf wine, we can with the greatest con- 
fidence oflPer a few abbreviated extracts from Mr. MacCuUoch's 
book, previously observing that the specific gravity of the liquor 
must here also be taken as the criterion of strength; the pro- 
portions are calculated for ten gallons of wine. The leaves 
should not have attained their full growth, and must be plucked 
with their stems. On forty or fifty pounds of such leaves, seven 
or eight gallons of boiling water are poured, in which they are 
to infuse for twenty -four hours; the liquor being then strained 
off, the leaves are to be forcibl}' pressed. A gallon more water 
is to be added, and the leaves again are to be pi'essed. A screw 
wine-press with hair bags, is very useful in the process. Sugar, 


varying from twenty-five pounds to thirty pounds, is then to be 
added to the mixed liquors; the quantity is to be made up to 
ten gallons and a half. Such are the essentials of Mr. MacCul- 
loch's directions. We need only add, continues the editor, that 
if a fermenting, lively wine be contemplated, the manufacture 
must be conducted as in the process for Champagne, and the 
smaller of the two proportions of the leaves, etc., is to be em- 
ployed. The specific gravity of the must should be 1.110 to 
1.115. The fermentation must be carried on for a short time in 
the open vessel, or till the gravity be reduced to 1.090 ; and the 
barrel will require to be filled, and be kept full, in order to carry 
off the froth and leaven that rise to the top of the liquor. But 
we apprehend tbat grape leaves are better qualified to produce a 
dry wine, and, therefore, the larger proportion of leaves, etc., 
should be employed, and sugar to the extent that will raise the 
gravity to 1.120. In this case, the fermentation must be con- 
ducted in the manner already stated for the production of a dry 
wine from green grapes ; and when perfected, and the wine be- 
comes bright, it is to be fined and racked off during clear and 
cold weather, then returned to a clean and sweet cask, and 
bunged close. A second fining and racking may be required. 
Grape wine made from the green berries, we have found deli- 
cious in flavor, and quite fit for the table in two years or less. 
But the liquor obtained from the leaves contains a quantity of 
vegetable extract which conveys a flavor that time alone can 
subdue; hence, we recommend, the author adds, that it be al- 
ways retained two years in the cask, and be bottled iu the 
second winter. It ought also to remain during one entire year 
in the bottles. Wilson's Eural Cj^c. art. " Wine." 

The following brief statement of the mode of making wine, 
by J. S. Reid, of Fayette County, Ind., appears so simple, that I 
quote it here. (See P. O. Rep. 1855, p. 308:) 

" The mode adopted by me of making wine is as follows : 
From the 1st to the 15th of October, I continue pulling the 
grapes, always selecting the ripest ones first, and after mashing 
them in a tub made for the purpose, subject them to a small 
press made in the form of a cider-press. The barrels into 
which the juice is put are well washed with cold water, dried 
and fumigated with sulphur before the must is put into them. 
I then place over the bung-hole a piece of tin or sheet-iron per- 


forated with small holes. The must is then allowed to ferment 
slowly for about three weeks, until the scum caused by the fer- 
mentation apparently ceases. The barrels are then filled and 
bunged tight until spring, when I rack the wine off into clear 
casks, washed out with cold water and juniper berries, and fu- 
migated with sulphur as before, to destroy any bad flavor. It 
is then ready for market; but during this time the casks re- 
quire to be frequently examined, and filled up, keeping them 
always full to the bung." The reader can find in the Patent 
Ofiice Eeports of 1855, p. 304, a brief statement by D. Ponce, of 
Hancock County, Ga., of the method of making Champagne 
wine in France. 

Dr. Wm. Hume, Professor in the State Military Academy of 
South Carolina, read a paper before the South Carolina Medical 
Association, on the '• Manufacture of "Wines in the South," and 
delivered a series of Lectures before the Aiken Vine Growing 
and Hort. Society, which have been revised and published in 
DoBow's Review, March and April, 1862. In these well written 
articles he gives the results of experiments, containing an expo- 
sition of a plan to obviate the disabilities of climate opposed to 
the manufacture of wine in South Carolina, etc. 

In brief, Pi'of Hume advises that the two qualities of sweet- 
ness and acidity in wines (which vary in different varieties and 
at different seasons) should be ascertained and considered by 
the wine maker. The latest date compatible with the full and 
perfect maturation of the grape should be selected forgathering, 
so that they should be as little acid and contain as much sugar 
as possible. 

Cellars should be consti'ucted in order to prevent acidity 
during the fermentation, and if necessary alcohol, brandy, or 
whiskej'^ should be added, to preserve the preparation from 
turning sour, and also to procure different varieties of wine. I 
would refer the reader to the articles for an agreeable and 
forcible exposition of the author's views. He rejects the idea 
that it is useless or improper to modify the juice of the grape by 
alcohol under its various forms. Many wines are to a certain 
extent factitious, but not adulterated. The writer says : "I 
have clearly shown that the purely manufactured wines of 
Aiken are either too acid or too weak in spirit — that these 
defects proceed from immaturity of the grape and from the 


high temperature of the must during fermentation. The high 
temperature induces two evils which are injurious to wine, viz : 
the loss of alcohol by its conversion into acetic acid, and its loss 
by more rapid evaporation during the exposure of fermenta- 
tion." Cool cellars are certainly one obvious desideratum. The 
addition of alcohol to wine as a preservative agent has been re- 
ferred to by writers: "The object and intention of adding 
alcohol to recent grape juice is to preserve it through the months 
of August, September and October unchanged by fermentation. 
During the month of November the cool weather is sufficiently 
established and continues in Aiken to conduct the vinous fer- 
mentation without the apprehension of the acetic ; hence wine, 
not vinegar, can then be made," (Hume.) 

The reader can find a good account of fermentation and the 
rationale of manufacture of various liquors in Solly's Eural 
Chemistry, p. 164, et seq. Drs, Gall and Petiol also refer to the 
process of " ameliorating " the wine made from the wild grapes 
by the free addition of sugar dissolved in water, adding also 
tartaric acid if the acid is deficient. The husks or pomace 
which remains is again treated with sugar, water or acid as long 
as any wine extract remains, and so an enormous amount of 
wine is made at small cost. In this process the grapes are 
mashed, not pressed. See details, P, O. Eep., 1859, p. 97. Tables 
for calculating the acid and sugar are described. I regret not 
being able to give this method in full. 

In connection with Prof, Hume's project of adding alcohol to 
wine, I extract the following from an article on the " G-rape and 
Wine Culture in California," P, O, Eep., 1858, p. 342. "An- 
gelica is a sweet wine, which is never allowed to ferment. It is 
made by adding brandy to white wine, which is the first and 
purest juice that runs from the press, in the ratio of one to three, 
as it comes from the press. It is thus kept from fermentation, mid 
always remains sweet. It is immediately put into close casks and 
drawn off as soon as it is clear, which is generally within four or 
five weeks. The casks for Angelica wine have to be prepared 
with great care by sulphuring. " Aguadiente " (brandy) only 
can be used in making Angelica, as it has the true grape flavor, 
which most other brandies have not. This brandy is distilled 
from wine made from leaves or from the pomace (skins of the 
grapes) of the pressed grapes. It takes about five gallons of 


wine to make one of aguadiente." By this it will also be seen 
that the shape in which the alcohol is added is material. Let 
us compare the following with our difficulties here in South 
Carolina and Georgia, Italics are my own. Matthew Keller, 
of Los Angelos, Cal., says : " The manufacture of wine, in a 
suitable climate, is simple and may be done by any one of ordi- 
nary intelligence. But when the climate and soil are not adapted- 
to the nature of the grape, then, indeed, it becomes a complicated 
art. One of the most essential things to be observed in its manu- 
facture is the proper regulation of temperature, particularly 
during the phenomenon of the first fermentation ; and to this 
the least attention is paid. If the must is too cool, the fermen- 
tation is slow, and apt to sour; while if there is too much heat, 
it will soon go into the acetous state. Much which abounds in 
saccharine matter, and is deficient in ferment, requires a higher 
degree of temperatui-e than that which has these substances in 
opposite proportions. The strongest must, even when it con- 
tains much ferment, can support a higher temperature than the 
weak, because the great quantity of alcohol which is developed 
retards the action of the ferment and prevents the tendency to 
pass to the acetous fermentation. The best general temperature 
is between 62° and 64° Fahrenheit, There is little difficulty in 
maintaining the temperature in a cellar, but it may be observed 
that the act of fermentation elevates the temperature. To arrive 
at that which is the most convenient, it is necessary to pay at- 
tention to the temperature of the grapes at the time of mashing 
them: if picked early in the morning or at noon, it varies many 
degrees. To obviate this, they may be picked a day in advance, 
or they should be cooled in a large vat, and vice versa. These 
few facts comprehend all that is necessary to make wine, but 
they are subject to many variations and much detail, like most 
other processes of manufacture." The necessity for the display 
of judgment, and the value of experience in modifying pro- 
cesses, is true of the manufacture of indigo, of sugar from the 
different variety of canes, etc, No rigid rules adapted to every 
climate can be depended upon. That vats should be essential, 
I myself, without experience, felt sure from seeing their neces- 
sity in keeping porter and ale in Charleston, or cider in the 
upper country. We do not manufacture any of them in Charles- 
ton, but in order to bottle or keep them under favorable cir- 
cumstances, a cool cellar is essential. 


The writer quoted above gives the method of making wine in 
Los Angelos, as follows: "The grapes are deprived of their 
stems by hand ; they are then mashed between wooden or iron 
rollers ; some tread them out in the ancient style. A portion of 
the juice runs into a cooling-vat, without pressing; the crushed 
grapes are put into a screw-press and forced out rapidly, all the 
result being must for white wine. As the grapes are black, 
and the coloring matter exists only in the skin, and requires in 
some degree the presence of alcohol to dissolve it, if the pressing 
be done quickly the wine will be white; but if slowly, or if the 
grapes come broken from the vineyai'd, the must will show 
color; for as soon as the fruit is broken, and the juice comes in 
contact with the air, fermentation commences, and simultaneous 
with it, the presence of alcohol, in a greater or less degree, 
which extracts the coloring matter. The must is then trans- 
ferred into the fermenting tuns, and the first active fermenta- 
tion goes on, according to circumstances, for from four to ten 
days. The mashed grapes are put into vats to ferment, from 
which results red wine. This is in part distilled into brandy. 
Some persons distil red wine with the "marc" into brandy im- 
mediately after fermentation, but if left to pass a secondary 
fermentation it would yield moi-e alcohol. The wine is racked 
off in January and February, again in March and April, and for 
the third time in September. It should be taken off the lees 
after the first fermentation subsides, when the wine has settled; 
for it cannot gain anything by being allowed to stand on the 
lees longer than is absolutely necessary. The proportions of 
saccharine matter and ferment in our grapes are well balanced, 
therefore there is no extraordinary art in making wine ; as it 
will make itself with common care, and without the addition of 
any extraneous substance. The purest and finest wines in the 
world are made from the juice of the grape alone (?) More 
capital is needed to make proper cellars, procure necessary ma- 
terials, and to enable us to hold our wines till they have age, 
when they would compare favorably with the best. See, also, 
P. O. Eep., 1859, p. 94, et seq.; also an extended account of grape 
culture and wine manufacture, with wood-cuts of presses, etc., 
in Eeport 1856, p. 408, by J. A. Warder, M. D., of Ohio. The 
diseases affecting the grape are also described. 

I obtain the following from the Southern Field and Fireside : 
Although this subject has been widely discussed, and hun- 


dreds of methods recommended, still I see no satisfactory article 
written which has treated this question as to our Southern 
grapes and climate. Almost all the writers have confined them- 
selves to the Northern and Western wines and their modes of 
production, leaving out the idea that Georgia, Alabama and 
South Carolina had more resources for wine producing than 
all the North and "West combined, not speaking of the im- 
mensely superior quality of its products. I trust that the fol- 
lowing hints may be of service to some beginners, and be 
auxiliary to many masters in the art. 

There exist a large number of varieties of wine, differing 
among themselves by the color, perfume, taste, consistence, etc., 
and often many such varieties are produced by the same grape. 
Often those varieties of wine depend upon many circum- 
stances — such as difference in soil and sub-soil, exposure, mode 
of cultivation, climatic influence, degree of maturity of the fruit 
when "pressed, and above all, by the mode of making the wine. 
The first process is the gathering of the grapes, and this should 
be one of the most careful. The grapes should be thoroughly 
ripe, and the best signs of maturity are these: The stem of the 
clusters changes to brown, the berries become soft, and when 
the bloom is removed the skin is smooth and nearly transparent, 
the flavor is vinous sweet, and the seeds free from the pulp and 
dry. At this point the grapes should be gathered. If gathered 
sooner the wine will be of an inferior quality, and apt to form 
vinegar ; if later, the wine will be less in quantity and syrup- 
like. When the grapes have attained the right period of ma- 
turity, select a dry, clear day, and do not begin the gathering 
until the dew is well evaporated, and the grapes perfectly dry. 
Use sharp knives or scissors, and remove all green and decayed 
berries from the branches, and put them in clean wooden pails; 
then, if the press is some distance from the vineyard, put them 
in wooden tubs, which must not be too large, so as not to be 
difficult to handle, and transport by wagon. Now it is necessary 
to give some remark upon the process to be followed according 
to the mode of wine to be produced, and to the variety of grape 
employed. Our native grapes of the Lahrusca or fox type are 
mostly cultivated in this section of the country, and the wine 
they produce is of the Hock or Rhine wine order. The great 
value of that wine consists in its delicate aroma, or bouquet, and 


to attain it must be an essential object in its making To this 
class belong the Catawba, Isabella, Diana, Delaware, etc., etc., 
the former of which being most generally cultivated. I will 
describe the process in its best manufacture. 

When the grapes are gathered they must be mashed between 
wooden rollers. The juice is received in a clean cask or vat, 
but the hulls, seeds or stems are carefully avoided to come into 
contact with the juice. After the whole is mashed it is pressed. 
The juice which runs out at the time of mashing should be kept 
separate from the juice which comes from the pressing, as the 
former will make a wine much more delicate than the latter. 
The pressed juice will be of a marked color. The casks or vats 
should be of as large size as consistent with the quantity of the 
crops. They should be made of the best white oak, with strong 
iron hoops. The greatest cleanliness is necessary. Wash the 
casks well, and further fumigate them by burning a wick of 
sulphur, and keeping the bung closed. Avoid sulphuring too 
much, as it will give a bad flavor to the wine if done to excess. 
Fill the cask full, then close it with a tight bung, in the centre 
of which is fitted a siphon, the lower end of which rests in a 
vessel filled with water. The juice of the Catawba, as well as 
that of all the grapes of that class, should never be fermented 
upon the hulls, as it then loses its delicate flavor, and only pro- 
duces a harsh wine — neither a hock nor a claret. The above 
method is also applicable to the juice of any grapes of which a 
white or jiale wine is desired. Juice thus treated should be 
left in the cask until the following spring, after the blossoming 
of the vine, at which period it will undergo a slight fermenta- 
tion. It can then be drawn off" in clean casks of i-equired size 
for market, or in bottles ; but it will be to its advantage to leave 
the wine in casks for two or three years before bottling. 

The process of making red wine is different — the grapes 
being mashed, with hulls, seeds, etc., in a fermenting-vat, (a cask 
having one head taken out will answer for a small vintage.) 
A faucet is put at about eight or twelve inches from the bottom ; 
usually a bunch of cuttings is placed in the interior to keep it 
free from the seeds, etc., in drawing off", leaving a space five or 
six inches between the must and the lid, which is well fastened, 
and has also a valve for the evaporation of the gas. This may 
be also arranged with a siphon, as in the manipulation of the 


white wine, the end of which siphon must rest in water. In 
a few houi-8 after the must has been put in the vat the liquid 
Avill commence to ferment, the gas will be thrown off in large 
quantities, and bring upon the surface the stems, hulls and 
seeds, which form what the French term chapeau, (hat.) This 
mass is often very consistent. As soon as the chapeau shows 
signs of going to pieces is the time to draw off the wine from 
the vat. The residuum is then pressed, and generally makes a 
wine containing much tannin, and not as delicate as the wine 
first drawn. The latter wine is kept separate, or mixed with 
the other wine, as desired. As soon as the wine is drawn in 
clean casks put the bung in lightly for a few days, then bung it 
tight., A still easier method is to put a false bottom in the fei-- 
menting-vat, which is made from well seasoned wood, and holes 
bored all over. This false bottom is put upon the hulls to pre- 
vent their rising. Its position must bo regulated by the amount 
of p»mace in the vat, and kept steady by sticks. The vat is 
covered as before with a tight head and siphon, and the period 
of the drawing off the wine is visible when the fermentation 
ceases. In general, the fermentation will last from eight to 
twelve days. This method is applicable to all the colored 
grapes of the aestivalis, or summer grape type — such as Lenoir, 
Clinton, Jacques, etc. The cellar should be dry, and of an even 
temperature of about fifty to sixty degrees. After the young 
red wine is put into the cellar it will undergo a light fermenta- 
tion. The casks have to be filled occasionally, and kept full to 
the bung. As soon as dissolution of the sugar and the other 
constituents of the wine has taken place, the undissolved matter 
will settle at the bottom, and is called lees. When the wine 
becomes quiet and settled, it is time to draw it off in clean 
casks. In the above remarks I have endeavored to compress 
the wine making to a small compass, by which it will be seen 
that it is far less complicated than presumed. I give the 
different wines obtained from our native grapes. 

Yarieties belonging to the Vitis labrusca, or fox grape : 
Catawba. — A light colored hock, often equal to the celebrated 
Ehine wines. 

Diana. — Also a light colored wine, much more delicate than 


Delaware. — From Bmiill expcrimcntH yields a wine of the 
muscatel class, remarkably rich, and very often makes a beauti- 
ful, sparkling wine. 

Isabella. — MukcH a wine of a pale red color, if fermented 
upon the juice, and a darker wine of a claret order if fermented 
\x\)0\\ the hulls. 

JIartford prolific and Concord. — A dark, harsh wine. These 
varieties are not well calculated for wine. 

Varieties belonging to Vitis aestivalis, or summer grape : 

Clinton. — Makes a high-bodiod wine of the claret order. This 
variety iy destined to bo relied upon as our red wino grape at 
no distant period. 

Jacques. — Gives a very dark wino of the Burgundy order. 
Its juice can be niunipulated us for white wines — there being a 
large amount of coloring matter in the juice. 

Lenoir with Clinton. — Will give a delicate claret or port. 

Warren. — Makes a wine of the Madeira class. 

Pauline. — Somewhat similar to above, 

Taylor or Ballet. — A white variety of the Clinton, and doubt- 
less will soon be our standing, or white wine variety. > 

Tke ticuppernong. — A v*uiiiiji-ot^ Vitis ooMif^Ua. Yields a 
wino of the muscat order, but unfortunately sugar and alcohol 
are too generally added, and thereby a good wino is spoiled. 

Many other varieties of our native grajjcs will soon be ex- 
perimented upon as to the wino making qualities; but with tho 
above list wo can obtain almost all the classes and colors of 
wine that are imported in this country. 

The Commissioners to the Paris Exposition recommend (P. 
O. lleport, 18G7,) the introduction into this country of a coarse 
but very productive grape called in Franco " En Eegat." It 
yields a ver}^ cheap wine. 

In Spartanburg District, S. C, they make out of the garden 
grape a very pleasant wine, which is the pure juice of tho grape, 
by the following 8im])le process: 

Squeeze the grapes through a bag; to each gallon of juice put 
one pound of sugar, (more may be added ;) sot it away in jars 
or casks for two or three days, occasionally skimming off all 
the supernatant froth, scum, etc. Then strain into a cask, 
adding some honey and brandy. A gallon of brandy may be 


added to twelve i^ulIoiiH of juice. TIiIh wine \h Raid to (iqiuil the 
beHt quality. Very good wine is also made by adding Hugar 
and brand}' to apple cider, 

A correspondent of the Southern Field and Fireside writes as 

" Cultivation of Grapes. — Growing Scu]>pernpng grapes in the 
South is easy, pleasant and very valuable. My plan is this : In 
February take the vines that you have rooted the previous 
year, and set them in some place where you want them, say in 
rows ten feet each way, with'some convenient place for them to 
spread their branches on, and soon orcct a good arbor to each 
one, and if they are well treated they will soon cover the whole 
field. The best land ibr this vino is light, sandy toil, and the 
best manure is grass or weeds, hoed up when green and put 
under the arbor; also, rotten wood, such as old boards, rails, 
sti(!ks, etc., piled under the vines. It is also good to have a pen 
aroufid the roots filled with all the scrap leather, old ehoes, 
bones, bi'ickbats, etc. When the vines begin to grow they must 
be pruned every spring, for the tendrils will rap around the 
branches, and when the branches grow large, die or break oil" 
it will injure the vine very much; but when they get old a large 
vineyard would require a great deal of labor, so this part 
generally receives but little attention when the vineyard is old. 
This grape is not only useful to preserve and pleasant to eat, 
but the most delicious wine can be made from them. When 
they are full}' rij)o gather them, and they can be ground in a 
gridder, or if that is not convenient, mash them in a trough; 
then press them well, putting three-quarters of a pound or a 
pound of sugar to the gallon ; in this every one is to be governed 
by his own taste. When well sweetened, put it in casks and 
draw it off from one to another, until it is purified ; then bung 
it very tightly to prevent evaporation, nud set it in a barn or 
cellar six or twelve months; it is then good enough for anybody 
to drink." 

Wine Farming and Making. — Mr. R. Buchanan, of Ohio, who 
is one of the most eminent vine-growers of this country, thinks 
that " wine farming will, in a few years, become simjilified, and 
almost as easily understood as corn farming. There is no mys- 
tery in it. Experience alone must teach the proper position 
and soil; the right distances apart for the vines; the most ju- 


dicious methods of spring and summer pruning; and as for cul- 
tivation, keep the ground clean with the plow or cultivator, 
like corn. Certain rules are given in books for vineyard cul- 
ture, as pursued in the Ohio valley. These are the European 
systems, adapted to our own country. It will be safe to follow 
these rules, untilby experimenting we can find better. There 
is more room for progress in this branch of agriculture than in 
almost any other. 

" Making the wine is as simple as making cider. The great 
bunches are out from the vines, and all unsound or unripe 
berries picked off the bunch and thrown into a bucket, to 
make — with the addition of sugar — vinegar, or an inferior wine. 
The perfect grapes of each day's cutting are taken to the wine- 
house, and in the evening, after being mashed in a barrel with a 
beetle — stem and berries — or passed through wooden rollers in a 
small mill, are put on the press and the juice extracted. About 
one-third runs off without any pressure. The outer edges of the 
pomace are cut off for eight or ten inches after the first pressing, 
separated with the hands, and thrown on top, when the power 
of the screw is applied, and another pressing made. This is 
repeated two or three times. The juice from the last pressing 
being very dark and astringent, is put with the inferior wine. 
The other is put in large casks filled about five-sixths full, to 
ferment and make the good wine. No sugar or brandy should 
be added to the best Catawba juice, or must, as it makes a 
better wine without, and is strong enough to keep well. One 
end of the siphon is placed in the bung-hole of the cask; the 
other being crooked over, rests in a bucket of water. 

"The fermentation commences in a day or two, and the car- 
bonic acid escaj^es through the water. In ten or fourteen days, 
the siphon may be removed, the casks filled up, and the bung 
driven in lightly ; in a month tightly. In midsummer the wine 
is drawn off into another cask, and the lees of the wine, with 
the pomace of the grapes, are used to make brandy. 

"The wine will be clear and pleasant to drink in a month or 
two after the first fermentation ceases. The second fermenta- 
tion occurs in the spring, about the time of the blossoming of 
the grapes ; this is but slight, and it will be merely necessary to 
loosen the bungs ; when it is over, the wine will be clear in two 
or three months, and safe to bottle, but that operation had 


better be deferred until November. And this is the whole 
process of making still wine — the wine for general use; and, 
being a natural product of tlie pure juice of the grape, it is 
more wholesome than anj^ mixed or artificial wine, however 
showy and high-priced it may be. 

"Let the grapes be well ripened; the press, casks, and all 
vessels perfectly clean, and then keep the air from the new wine, 
by having the casks constantly bung-full, and there is no danger 
of its spoiling. This is the whole secret. 

"It is presumed that no one will go into wine farming largely 
at first; but take the precaution to test, by the cultivation of a 
few acres, the capabilities of the soil, position and climate, and 
the kind of grapes best suited to it." 

I am induced to give place to the following article by Mr. P. 
J. Berkmans, of Augusta, Ga. As it treats of the Cultivation 
of the Grape at the South, and is written by a man of practical 
exp'Srience, (from the Trans, of the Richmond Co., Ga., Agricult. 
Club, 1867.) 1 will condense some of the information contained 
in the first portion. He states : 

1st. That there is still a lack of information on the peculiar 
culture of the grape, and in regard to the selection of varieties 
for the Southern States. 

2d. The countiy, by its natural productions, seems to be em- 
phatically the home of the grape, and he urges upon us the 
cultivation of the native varieties, the employment of the for- 
eign having been repeatedly found not adapted to vineyard cul- 
ture. Foreign grapes utterly fail after one or two seasons of 
fruiting; the seedlings also are not better than their parents. 

3d. He advises the planting of only a few but well tried 
varieties. . 

"Since the advent of the Catawba, which gave the start tor \- 
American grape growing and wine making, and which for'i' * 
many years, with the Isabella, made up the list of the then 
wine grapes, vine culture has made immense progress, as well in 
the application of sound principles in its culture, as by the pro- 
duction of numberless new varieties, some of which are now 
fairly rivalling in quality many of the good European varieties. 
A few years more of this steady march of improvement, and 
America will have no need to ask any grapes from Europe or 

*'lt is truo thut tho iniltivntioii of tho grupo l»ns jiot boon 
viM-v ivmuuorHtivo s«iiu'o ISiU ; but rv>pvM'(s tK>n» almost ovorv 
soot ion of tlio iH>untrv suv moro fsivorublo, niui ijivo us tho 
hojH» thrtt tho poriod ot" doony. whioh hsis boot» so tUtnl to vino 
oulturv\ has 5»t last ivaohovl its limit, auvi that a mivmo tavorahlo 
orn is oinniuonoinii'. 

"Whilo on this topio v»t" vlooay a tow words aro roijuiivd. 
Various jvasons l\avo boon givon as to tho oauso oC dooay. 
^'oithor wot nor dry woathor. oUl or youuj; vinos, soils too 
poivus vu* too ivtoniivo, K>n4j or short pruniuii', thorough oulti- 
valion or ontiiv nogloot, had anything to do with tho ijrnt't^U 
oauso ot" dooay. Ono or tho othor ot" tho abv>vo n\ay oauso par- 
tial dooay, but it oannot intluonoo tho grapo on>p thivuglumt 
tho tvuntry. A soil jvtontivo ot" humidity will, by itsolt", bo 
oonduoivo to dooay in tho t"ruit ; a)ii>thor, of too ariil a natu»v. 
will fail to supply tho ivquisito sa|> to tho vino w hon mv>st 
ntvdod. and by oithor oauso tho grapo orop will t"ail. Still wo 
havo soon, during tho past t'our yoai*s. tho ivvorso of what 
wo oould oxpoot. For instanoo, grapos would rot in a st>il 
whioh all vignonnjs would soloot for tho sito ot" a vinoyard ; and 
pivduoo sound fruit in a low soil undorlayod with stitV pipo olay. 
This is oontrary to all past oxjh rionoo. 

•• Souio y oars tho ivt would oommonoo upon tho ai»|H<aranoo 
of a nuny soason in Juno; at olhors. it would bo arrostoil upon 
tho oossaiion of rain. CMd vines in gonoral will fail soonor than 
youngor onos. thoir vigv>r being impaired by previous oxoossive 
oivps. NVhonovor a wii\e is allowed to overbear itself it sol- 
vlom roouponttos atterwaixis, even if the supply of nutrin\ont is 
uiore abuiulant than is genentlly tho ease. Wo should bo satis- 
fied with a modorato orop of t"ruit ; wo oan oxpoot this t"or a 
long period of years ; but if tl\o vine is allowed to produoe in 
one year thive times as muoh tVuit as it should naturally pw- 
duoe, it is to the detriment of its futuiv fertility and vigv>r. 

"Overbearing, at tirst or seoond pnuiuotion. is one of tho 
givai oausos of the early exhaustion of our vinoyanis. The 
laiui used tor a vineyani is generally impoverished by pn>viou8 
eroppings. The vino tii\ds in it a t"ow riMnaining oi>nstituonts 
requisite to its givwth and prvnluotion of tViiit ; being a roni- 
ciuk;>" feeder, it absorbs those ntpidly and in a short tin\o. A 
year or two of hoavv i>roduoinir of t"ruit oxhausts tho soil of 


iiutritiv<$ tiUsmcMtM ; atui iUn r'tuh^ finding uo U)nfi;«r n im^npSy <ff 
itotiriuUun'.ui, if*f'/iu*t Uf tUn'Mtm in vigor and f«;rtility ; and, one* 
HtiiiiUui'tn growth, it >»<jldom nj'.'Uf/^jraUjw, «?v«;n if th<* afUrr-tr^^U 
m«nt iw Huch aM U> r<;turn a n<;w xupply ^/f noumbm4;nt t/> iti« 
w'/H. 'Hi*? UifnUiHt'.y Uf (fvarU^Af hit^mUi \ni oAttx^^iiA ', l>ut b//ir 
f<tw ifi'tf/fiih ituva nnifiit'taui t'/nxrai^ti i/t cut '/ff a j^/rtion '/f tb« 
f>riin';h<5*«. in <^rly i^pring? Jt in <;MM;ntiai V^ rhinos*-, ou^Amlf of 
>ie brancbe* a«( it'X/n ai» tb<iy ti^tpear; iim rtttoiuttiutf itAlf wil^ 
b«5 nior<; <U:Vi:\o\ti'A, th<; h«;rri<>. Iarg<;r, th<; t^tiaViiy improved, tb* 
weight of the fruit a»» large in the end a« if ail the hraneheo 
were l^t, and th« yim; wijl n//t exbaiMt it»<df «m> mueh. By 
overstraining nature fail>«; and it i* ea*ier for a vine t/.» perfect 
a do//<:n hunehen than U^ attempt t/^ do »>^> fi^r douhle that nurr*- 
l/er. Our iineMt n\Hi*nuniU» of fruits, nueh a« pean», p<:a/;he«, 
'<x\t\)Uin, eU:., art', the ojHt¥4it\tu',u<'At of a m*Ac.rnUi crop ^/f froit 
uj/'/n the tn^fc, eauMjd either naturally or artificially, hy rfJiKjy- 
ifig fi \ir<)]H'.r prof/^^rlion of the fl/^wer*, or, tH9tt4jr utiU, the 
flower hud»», a»» *»'>^^n aJ» they sip\t*'.nr. 

^Mt Ih a wrong jioliey t/i desire U^ enjoy to^> (»r>on ; FfMirujL 
Ijtidf. >^hould he the rn/^tto of the fniit grower. To revert t/^ the 
huhjeet of de'-ay, the main eauwj u'jijm*} to he purely ^ dir/t/xtk,* 
ami can he c/ttinmn/i ft an epidemic in man, or apix^Mfiy io ani' 
nmln ; it will make il« appearan'^e huddenly. and often a« »u/J- 
denly ceaw;. 'J'hi*i wa* the i;xp*iruiut^'. of French vine gr*iwer», 
although the cAitkntcUir <jf the dmeam tber« diflvrfA trout the 
Afuhnf-MU iirix\t*, thi. W*i ntay hen^;eforth have a long [^;riod 
of H'tuini fiiiit c;'op><, and jM;rhap>» lie vinite^J again hy the rot, 
after a long or mUorUsr time, But one tbiog i» eerUuo, that the 
d<^,ay thi« year wan le«»» destructive than at any period fein^;e 
l''.*/Z, the year of it*» fir<»t app«raranc<;. 

" (^lan the grajMj he cultivate^! here with a fkir prf/^^th^^ of 
profit? i"* a 'jue*ition that i>» firwt mtkfA hy new Ujginnerfc, It 
can he nitHWinA lit the affirmative, provide^! the right varieties 
l>e \>\nuUA. 

" The Coruujfd ha*> h<Mi^n pronounced at the North and Wefet 
the grape for the ' naUwh^ and the |KK>r luau'h wine graj>e. Thiu 
i« true for th'/w; t»<;ction», hut not for the Southern HinUm. We 
have a ii^n\>^: indigenou* to the country, which i* more deserv- 
ing that appeUatirin fir^r un ; one that will thrive on a n>eky hill 
a« well a»j in a rich hottom ; never iailing to pro<iuce a crop of 


fruit; never having been known to rot, and, above all, needing 
no experienced hand to trim it. I refer to the Scivpj>er)iong. 
Its capacity of production is fabulous when compared to other 
vineyard varieties. Vines planted six years ago upon land that 
would not produce ten bushels of corn to the acre, in average 
years, have produced one and a half bushels of fruit each, and 
this is the fourth crop. They were planted without regard to 
the arbor training, under which mode the Scuppernong attains 
its largest size, but simply trained upon a wire trellis four feet 
high ; the distance twenty feet in the row. What will an acre 
produce at this rate, and what will it produce, if properly 
trained, and planted in a rich soil ? 

" Instances of a single vine covering one acre of ground are 
numerous, and sixty barrels of wine its product in a single sea- 
son. These are exceptions which vine growers must not all 
expect to realize; but they are merely given as an evidence of 
its wonderful fertility. Its culture is the simplest of all modes, 
and the outlay required to establish an acre is insignificant, as 
compared with the prices of the new varieties. Enough of the 
former to plant an acre can be procured for the price of a half 
dozen new comers. 

" The next best wine grape is the CJinipn, whose merits are 
now sufficiently known to give it its rank among the great wine 
grapes of the country. It is of Northern origin, but imj) roves 
as it is brought southward. It is very prolific and makes a 
heavy bodied claret. Other varieties are coming into notice, 
and bid fair to make valuable additions to this class of grape : 
such are the " Tree Seedling," etc. 

" Our good table grapes are becoming numerous. First comes 
Delaware, which seem to thrive everj-where South. Isabella 
bids fair to even excel the Delaware ; its quality is superior l;o 
any of its class ; so far it has not decayed, although,, from the 
short time of its introduction South, we cannot form a decided 
opinion as to its ultimate behavior; still, two years' fruiting, 
during which it bore perfectly sound crops, and this during a 
period when many other varieties, of like recent introduction, 
decayed, is a fair beginning and likely to end well. Hartford 
Prolific is as yet our best very early grape. As a profitable 
market fruit it stands first in order. The bunches and berries 
are large, of fine appearance, fair quality, and stands carrying to 


market better than any other variety. It is not so liable to 
drop its berries as in Northern States. Its earliness will always 
make it command a high price. Miles is better in quality, fully, 
if not a little earlier, but not so fine in appearance. 

" Concord will long remain as one of our good grapes. Its 
skin is rather too thin to stand carrying to distant markets ; 
but it is very prolific, of fine qualit}^ and will doubtless make a 
good wine, although no experiments have as yet been tried 
upon a large scale. 

" Ontario, or Union Village, when well grown, rivals in size 
the Black Hamburg. It is a splendid looking grape, of good 
quality, and has decayed less than many of the heretofore con- 
sidered reliable grapes. When the Warren and Black July find 
a suitable soil and situation, no grape can compare with either 
in the peculiar texture of the fruit. The vinous flavor of these 
varieties belongs only to the type of sz«2IBer grape, ( FiYiS rps- 
tivalif,) from which they originate, and they are all well de- 
scribed by Downing, when he calls them 'bags of wine.' Other 
varieties have their merits; but they alone have given more 
satisfaction generally than others ; and we must be satisfied 
with them, especiall}^ if we expect to derive profit from grape 
growing ; and, until better varieties are produced, we must 
take them, as they combine variety enough to satisfy the most 
fastidious taste. 

" Hybridizing has been much experimented with of late ; but 
ver}'^ few of the so-called hybrids are really so ; they are, in most 
instances, true natives of either the Lahnisca or ^stivalis type. 
To Dr. Wylie, of Chester, S. C, belongs the credit of having 
achieved the best results. The thanks of all American grape 
growers should be given him for his efforts in improving our 
native varieties bj'' scientific and patient labors, and the fruits 
of these labors will, at no distant day, largely benefit the 
country. His experiments have been, by taking the native 
species as the female, and using the pollen of the foreign 
varieties as males. The offsprings show more foreign char- 
acters than native ones ; proving that the experiments were 
successful. By this process he has produced Delawares with 
the most exquisite flavor of the Muscats. Clintons as large as 
Concords, and with a Muscat or Chasselas flavor. By cross im- 
pregnation, taking his hybrid varieties as male, he has pro- 


duced from the wild Halifax a most exquisite wine grape ; and 
the most pleasant feature with his hybrids, is that they have 
not been in the least subject to decay, although he states that 
the ground in which they are planted is not a suitable one for 
a vineyard. 

" The best soil for a vineyard is a dry calcareous loam, one con- 
taining natural salts and a proportionate quantity of vegetable 
matter. It is futile to expect a heavy grape crop upon soil too 
poor to be used for the cultivation of corn. 

" The different varieties of grapes will make different wines. 
Nearly all the varieties belonging to the Fox grape {Vitis La- 
brusca) will make a Hock. They are better suited to the pro- 
duction of white wines than red ones, when used by themselves. 
The Catawba, the Venango, etc., give a rough wine, when fer- 
mented upon the skins. The Concord, from its thinness of 
skin, contains less acid matter, and will, therefore, make a pala- 
table red wine. The Labruscas should have a portion of ^sti- 
valis mixed with them, when a red wine is desired. For in- 
stance Catawba and Isabella, with a third; Clinton, Warren or 
Black July, will give a superior red wine. The ^Estivalis class 
are more akin to the French wine grapes. The Clinton will 
give a fine Claret ; Ohio, or Jacques, something more resembling 
a Burgundy; Pauline, Warren and Black July will produce 
wines varying from a Sauterne to a Madeira. Scuppernong 
will make a delicious Muscatel. Enough for all tastes ; and it 
is to be hoped that, as we have the elements of success in our 
hands, we shall no longer allow them to remain unproductive." 

The objection to the Scuppernong as a wine grape is that the 
fruit produces almost singly and not in bunches, and hence is diffi- 
cult to gather. This, as well as other grapes, grow remarkably 
well in our common pine land when cleared and prepared — 
favored possibly by the characteristics of the soil combined with 
the protection afforded by the pine forest. I hope that in a few 
years grape culture will be regarded as an industrial resource 
by those residing in these comparatively sterile regions, and 
that it will yield employment and profit to our people. 

Mr. S. McDowel, of N. C, directed attention to the "Belt of 
no frost, or Thermal Belt," on the slopes of the Southern Alle- 
ghanies. It is a vernal zone which exhibits itself upon our 
mountain sides, commencina: about three hundred feet vertical 


height above the valleys and traversing them, he says in his 
letter, in a perfectly horizontal line throughout their entire 
length, like a vast green ribbon on a black ground. Its breadth 
is four hundred feet. Here there is no frost, " and the most 
tender of our native grapes has not failed to produce abundant 
crops in twenty-six consecutive years." These should be 
selected for grape culture as the low valleys are unsuited to it. 
See the philosophy of the subject as described by him, in P. 
O. Eep., 1867, p. 29. 

MUSCADINE ; BULL ACE, ( Vltis vulpina, L.) A wine may 
be made from this grape. Two pecks of the mashed grapes are 
added to one gallon of boiling water ; allow it to ferment thirty- 
six hours ; add a little sugar to each gallon and lay it aside. It 
must not be sealed closely at first. 

AM. IVY ; VIEGINIAN CREEPER, (Ampelopsis quinquefo- 
lia, Mx.) Fla. and northward. 

Used by the " Ecletics " Dr. Wood states, as an alterative, 
tonic, and expectorant. The bark and the twigs are the parts 
employed. Dr. McCall has recently in the Memphis Med. Jour, 
recommended a decoction or infusion of the bark in dropsy. 
He believes it to act rather by stimulating absorption than as a 
diuretic. (Penins. and Independ. Med. J., June, 1858.) See 
U. S. Disp., 12th Ed. 

The " Ivy," (Hedera helix,) an exotic, which by its tendrils 
clings to and covers the walls of brick houses, has been exten- 
sively and successfully used at the South during the late war to 
restore the color of silk dresses — a strong decoction of the 
leaves, as I" am informed, is employed. It owes this property 
of imparting lustre and freshness to silk no doubt to the resin- 
ous ivy gum which it contains, a principal constituent of which 
is bassorin. 

CORYLACE^. (The Nut Tribe.) 

Properties well known. The seeds oily, and generally eat- 
able; the bark astringent, and often containing coloring matter. 

IRONWOOD ; HORNBEAM, {Ostrya Virginica, Willd., Ell. 
Sk. Ostrya carpinus, Mich.) Richland ; Newbern. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, ii, 619; Shec. Flora Carol. 355. Its 
leaves afford a grateful food to cattle. The wood is tough and 


white, and burns like a candle. I have suggested this (article 
in De Bow's Eeview) as a substitute for wood employed by en 
gravers. It is emploj'ed by turners, and wrought into mill- 
cogs, wheels, etc. A permanent yellow color is imparted to 
yarn by the inner bark. 

The birch hornbeam, (C. betulus,) growing in England, is very 
much used as a hedge plant, and is said to '• afford a more uni- 
form temperature of shade than a brick wall." Our species "is 
the most elegant of all the hornbeams of Britain." Wilson, 

"The sap of the hornbeam {Caiyinus sylvestris) is obtained in 
the months of April and May. At this period it is colorless, 
and clear as water ; its taste is slightly saccharine ; its odor 
resembles that of whey ; it reddens turnsole paper. The sap of 
this tree contains water in very large quantity, sugars, ex- 
tractive matter, (probably azotized,) and free acetic acid, ace- 
tate of lime, and acetate of potash in very small quantities. 
This sap, left to itself, presents in succession all the phenomena 
of the vinous and then of the acetous fermentation." Vauque- 
lin's Annales de Chimie t. xxxi, p. 20, first series; Boussin- 
gault's Eural Economy, p. 67, Law's edition, 1857. 

BEAKED HAZELNUT, {Corylus rostrata, Ait.) Grows on 
the mountains. Fl. March. 

Griifith, Med. Bot., 585 ; Duhamel's Mem. Am. Journal Pharm. 
Dr. Heubener, of Bethlehem, has employed the short, rigid 
hairs of the involucre as a substitute for those of mucuna, and 
has found them equally anthelmintic. 

I have collected this plant in fruit on Tiger River, near Reid- 
ville, S. C. The hairs are extremely fine, and pierce the skin 
with facility. I have little doubt with respect to their acting in 
a similar way with mucuna. 

HAZELNUT, {Corylus Americana, Walt.) Rich soils; along 
the margin of woods and thickets. West Florida and north- 
ward. Chapman. N. C. Edible. 

I have seen the hazelnut growing wild near Summerville, 
S. C, in Laurens Pistrict, and in Powbattan County, Va. Our 
American hazelnut is said to be preferred to the filbert. Wilson 
says that the oil which is obtained from hazelnuts by pressure 
is little inferior to that of almonds ; and under the name of 
nutoil is often preferred by painters, on account of its drying 
more readily than any other of the same quality. Chemists 


employ it as the basis of fragrant oils, artificially prepared, 
because it easily combines with and retains odors. This oil is 
found serviceable in obstinate coughs. If nuts be put into 
earthen pots and well closed, and afterward buried eighteen 
inches or two feet in the earth, they may be kept sound through 
the winter. In many parts of England hazels (C. avellana) are 
planted in coppices and hedge-rows, to be cut down periodically 
for charcoal, poles, fishing-rods, etc. Being extremely tough 
and flexible, the branches ai*e used for making hurdles, crates, 
and springles to fasten down thatch. They are formed into 
spars, handles for implements of husbandry, and when split are 
bent into hoops for casks. Charcoal made from hazel is much 
in request for forges ; and when prepared in a particular man- 
ner, is used by painters and engravers to draw their outlines. 
The roots are used by cabinet-makers for veneering ; and in 
Italy the chips of hazel are put into turbid wine for the purpose 
of fining it. Eural Cyc. Our species will doubtless answer for 
all these purposes. Hemp-seed oil also is used by painters. In 
the countries where yeast is scarce, they twist the slender 
branches of hazel together, and steep them in ale yeast during 
its fermentation ; they are then hung up to dry, and at the 
next brewing are put into the wort instead of yeast. Farmer's 

WHITE BEECH, {Fagus Sylvatka, Fagus V. Americana, L.) 
Eich, shaded swamps. Kichland; collected in St. John's ; New- 
bern. Fl. March. 

Shec. Flora. Carol. 559 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 585 ; Fl. Scotica, 
ii, 583 ; Linn. Veg. Mat. Med. 175. The bark is astringent, and 
has been used, according to Dr. Farnhara, in intermittent fever; 
but it is not possessed of any decided powers. The fruit pro- 
duces vertigo and headache in the human species. It is ob- 
served, in the Fl. Scotica, that "the fat of hogs, which feed on 
them, is soft, and will boil away." The seeds yield an oil little 
inferior to olive oil, and fit, also, for burning. The pulp re- 
maining after expression may be converted into flour, similar in 
taste and color to wheat, but sweeter. A narcotic principle, 
called fagine, has been found in the husks. The young leaves 
are sometimes used by the common people as a potherb. The 
wood is valuable to cabinet-makers and turners, for manufac- 
turing purposes — being capable of receiving a high polish. 


Every kind of implement, plane stocks, tool handles, may be 
made of this wood, which resists great pressure. In England 
the beech is extensively used for umbrella handles. See Dick- 
ens' Household Words. Liebig states that the ashes of the 
beech contains a larger proportion of phosphate of lime than 
those of any other tree. See his Agricultural Chemistry. It 
is observed in South Carolina that the lands on which it grows 
are not usually suited for cotton ; and we may, perhaps, attri- 
bute it to their depriving the soil of this, so necessary a con- 
stituent in the maturation of that plant. In the lower country 
of South Carolina, the beech is one of the most magnificent of 
our forest trees. Chapman only includes in his work F. feru- 
ginea, Ait. 

By distilling, says Ure, beech tar {F. sylvatica) to dryness 
with other processes, ^arajs/iwe is obtained. "It would form 
admirable candles," the author adds, while referring to the pro- 
duction of paraphine as an article of commerce from peat. I 
insert this here (1862) as deposits of peat ai'e found within the 
Southern States. The ashes of peat, also, are worth something 
as manure. They usually, Norton states, contain five or six 
per cent, of potash and soda, and considerable quantities of 
lime, magnesia, iron, etc. Soot, a substance somewhat allied, 
contains a large quantity of ammonia, and is useful as a ma- 
nure, so much so that when laid on heaps of grass the plants 
are destroyed. Michaux says that our beech bears a strict 
analogy with the European beech. The beech should be felled 
in the summer when the sap is in full circulation ; cut at this 
season it is very desirable. In the Fagus sylvestris, white beech, 
"the duramen or perfect wood, bears a remarkably small pro- 
portion to its alburnum. The bark of old trees is used by tan- 
ners as a substitute for oak bark." In England beech wood is 
employed for many purjjoses — the nuts or mast being given to 
hogs. See, also, Eural Cyc. The wood of the red beech is 
stronger, tougher, and more compact than that of the white. 
In the State of Maine, and in the British provinces, where oaks 
are rare, it is employed with the sugar maple and yellow birch 
for the lower part of the frames of vessels. The beech is in- 
corruptible when constantly in the water. The ashes of both 
species of beech yield a very large proportion of potash. Mi- 
chaux, who describes the process of extracting the oil, says 


that it equals one-sixth of the nuts used. The quality of the 
oil depends upon the care with which it is made, and upon the 
purity of the vessel in which it is prepared. It should be twice 
drawn off during the first three months, without disturbing the 
dregs, and the third time at the end of six months. It arrives 
at perfection onl}' when it becomes limpid several months after 
its extraction. It improves by age, lasts unimpaired for ten 
years, and may be preserved longer than any other oil. The 
manner of making beechnut-oil most commonly pursued in the 
districts of the Western States where the tree abounds, is some- 
what different from that described in Michaux's Sylva. Instead 
of resorting to the rather tedious process of gathering the nuts, 
and pressing them through screw-presses, the farmers turn out 
their hogs immediately after the first frost, who secrete the oil 
under their skin. Unless they be fed some time before killing, 
upon Indian corn, the bacon has little solid consistency, becomes 
liquW upon the slightest application of heat, and keeps that 
state, resembling in that respect the lard of hogs fed upon acorn 
mast. The nuts are only plentiful every third or fourth year. 
I have observed that the beech growing in the swamps of S. 
Carolina mature a very scanty supply of nuts. I obtain the 
following from a journal, (1862:) 

Beech Tree Leaves. — The leaves of the beech trees, collected at 
autumn, in dry weather, form an admirable article for filling 
beds. The smell is grateful and wholesome ; they do not harbor 
vermin, are very elastic, and may be replenished annually 
without cost. 

CHINQUAPIN, (Castanea piwiila, W.) Diffused in upper 
and lower country ; sometimes attaining a height of thirty feet; 
vicinity of Charleston ; St. John's; JSTewbern. Fl. July. 

U. S. Disp. 189. The bark has been used in intermittent 
fever, but is probably possessed of very little value. The fruit 
is eatable. The wood is finer grained, more compact, heavier 
and even more durable than that of the chestnut, and is ad- 
mirably adapted for fence-posts — lasting in the ground more 
than forty years. Farmer's Encyc. The bloom of this tree 
and of the persimmon is said to destroy hogs. See following. 

CHESTNUT, (Castanea vesca, L.) Fairfield District, Florida 
and northward. In South Carolina only found in upper dis- 
tricts ; one of our noblest trees. 


The fruit of this tree and the chinquapin (C. ptimila') are well 
known. Eaten either raw or boiled. The roots contain an as- 
tringent principle ; that of the chinquapin boiled in milk is 
much used in the diarrhoea of teething children. I would advise 
a tea made of this to be used extemporaneously in diarrhoea by- 
soldiers in camp. The late Dr. Nelson Burgess, of Sumter 
District, S. C, informed me that at the recommendation of Dr. 
Jones, he has used the decoction of the root and bark of the 
chinquapin frequently as a substitute for quinine in intermittent 
and remittent fever, and with decidedly satisfactory results. I 
mention this hoping that it will be examined by others. I can 
have no clue to the reasons of its utility, regarding it here- 
tofore simply as an astringent. Hot water is poured over the 
root and bark, and a large quantity taken during the twenty- 
four hours. 

Dr. J. S. Unzicker, of Cincinnati, reports the use of a decoc- 
tion of the leaves of the chestnut in hooping cough. He says 
that he has given it in about thirty cases, in all of which it gave 
decided relief in two weeks. He uses a decoction made with 
three to four drachms of the leaves in a pint of water given ad 
libitum. Caulophyllin, in doses of one-fourth to four grains, has 
also been much used recently in this disease and in asthma. 
Boston Med. and vSurg. J., Jan., 1868. See, also. Bates in Tilden's 
J. Mat. Med. Sept., 1868, article containing a history of the 
Blue Cohosh, (Caulophyllum.) 

The bark of both trees contains tannin, and may be used in 
tanning leather. In Italy, chestnuts are baked as bread, and 
there and elsewhere are i^lanted as food for hogs. 

Wilson, in his Rural Cyc, says that coppices of chestnut afford 
an excellent produce every ten or twelve years, for hop-poles, 
hoops and all kinds of elastic props and handles. "The wood 
of young chestnuts serves better for gate-posts or for any other 
purposes which involve constant contact with the ground than 
any other kind of wood, except yew or larch. It is lauded as a 
good succedaneum for the coarser kinds of mahogany in the 
making of furniture." It ranks nearly equal with oak. " Cask 
staves of chestnut possess the double recommendation of not. 
being liable to shrink and of not imparting a foreign color to 
liquors which the casks may contain. The wood of the chestnut, 
though brittle, is very durable in weather. I am informed that 


fence-rails made of it will last over twenty years. The trees 
can easily be raised from the seed. 

BLACK OAK; QUERCITEON OAK, {Quercus tinctoria, 
Bartram.) Upper districts ; rare in lower; collected in Charles- 
ton District; St. John's; J^orth Carolina. Fl. April. 

Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 194 ; Am. Med. Record, iii, 363 ; 
Barton's Essay to Form. Mat. Med.; Alibert, Nouv. Elems. de 
Therap. i, 93 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. v, 590 ; Edinb. 
Med. Journal, 72 ; U. S. Disp. 581 ; Mich. N. Am. Sylva, i, 91 ; 
Journal de Pharm. et de Chim. v, 251 ; Royle, Mat. Med. 559 : 
Ball, and Gar. Mat. Med. 396 ; Griffith's Med. Bot. 585 ; Am. 
Herbal, 153. The bark, a powerful and valuable astringent, is 
also possessed of purgative properties, in which respect it has 
an advantage not met with in the Q. falcata. They have both 
been efficacious in leucorrhoea, amenorrhoea, chronic hysteria, 
diarrhoea, rheumatism, pulmonary consumption, tabes mesen- 
terica, cynanche tonsillaris and asthma. Oak-balls produced by 
these ''re also powerful astringents, and are employed in many 
cases requiring such remedies — as in diarrhoea, dysentery and 
hemorrhage; also, in mild cases of intermittent fever. The dose 
of the powder is forty grains. The powder of this, or of the 
bark, mixed with hog's lard, is a very simple and effectual 
remedy in painful hemorrhoids and a decoction is serviceable as 
a fomentation for prolapsus uteri and ani, and for defluctions 
from those parts. According to Dr. Cullen, it is applicable in 
relaxations or impaired conditions of the mucous membranes, 
on account of its tonic, constringing effect, and as a gargle in 
inflammation of the fauces, prolapsus uvulae, etc. Mr. Lizars 
has used it with " wonderful success " in the cure of reducible 
hernia. It is applied topically in mortification, and to ill-con- 
ditioned ulcers. Marasmic and scrofulous childen are bathed 
with great advantage in a bath made of the bark. Although 
this species acts slightly on the bowels, it contains more tannin 
and gallic acid than the Q. alba and Q. falcata ; hence it is better 
suited to cases requiring an external astringent. Quercitron is 
obtained from this and the Q. falcata (which see) indiscrimi- 
nately, and is sent to Europe in large quantities to be employed 
in dyeing wool and silk of a yellow color. 

The bark is a well known and important dyestuff, and is much 
employed in dyeing wool, silk and paper-hangings. It is said 


by Dr. Bancroft, who introduced it into notice, to be equal in 
power to ten times its weight of woad. With a basis of alumina, 
a decoction of the bark gives a bright yellow dye ; with oxide of 
tin, it gives a variety of tints from pale lemon to deep orange ; 
and with oxide of iron, it yields a drab color. The cellular in- 
tegument of the bark is what contains the coloring matter. 
Wilson's -Rural Cyc. " Oak-galls put into a solution of vitriol in 
water give it a purple color, which as it grows stronger becomes 
black." Infusions of oak-galls (tannin) are excellent tests of 
iron. Gallic acid is also yielded by the gall-nuts, and by oak 
bark. The principal barks which are known to yield it are 
those of the oak, willow, plum tree, the poplar, the elm, the 
mountain ash, the birch, the elder, the sycamore, the beech and 
the cherry tree. But it by no means, adds Wilson, follows the 
proportions of tannin. It is readily, but very slowly obtained 
from a cold, long-kept and eventually evaporated decoction of 
galls, or of the tanniniferous barks. Wilson's Rural Cyc. and 
medical authors. 

The best season for felling timber is undoubtedly midwinter, 
the next being midsummer, when the sap is chiefly confined to 
the young shoots, the circumference of the soft wood and the 
bark. The worst time for felling timber is the spring, just 
before the development of the buds, when the tree is fullest of 
sap. Where much value is attached to the soft or outer wood, 
felling ought to take place when there is least sap in the tree. 
In general, all the soft woods, such as the elm, lime, poplar, 
willow, should be felled during winter; hard woods, like the 
oak, beech, ash, etc., when the trunks are of large size and 
valued chiefly for their heart- wood, may be felled at any time. 
When the bark, however, is to be taken into consideration, as 
in the oak, the tree should be felled in spring, as then the bark 
contains four times the quantity of astringent matter to that 
felled in winter. Brande's Dictionary of Science ; Farmer's 

All oak bark for the tanner ought at latest to be removed 
from the tree before the third week of June, " when the sap 
has begun to rise and before the leaf is completely developed ;" 
and every ton of it, says Wilson, which is removed after the 
first of July, is not only impoverished in tannin, but weighs 
two hundred weight less than if it had been removed before 


the end of May. Other trees may in England be peeled 
earlier. The reader interested in procuring barks should read 
the article, Eural Cyc, " Barking." The best methods of col- 
lecting and storing are described. The instruments used in 
collecting bark are a mallet to beat the bark and a wedge, both 
made of ash, to insert beneath the loosened bark. The wedge 
is spatula-shaped. Slight wetting does not injure bark. It is 
dried in dry, open air, upon supports, so that water will not 
collect upon it. The bark should be frequently turned. When 
it is sufficiently dry to avoid fermentation, it should be carried 
to a dry-house or shade, or stacked in the same manner as ha}'^ — 
in stacks not so large as to incur the risk of fermentation. In 
the Farmer's Bncyc. the plan of removing bark is described. 
It is stated that tannic acid most abounds when the buds are 
opening, and least in winter, and in cold springs. Four or five 
pounds of good oak bark of average quality are required to form 
one pound of leather. The bark separates from the tree more, 
easily during spring. See Am. Farmer's Cyclopoedia. 

See article '" Leather," in Wilson's Eural Cyc, for mode of 
preparing the varieties of leather, tanning kidskins for French 
gloves, etc.; also '• Rhus," in this volume. 

The editor of the Southern Field and Fireside, April, 1862, 
states in answer to inquiries " that the bark of the black poplar 
is used in England for tanning, but not, we believe, in this 
country. It has probably about half the strength of black oak 
bark. Blackberry briars, roots and stems washed clean (this it 
will be observed confirms my own observations) supply a good 
deal of the tanning principle ; and our common broomsedge, or 
straw, has been largely employed in the manufacture of leather 
in European nations where timber barks are insufficient to meet 
the public wants. Sumach is exported largely from Sicily for 
tanning goat and sheepskins. Oak leaves, fennel and May-weed 
abound in tannic acid, and we intend experimenting with the 
bai'k of old field pine for making leather. That it contains tan 
we know; but whether it will be profitable to peel and use it 
has yet to be determined. Larch is much used in Great Britain 
and hemlock at the North." 

From a useful communication in the Southern Field and 
Fireside, October 19, 1861, it is stated that oak bark has sold in 
the District of Columbia at ten dollars a cord for years ; and 


that " several million dollars worth of sumach (^Rhus) is an- 
nually imported from the south of Europe into the United 
States for tanning purposes." The Ehus grows abundantly in 
the Southern States, as well as many other plants containing 
tannin. I have noticed, in traversing that part of the Dismal 
Swamp near Norolk, Va., that the Rhus is the most character- 
istic growth. See Sumach. It could be procured in any amount. 
The writer of the article just referred to calls attention to the 
great amount of goatskins and morocco manufactured and ex- 
ported from France and England, where tannin is scarce, to 
this country, where the materials for producing it are abundant, 
at least in the Southern States. I quote from the writer in the 
Southern Field and Fireside as follows, and also refer the reader 
to my own examination of several of the plants growing in St. 
John's Berkeley, S. C, October, 1862. for the relative amount of 
tannin in plants. See " Z/iquidambar," in this volume: 

" But such is the demand for leather one may well use oak 
and chestnut bark hewed oif at any time in the year- Sumach, 
fennel and pine bark are much used in Europe. Whether any 
of our common pine barks contain tan enough to warrfint their 
use has, we believe, never been tested. Larch bark is much 
used in Scotland, although only half the strength of oak. Mon- 
teath, of Stirling, applied chemical tests to the infusion of dif- 
ferent barks with the following results: Oak (coppice) contains 
most tannic acid ; ash and hornbeam next ; Spanish chestnut 
third ; willow fourth ; birch, beech and larch fifth ; spruce and 
silver firs sixth ; mountain ash and broom seventh ; and next 
Scottish pine, bramble or briars, laburnum, and the sawdust of 
oak timber." My examinations were made before I saw this 

Dr. Daniel Lee in the papers published in the Southern Field 
and Fireside, from which I have drawn largely, earnestly ad- 
vises us to be more economical with regard to our supply of 
barks for tanning. "It is poor economy," he says, "for the 
South to destroy nearly all its valuable tan-bark in clearing oak 
land, cutting rail limber and firewood, and thereby deprive our 
children and grandchildren of the power to manufacture their 
own leather. The time has come when this error must be cor- 
rected, or serious injury will be the consequence. To send a 
million dollars worth of hides to the Noi'th, have them tanned, 


and the leather made into shoes, boots, saddles and harness for 
Southern consumption, is to pay about eight or nine million 
dollars for the support of that Northern economy which never 
wastes the bark that grows on oak or hemlock trees, and that 
industry which turns this bark into gold." I know this criticism 
is partly just; still, the planter at the South cannot often turn 
to the storing away or sale of all the oak or other bark on his 
place when he is compelled to clear new land, and can scarcely 
accomplish that properly ; whereas at the North the farmer is 
compelled to every expedient to add to his resources. 

I have endeavored, in the examination made by me to show 
that the leaves of many of our native trees — such as the sweet 
gum, myrtle, etc., ai*e rich in tannin, and being easily procured 
may be substituted for barks, which are difficult to prepare. 
Mr. Jno. Commins, of Charleston, informs me (1867) that he 
employed myrtle and other leaves extensively and profitably 
in tanTiing leather during the late war, but whether it was 
original with him, or the result of my "suggestion and publication, 
I do not know. Tanners in the State of New York, Dr. Lee 
states, save tan-bark enough to manufacture three times as much 
leather as the four millions of people in that State consume. 
" Leather is largely exported from New York and Massa- 
chusetts to England, the Southern States, and the great prairie 
West." He condemns " the habit of felling oak trees when the 
bark will not peel." See " Quercus,^' " BMs," " Myrica," and 
'^ Jjiquidambar,'^ for notice of plants suitable for tanning leather ; 
also Wilson's Eural Cyc, art. "Currying," for method of pre- 
paring and dressing leather, and Ure's Dictionary of Arts. 

" Method of tanning. — For doing a small business hot water 
and hot ooze ma}' be best run upon the bark to extract all its 
tannic acid in a short time ; but in a large way either a copper 
heater should pass through the leech holding bark, or it should 
be boiled by steam. A copper pan is sometimes used, set on an 
arch, for heating ooze. A mill for working hides operates pre- 
cisely like a fulling-mill in scouring and fulling cloth. When 
dry and weighty, Spanish hides are tanned. Hide-mills have 
heavy hammers, which are elevated eight or ten inches by a 
revolving wheel, and fall with an oblique stroke on the hides, 
that causes them to turn like cloth in a fulling-mill. Any hori- 
zontal staff will work a hide-mill, and a horse-power will drive 


the shaft. Our friend, Prof. Kutherford, has constructed a 
horse-power for fifty dollars on his farm (which joins that of 
the writer) that would drive a hide-mill as easily as it now 
threshes wheat, and cuts hay and straw for horses. As this is 
a cheap and valuable power for farm use, it has been our pur- 
pose to describe it, which we shall yet do. 

" Any mechanic, by seeing the model of a hide-mill, could 
easily make one. It needs no cast iron double crank like a 
fulling-mill. The whole aifair can be made of wood. Our tan- 
ning in the South is many years behind the progress of the 
age." The reader interested in this subject may consult with 
advantage lire's Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures ; also an 
excellent article on tanning and leather, in Nicholson's Ency- 

I am induced to insert, in connection with the subject of 
materials for tanning, a communication entire upon the subject 
from the pen of Dr. Daniel Lee, in the Southern Field and Fire- 
side, November 30, 1861. It contains practical instruction on 
the subject of manufacture of leather on a small scale by farmers 
and planters : 

"It will be better for several farmers, having from five to ten 
hides each, to unite in the purchase of a bark-mill for grinding 
tan-bark, and in constructing a few vats for their common use, 
than for one to be at the whole expense for so small a business 
as his own alone. The most primitive way of tanning is in 
troughs dug out of large trees like pine and poplar; but mo- 
lasses and bacon hogsheads will form the cheapest tan-vats for 
the farmer's use. Dig out the earth two-thirds the depth of 
the hogsheads ; pound moist clay over the bottom on which the 
hogsheads are to stand. Three or four will do for the tanning 
part of leather-making. Let them not come within six inches 
of each other, so that moist clay may be pounded closely 
around each hogshead to within three inches of the top. If 
bark cannot be ground, it should be broken or cut fine with an 
axe, so as to fill two of the hogsheads. Heat clear spring or 
rain-water boiling hot in large pots or kettles, till the bark in 
both hogsheads is covered with it. Let the bark steep and 
soak a week or more, while the raw hides are prepared for the 
ooze and tanning. One hogshead will do for this, but two are 
better. They ought to stand some yards fi*om the bark-vats, 


because lime spattering into the ooze injures it. Surround these 
with clay like the hogsheads used for tanning. 

"After the horns, tail and dew-claws are removed from a 
green hide, it is split into two halves or sides, from the tail to 
the nose on the pate. If the hide is dry, it must soak and 
soften first. After it is split it goes upon the beam, and the 
operative scrapes and tears off all the flesh, and part of the 
fascia or membrane which covers the flesh side of every skin. 
It is now ready for the lime. A half bushel of recently slaked 
lime, or some less of quick lime, will do for a hogshead nearly 
full of water. The lime and water should be well stirred with 
a clean hoe or " plunge " before putting sides or skins into the 
same. They should be often moved about in the lime water by 
a lever some seven or eight feet long, and hauled out once a 
day with an iron or wooden hook such as tanners use. As soon 
as the hair will slip, sides should be worked over the beam and 
rinsed In the soak, or water hogshead, to remove the hair and 
all the lime. The hogshead used as a soak, washed clean, is 
now to serve as a hen-dung vat or bait. It ferments, and is 
ripe for use in one or two days, after soaking in a half hogs- 
head or more of water. Much pains and care are used in work- 
ing sides and skins out of the bait, as they go from this into 
the tan ooze. They will soon taint and spoil in warm weather. 
Worked and washed clean, the sides and skins are next handled 
two or three times a day in tan ooze until they are evenlj' col- 
ored, and get a handsome, fine grain. The handling is done in 
this wise : Place three or four pieces of plank four feet long 
down as a platform, so as to slope over the hogshead, and let 
ooze from the leather, when lifted out of it upon the plank, run 
back into the hogshead, and not waste upon the ground. Short 
pieces of scantling or sticks of clean wood lie on three sides 
of the plank, over which the edges of the two sides laid down 
extend, and thus form a sort of trough open only at the end 
that lies over the edge of the hogshead. All the sides are 
drawn up separate from the liquor with a hook, and spread by 
hand on the platform, and are thrown back into the ooze again. 
If the latter is weak, it is half or more pumped out, and fresh, 
strong ooze is pumped in. The two hogsheads of bark, with 
boiling hot water, will keep up the strength as fast as ten or 
twelve sides can possibly absorb it, after starting with two 


hogsheads of good ooze. You cannot heat old ooze in an iron 
vessel, as it would spoil it ; but you may, perhaps, obtain 
a copper still, in which tan ooze may be heated without the 
least injury to the liquor or the still. The heated ooze is put 
on the bark, as it is much better than water, where it is allowed 
to become about as cool as the atmosphere. 

"As the tanning advances, skins and hides require less hand- 
ling. We should hang them across sticks an inch or less in di- 
ameter, in and under the ooze. The ends of these sticks or rods 
should rest on a light frame in the hogshead, and four inches or 
more below the top. Allowing two inches for each stick and 
side, fifteen sides would occupy thirty inches in width in the 
hogshead. Batts and butts hang down near the bottom of the 
hogshead, where the ooze is strongest. A small hand-pump 
should be put frequently by the side of the leather and of the 
hogshead, to lift the ooze at the bottom to the top. Sides are 
handled a week or too before suspending them separately in 

"As pumping is easier, and less wasteful than dipping, we will 
state the way in which a cheap and good pump can be made : 
Its whole length should be some six feet, and the material, 
plank, not over an inch thick. The open space on the inside 
for the ascent of ooze or water should be about three inches 
square. Two strips of plank thj'ee inches wide, and two five 
inches, the latter lying on the former on both sides, will form 
an aperture in the centre of three inches square. The plank 
ought to be closely jointed, and either painted or covered with 
tar or melted pitch to make all the joints water-tight. Of 
course the nailing should be close and perfect. A box of half- 
inch plank comes up two inches inside from the bottom of the 
pump for the leather valve to rest upon. 

" One side of the valve is very simple, but not easy to describe. 
Imagine a funnel made of thin, flanky sole-leather, four inches 
in diameter across the top, and as many deep down to the neck, 
and that its centre is nailed or tied fast to a rod that is to serve 
as a piston in the pump. The weight of water or other liquid 
to be raised in pumping can set this pliable leather cup to adapt 
itself to the square shape of the aperture in the pump; and to 
prevent this cup or funnel falling back in lifting ooze or water, 
three narrow strips of leather, sewed to the top of the funnel 


on three sides, (one on each,) are nailed witla small nails to the 
piston-rod above, say six inches from the funnel. A small but 
strong wooden pin passes through the end of the rod which, 
held in the hand, enables one to lift easily all the liquid in the 
pump. The discharge from the pump is made in the usual way, 
a foot or more below the top of it. Any one who can use a 
plane can make a pump of this kind take ooze from the bottom 
of one vat, tub or hogshead filled with bark or leather, and put 
it expeditiously into another, where all stand on a level or nearly 
so. A thin case keeps the tan-bark or leather from filling the 
little space required by the pump, which is put into the vat or 
hogshead, and taken out as often as needed. Any blacksmith 
can make the beaming-knives used by tanners, but not those 
used by curriers in finishing leather. The former are curved, 
and often have small teeth to tear up the tough membrane under 
the skin. All-tan bark should be clean and dry, for dirt and 
earth IJlaeken leather. Careless persons often get clay and mud 
into tan-vats, than which nothing is more injurious. Few arts 
demand equal neatness in their operatives With the most im- 
proved apparatus and good bark, the labor of tanning is small. 
An expert will work one hundred grown hides into the bark or 
ooze in a month, for which we generally paid twenty dollars; 
and the labor of tanning two hundred sides was abouD the same 
after they came to the bark. 

"If a farmer can get his hides tanned and curried for half of 
the leather they will make, it is probably better than to attempt 
to tan them himself. Let him improve his pastures by cultiva- 
ting the best grasses, and raise more fat cattle for home con- 
sumption, and thus have three or four hides for the tanner 
where he has one now. This will call first-class tanneries into 
existence that will give a pound of good sole-leather for a pound 
of dry hide, or nearly that. Every farmer ought to spare all 
the tan-bark he can ; for we speak advisedly when we say that 
the Southern States are even now short of oak bark if they are 
to manufacture all the leather which they consume in saddles, 
bridles, harness, saddle-bags, buggy and carriage trimmings, 
caps, hat-linings, book-bindings, shoes and boots. It has been 
the misfortune of the Cotton States to underrate all other indus- 
tries but that of producing their great staple. H<.-nce the 
scarcity of good mechanics and artisans. Hence we make no 


effort to diversify our agriculture, and thereby meet many pub- 
lic wants, while resting our land from the scourge of eternal 
plowing. That system of husbandry which accumulates the 
elements of crops and fertility in every acre cultivated, is still a 
myth to most planters. Southern nationality will expose, and 
happily correct many errors. We shall learn to make as much 
cotton and corn on two acres as we now do on six, and at the 
same time we shall produce tenfold more of the necessaries and 
comforts of civilized life. Our dependence on foreign industry 
and skill for so much of what we consume encourages the world 
to believe that our subjugation is only a question of time. Since 
the mechanical trades are necessary to our happiness, we should 
encourage our sons to become scientific mechanics, as well as 
farmers, lawyers, doctors, and priests and soldiers." 

On account of the importance of the subject I insert here the 
following directions for " Tanning on the Plantations" by T. 
Affleck, from the Am. Agriculturist, also republished in the 
Southern Cultivator, vol. i, p. 198, the paper by J. S. Whitten, 
and one in vol. vi, p. 177: 

" Tanning leather for the use of the plantation is an item of 
good management that should not be overlooked by any planter. 
Nor would it be as much overlooked as it is if the simplicity of 
the process was generally known — that process, I mean, that 
will suffice for making leather for home use. The tanner by 
profession, in order to prepare an article that will command a 
good price in market, and have a merchantable appearance, puts 
the hides and skins through a greater number of manipulations, 
and that he may work to better advantage, has his arrange- 
ments on a more extensive scale. 

"The vats, tools, and implements really needed are few and 
simple. Four vats will generally be found all-sufficient; one for 
21, pool of fresh water, and for baiting ; one for liming ; another 
for coloring ; and a fourth for tanning. The best size, in the 
clear, is seven feet long, four and a half feet wide, and five feet 
deep. They should be placed so as to be easily and conveniently 
filled with water from a spring, running stream, or cistern. Dig 
the holes nine feet by six and a half and six ; if the foundation 
is clay, the depth need not be over five feet. Form a stiff bed 
of clay mortar in the bottom on which to lay the floor, and on it 
erect the sides and ends of the vat, of plank of almost any kind. 


sufficiently thick to resist the pressure from without — two 
inches will be thick enough. When this is done, and the whole 
nailed fast, fill in the vacant space all round with well tempered 
clay mortar, ramming it effectually. It is on this, and not the 
planks, that dependence is placed for rendering the vat perfect. 
When well made a vat will be good for a long lifetime — the ooze 
preventing the decay of any but the top round of plank. Such 
a vat will hold fifteen large beef hides, (thirty sides,) besides a 
number of small skins. 

" The material used for tanning is the bark of the red or black 
oak, stripped when the sap flows in the spring, stocked and 
dried, of which about four pounds are supposed to be necessary 
to produce one pound of leather. There is an article occasion- 
ally used called "catechu," which is an extract made from the 
wood of a mimosa tree, a native of India, half a pound of which 
answers the same purpose. Galls, willow bark, the bark of the 
SpanislT chestnut, and common elm, as also sumach, are all used 
by the tanner. It has been recently found that the root of the 
palmetto answers an equally good purpose with the best oak 

" Bark has to be ground as wanted ; or if the quantity needed 
is small, and it is not thought advisable to incur the expense of 
a bark mill, (from $10 to $18,) it may be pounded in a large 
mortar, or beat up on a block. ' It will require one-third more of 
pounded than of ground bark to afford equally strong ooze, 
which is the infusion of bark. 

"The principal tools requisite are a flushing-knife, currier's 
knife, a brush like a stiff horse-brush and a fleshing-beam. The 
fleshing-beam is made by splitting in two a hard wood stick of 
about a foot in diameter; inserting two stout legs, some thirty 
inches long, in one end on the split side, so that the other end 
rests on the ground, with the round side up, the elevated end 
being high enough to reach the workman's waist. A fleshing- 
knife may be made by bending an old drawing-knife to suit the 
round of the fleshing-beam. 

" The skins of bulls, oxen, cows and horses are called hides; 
those of calves, deer, sheep, etc., are known as skins. 

" Fresh and dried hides receive the same treatment, except 
in the washing process. Those that are salted and drj'-, (and 
no hide should be di-ied with less than from two to four quarts 


of Bait being rubbed on the flesh side — dried without salt, it is 
extremely difficult to soften them ;) require to be steeped, 
beaten and rubbed several times alternately, to bring them to a 
condition sufficiently soft for tanning. 

" Green or fresh hides must be soaked in pure water from 
twelve to twenty-four hours, to extract all the blood, etc., and 
soften the extraneous, fleshy matter, which must then be re- 
moved — throwing one hide at a lime on the fleshing-beam, grain 
or hair side down, and scraping or shaving it off with the flesh- 
ing-knife, which must be somewhat dull or the skin ie apt to be 
cut. They are then put in the liming-vat, which is supplied 
with strong lime water by filling the vat a little over half full 
of water, and adding thereto four bushels of unslaked (or of 
air-slaked) lime, or at the rate of two-thirds of a bushel of lime 
to the barrel of water. This will suffice for fifteen hides; each 
time that they are removed and a fresh lot of hides put in, add 
another bushel of lime, which will keep up the strength for a 
twelvemonth. Before using stir the lime well up, and while it 
is thus mixed with the water j)ut in the hides evenly, so that 
the lime will settle on every part of them. They are to remain 
here from ten to fifteen days, or for three or four days after the 
hair will rub ofl" with the finger completel}- and with ease. 
While in the liming-vat they must be moved up and down ever}'- 
other morning, to expose them to the air, and to the equal 
action of the lime. Being now ready for unhairing, cut each 
hide in two by slitting them along the centre of the back with a 
knife, forming them into sides. Throw ten or twelve of these 
sides on the fleshing-beam, and strip the hair off with the knife ; 
and as they are unhaired, throw each one into the vat of fresh 
water to bait or soak. When the lot of sides and skins in hand 
have all been unhaired and thoroughly washed, throw them 
again, and at once, on the fleshing-beam, with the grain or hair 
side up, and work them over (rub and press them) with the 
knife until all the gummy or mucilaginous matter is worked 
out. This should bo repeated two or three times during ten or 
twelve days, being each time baited anew in fresh water. And 
this working over must only be done when the sides feel soft 
and smooth to the touch ; as they will at times from some Un- 
explained cause, feel rough, at which time they must not be 
worked over. While they are thus boiling they must not be 


neglected, or they will soon spoil. Tanners are in the practice 
of adding one thousandth part of sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) 
to the last bait, which has the effect of swelling the pores and 
distending the fibres, and thus rendering the skins more suscep- 
tible to the action of the ooze. Forty-eight hours generally 
suffices for this last baiting. 

" In the meantime, some good, strong ooze should be prepared 
for the first tanning process, called coloring. Fill a vat a little 
more than half full of water, and add bark, in the proportion 
of one and one-half bushels of ground, or two bushels of pounded 
bark to the barrel of water, which will bring the vat up to 
about two-thirds full. When the bark has soaked from four to 
five days, the sides are put in and allowed to remain fifteen 
da3's ; during which they must be once well and carefully fleshed 
and worked over, and must be drawn up and down every morn- 
ing, for the first week at least, and the bark well plunged or 
stirred up, to have them color evenly. 

''After this, the vat being now two-thirds full of this same 
ooze, after drawing out the hides lay a good coating of fresh 
bark, of say an inch thick, on top of the water, on which it will 
float ; lay on this a side, spread out evenly, and if it has to be 
lapped over in any part lay on more bark until it is all well 
coated, taking care to place those hides at the bottom of the vat 
now that were at the top last time. On this side lay an inch- 
coating of bark, and on that another side, and so on, with alter- 
nate layers of bark, until the vat is full, or the sides all laid 

" In this, which is called the first bark, the sides must lie four 
weeks. They are then drawn out, and the spent bark taken 
out with a skimmer or drainer. The sides are then replaced as 
before, with alternate layers of fresh bark, in the same ooze, 
which has acquired some additional strength, notwithstanding 
the amount of tannin and extractive matter contained in the 
bark that has become intimately combined with the animal 
fibre of the hide. In this second bark they remain six weeks 
undisturbed, when they receive a third bark in the same wa}^, 
in which they are left another six or eight weeks. Three barks 
will suffice to tan deer, hog, calf and other small skins ; four 
barks will make good sole-leather, but five are preferable. 

•'The tanning process being completed, sole-leather is taken 


out of the vat, rinsed effectually, and dried in the shade, hang- 
ing the sides up by two of their corners to joists, where they 
may remain until wanted. Those sides intended for upper and 
harness leather, (which are those of cows, etc., the largest and 
thickest bullock hides being used for sole-leather,) as also deer, 
hog and other small skins, being thoroughly rinsed, are spread 
out on a strong table, with the grain or hair side up, and 
scoured with a stiff brush, like a very stiff horse-brush, occa- 
sionally throwing on pure water, until all the ooze is scoured 
out. Tanners use the edge of a stone, made smooth, to assist 
in rubbing out the ooze, and all the water that can possibly be 
rubbed out. They also use what they call a slicker, being a dull 
edge of copper of about six or seven inches long set in a piece 
of wood, to serve as a handle. 

" After they are all served thus, and rubbed as dry as possi- 
ble, the table is cleaned off and the skins thrown back upon it 
grain side up, and are rubbed with tanner's oil (codfish oil) as 
long a.s the leather will receive it. Harness leather must be 
completely saturated. As they are oiled fold them up and lay 
them aside. When they are all gone over lay one on the table 
at a time, flesh side up, and with a rag rub on all the dubbing 
that the leather will absorb. Thin hides require but a small 
quantity ; harness leather must have a heav}^ coating. 

"Dubbing, which consists of equal parts of tar and tallow, 
melted together and well mixed, must be made the day pre- 
vious to being used. Lard may be used in place of tallow; but 
will require a lesser proportion of it. Each side of leather is 
then hung up by two corners to joists, there to remain until 
perfectly dry, or until wanted. 

"If iron or steel touches a hide during the process of tanning 
when in the least wet, or even moist, it will discolor it, forming 
an indelible black mark. 

" To blacken harness or other leather, take the skin when 
completely dried, and if any greasy spots appear, showing that 
more oil or dubbing has been applied than the leather could 
absorb, wet the spots with a little strong ooze, and scrub them 
out with the brush. Then apply a coat of copperas (sulphate 
of iron) dissolved in ooze, until the leather has a good color all 
over. After this, when dry, put on another good coat of oil. 
The leather may then be smoothed off with a rounding edge of 
polished steel, or glass, or stone." 


The following is from the Southern Cultivator: 

"Having tanned my hides for a number of years, and be- 
lieving it to my interest, I suppose it will be profitable to others 
who have many raw hides. 

"I have succeeded well, and think my leather firmer, and 
more valuable for negro shoes and the coarse harness on my 
farm than tan-yard leather. My plan is a much cheaper one 
than Mr. Affleck's. 

" I tan from ten to fifteen hides a year, of various sizes. I 
have two vats five by seven feet, four feet deep, sunk in the 
ground near a falling branch, so constructed at the boUom that 
I can draw a plug and wash and empty them. I begin in March ; 
soak my hides ten days in running water. Two or three times 
I take them out and give them a good rubbing or washing. They 
are then ready for the lime, as we call it. I then put them in 
one of my vats and divide equallj'' among them from three and 
one-half to five bushels of good ashes and two or three quarts 
of lime, and cover the whole in water. The lye had better be 
strong, and if you err, err on that side. Every few days I take 
them up, or rather stir them up and mix them again, so that all 
parts shall be equally acted on by the lye and the atmosphere, 
in the top and the bottom of the vat. If your lye is right, in 
ten or twelve days your hides will be thickened to two or three 
times their first thickness — feel more like a sheet of jelly than 
anything else — and the hair will slip easily. Then slip off the 
hair, and with a drawing-knife or a curry in g-knife scrape off 
the loose flesh and cellular matter on the other side, and as 
much of the lye as you can, without bruising the hide ; and 
then put them back into fresh and clean water. Every other 
day take them up and give them a good rubbing or scouring, 
for ten days. They are then ready for the bark ; and by that 
time you can slip the bark off your oak trees, and have it ready 
for the hides. I never grind my bark. I take it from the tree, 
and with a drawing-knife take off the rough on the outside, and 
just beat it enough to cause it to lie flat in the vat. In my other 
vat I do all my tanning, and commence with a layer of bark, 
then of leather, and so on ; and so lay it in the vat that every 
part of each side of the leather shall lie against bark; and when 
I am done, I immerse this entirely in water. 

"The first j'ear you had better boil an ooze in kettles or pots 


and use that instead of water, and afterward always preserve 
your old ooze to use next year instead of water. I let this lie 
until the first of August, and put in a second bark precisely as 
the first, and let it lie until some time in October or November, 
when my leather is fully tanned, if these directions have been 
followed. "When the leather is well tanned it presents a yellow, 
spongy appearance, through and through ; otherwise you will 
see a white or hard streak in the centre. When I take it up I 
scour the ooze well out of all. That I intend for sole-leather 
I straighten and dry; that for upper leather I wash well, then 
grease well with the cheapest oil I have, and after drying eight 
or ten days I moisten it, curry off the spongy, soft part from 
the flesh side, and when moist, beat it or break it over some 
rough surface until it is comparatively soft, and the grain side 
is all puckered up or wrinkled into small wrinkles. Then, when 
my leather is thoroughly dried and shrunk, it is fit for use." 

"We have been reading some accounts of a new business which 
we think may become immensely profitable in Virginia. It is 
the extracting of the astringent or tanning properties of the oak 
bark for the production of leather. The information we have 
convinces us that the business will yield very large profits. An 
article we have before us on the subject from a Georgia paper 
says : 

" Five-sixths of the leather made in the United States is pro- 
duced in the New England and Middle States. In the prosecu- 
tion of this business, Boston and its immediate vicinity alone are 
said to consume about four hundred thousand cords of crude 
bark annually, and the enormous consumption which this fact 
illustrates, is very rapidly exhausting all the accessible sources 
of supply of the crude material, and raising its value, as the 
distance from which it must be brought and the difficulties of 
gathering it increase. 

"These facts suggested the idea of inventing machinery to ex- 
tract and condense the tanning properties of the bark in the 
original forest; so that a cord of bark is reduced to a single 
barrel of forty-five gallons. This extract is worth in the North- 
ern cities ten cents a pound or a dollar per gallon — the gallon 
weighing ten pounds — and the whole barrel, therefore, worth 
forty-five dollars'; and the demand for it in Europe and America 
can hardly be met by any probable supply. The manufacture 


of this bark extract, commencing during the war when the for- 
ests of the South were inaccessible, has been confined principally 
to the hemlock forests of the North and East, which produce 
one thousand barrels daily — about four-fifths of which go to 
Europe and the remainder is used principally by the tanners of 

" The machinery for manufacturing this extract is very heavy 
and effective, and costs from eight to nine thousand dollars. It 
is driven by a twenty -five horse power steam engine. The bark 
in slabs, as stripped from the tree, is first soaked in a tank, with 
water kept at a temperature of one hundred and seventy de- 
grees by steam. It is then passed between iron rollers, which 
compress it to the thinness of wrapping paper, crushing everj'- 
fibre and air and water cell in the bark. In this condition it 
falls into another tank, where it is broken up and beaten, and 
agitated in warm water by paddle wheels driven at a velocity 
of one hundred revolutions a minute, and thereafter treated 
until the water has attained the point of saturation. At this 
density it is carried to a condenser and further reduced to the 
desired point of strength for barreling and shipment. 

" If all these figures and data are correct, evidently there is an 
excellent chance for profit from the oak forests of the South. 
More than this — in the spring of the year the tannic acid has 
been found by experiments to be much stronger in the young 
oak leaves than in the bark, and we see no reason why they, 
too, might not be brought into requisition for the manufacture 
of this concentrated tanning extract." 

A letter from a gentleman in New York familiar with the 
business says: "The tanning properties of a cord of oak bark 
reduced to the consistency of ten pounds to the gallon, which 
makes it imperishable weighs four hundred and fifty pounds. 
This is worth in Philadelphia ten cents per pound, and in New 
York and Boston it commands a ready sale at twelve and a half 
cents, while in London and Liverpool it sells at fourteen cents 
in gold per pound. The demand abroad for American oak ex- 
tract will for many years exceed our ability to supply, while 
that for home consumption will test our utmost enersry to meet. 
Oak extract at ten cents per pound, when bark can be had at 
five dollars per cord, will yield to the manufacturer a net profit 
of twenty-five dollars per cord ; and as one machine is capable 


of making two pounds per hour, or forty-eight pounds every 
twenty-four hours, it is easy to compete the returns which may 
be realized by running it for a single year. These figures raaj'" 
seem incredible to your people, but I challenge any one to show 
wherein they are incorrect." 

"Wilson's Rural Cyclopoedia, article " Charcoal," furnishes a 
table of the proportions, color and quality of charcoal furnished 
by "various trees ; also methods of preparing it at the iron-works, 
with the mode of making lampblack. The willow, alder and 
dogwood are employed for preparing charcoal for the manu- 
facture of gunpowder. See Salix, ^^ Finns." 

SPANISH OAK, {Quercus falcata, Mx.) According to Elliot, 
common on the seacoast; collected but sparingly in St. John's; 
Eichland ; grows also in Georgia ; vicinity of Charleston ; New- 

Chap. Therap. and Mat. Med. ii, 493 ; U. S. Disp. 581 ; Bart. 
Essay on the M. Med.; Alibert, Nouv. Elems. de Therap. 193; 
Phil. Med. Mus. 11 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. v, 586 ; 
Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 170. This is possessed of the astringent 
qualities characterizing the genus ; it has not, however, the 
purgative property found in the Q. tinctoria. It is employed as 
an astringent wash for gangrene. A decoction is administered 
with great success in dysentery, pulmonary and uterine hem- 
orrhage, and some have said, in intermittent fever. See Q. tinc- 
toria and alba. In domestic practice, where an easily obtained 
and efficient astringent is required, this, and the more common 
species, the Q. rubra, are of no little value. They are used to a 
large extent on the plantations at the South. 

This and many other oaks produce an excrescence called gall 
nuts, or oak-galls. These contain tannin and are used for 
making ink. In a letter from a gentleman residing in Flat 
Rock, N. C, I am informed that he obtains the greatest relief 
in piles by the application of the fresh oak-gall rubbed up with 
mercurial ointment. He found it better than any application 
he had ever used. They are used when fresh. 

WHITE OAK, {Quercus alba, L.) Diffused; St. John's; 
vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. May. 

U. S. Disp. 582 ; Royle, Mat. Med. 659 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 
586. The bark is officinal, and is generally used in similar 
cases with the above, with the exceptions before mentioned. 


By some it is preferred to the others on account of its not act- 
ing on the bowels. The decoction is sometimes employed as an 
injection in leucorrhoea and gonorrhoea. The bark contains tan- 
nin, gallic acid, and bitter extractive, the former predominating. 
The bark is officinal, the young bark being preferable. The 
whiter bark, and the delicate and finely lobed leaves, with the 
general neat appearance of the tree, serve to distinguish this 
from the other varieties of the oak, than which it is more 
acceptable to the stomach. All, however, are valuable for 
external application. It is astringent and somewhat tonic. 
Powder: dose, from one-half drachm to one drachm. Extract: 
dose, half that of the powder. Decoction : bark bruised, one 
ounce ; water, three half-pints ; boil to one pint. Dose, one 
wineglassful. Surg. McLauglin and others of Lynchburg, re- 
port through the Surgeon-General's office C. S. A. a favorable 
notice of the decoctions and syrups of the Quercus alba and 
Hubiis villosus in chronic diarrhoea, stating that the tinctures of 
R. V. and of Ooniiis Florida make an excellent astringent tonic. 

This is one of the most valuable of our forest trees, and it is 
largely employed for manufacturing purposes, and in the do- 
mestic economy of the plantations in the Southern vStates. The 
wood is hard and durable. The following I obtain from a jour- 
nal, (1868:) 

A Charleston letter to a Northern paper says : "A singular 
flowing back of one of the great currents of trade is indicated 
by the fact that during the present month eight large vessels 
have cleared at this port, loaded with lumber fo"r Maine. This 
is ' carrying coals to Newcastle,' yet the white oak of South 
Carolina is superior for ship timbers to any tree in the forests 
of Maine, while the roots of the yellow pine are far better than 
those of the tamarack for ships' knees, both in shape and dura- 

The following table is the result of the experiments of Bar- 
low upon the "Absolute strength of different kinds of wood 
drawn in the direction of their fibres." Wilson's Eural Cyc. on 
the strength of materials may be consulted. Article from Een- 
wick's Elements of Mechanics : 


Boxwood 20,000 lbs. 

Ash 17,000 

Teak 15,000 

Norway Fir 12,000 

Beech 11,000 

Canada Fir 11,000 

Kussia Fir 10,700 

Pitch Pine 10,400 

" Absolute cohesive strength of wood drawn in a direction at 
right angles to the fibres :" 

English Oak 10,000 lbs. 

Am. .White Pine 9,900 

Pear Tree 9,800 

Mahogany 800 

Elm 5,800 

Cast-steel was 140,000 

And Gold 80,000 

Teak 818 lbs 

Am. Whate Pine 757 

Norway Fir 648 

Beech 615 

English Oak 598 

The following table gives the "respective strength of various 

Canada Oak 588 lbs. 

Pitch Pine 588 

Elm 609 

Ash 369 

Wroiight-iron, Swedish. ..22,000 lbs 

" English 18,000 

Cast-iron 16,000 


Teak 4,900 lbs. 

Ash 4,050 

Canada Oak 3,500 

English Oak 3,360 

Pitch Pine 3,250 

Beech 3,100 

Norway Fir 2,950 

Am. White Pine 2,200 

Elm 1,013 

English oak resisted a greater amount of pressure, by Ron- 
nie's experiments, than many other kinds of wood; three times 
as much as elm, for example. See, also, article "Timber," in 
Rural Cyc, for method of preserving, relative strength, etc. 
In England the shipwright considers that three years are re- 
quired thoroughly to season timber. Timber is best preserved 
by immersion in water for six months, and the exposure to 
shade for another six months. The white oak cleaves and splits 
readily, and is used in making plantation baskets. I have seen 
it used in place of cane in making chair seats. The white oak 
lasts longer in weather than hickory. 

White Oak Baling. — White oak slats, basket fashion, take the 
place of gunny bagging, and hoops of the same wood take the 
place of rope. With machinery for cutting the slats, two hands 
can get out enough for one bale in twenty minutes. 


I will introduce under the genera " Quercus" and " Carya," 
what I have thought useful on the subject of ashes, pearlashes, 
potash, soap, etc. Information is required on these invaluable 
substances. For processes, see lire's Dictionary of Arts. For 
" soda," see " Salsola,'' in this volume. 

"A cement for cisterns, as hard as marble, and impenetrable 
by water forever," is made of wood ashes two parts, clay three 
parts, sand one part, mixed with oil — all ingredients easily ob- 

"Concentrated Lye" is a very pure preparation of caustic 
soda, or soda ash purified. The following is the method of 
making hard soap with this substance, which is preferable to 
potash or any of its preparations; it is also very economical: 
" One half box of concentrated lye, four pounds of grease, one 
pound of rosin, five gallons of water. Boil all together until 
the soap is made — a point easily determined ; then add a half 
pintt)f salt dissolved in a quart of water, boil a few minutes 
longer, and pour oft" into tubs to harden. This will yield about 
thirty pounds of excellent hard soap, at a cost of about two 
and a half cents per pound." 

The following general deduction, which is instructive, is made 
in Wilson's Rural Cyclopoedia, art. "Ashes:" "Trees, in a gen- 
eral way, make a plentiful yield of potash, somewhat in the 
degree of their hardness, their heaviness and the closeness of 
their texture; and the chief of them may upon this principle 
be distributed into four classes — first, the oak, the ash, the yew, 
the beech, the chestnut, the pear, the crab, the blackthorn and 
the broom ; second, the elm, maple, hornbeam and white-thorn 
third, the pines and firs; and fourth, the birch, alder, poplar, 
hazel and willow. When six loads of the ashes of the first class 
are sufficient for an acre of land, ten or twelve loads of the 
ashes of the fourth class may be required." It will thus be 
seen what room there is for selection in using trees for ashes or 
for the production of potash. For further information on pot- 
ash, ashes, soaps, hickory, consult " Carya" in this volume. 

Table of mean results of experiments of Messrs. Kerwan, 
Yauquelin and Pertues, upon ten thousand parts of each plant — 
amount of potash in each — (Chaptal:) 


Elm 39 of potash. 

Oak 15 " 

Beech 12 " 

Yine 55 " 

Poplar 7 " 

Thistles 53 " 

Fern 62 of potash. 

Cow Thistle 196 " 

Wormwood 730 " 

Vetches 275 " 

Beans 200 " 

Fumitory 890 " 

In selecting plants to burn for potash, which can be done on 
any plantation, those which are thus seen to yield most should 
be chosen. " G-rasses, leaves, the stalks of French beans, of 
peas, melons, gourds, cabbages, artichokes, potatoes, maize and 
garget, are very rich in this alkali." Thistles, nettles, broom- 
heath, brambles, ferns, should all be collected. The fumitory 
and wormwood (exceedingly rich in potash) are both grown in 
the Southern States. The plants are first dried and then 
burned and the ashes leached, which should be repeated. Hot 
water is better than cold. The potash can easily be extracted 
from the lye by evaporation. "The process," says Chaptal, 
" may be commenced in a copper boiler, into which a very fine 
stream of the lye should flow to replace that which evaporates; 
when the liquor has acquired the consistency of honey it should 
be put into iron boilers to complete the operation. As the sub- 
stance thickens, care must be taken to remove that portion of 
it which adheres to the sides, and to stir the whole carefully 
with iron spatulas. When the substance congeals and becomes 
solid upon being exposed to the air, it is poured into casks and 
and thrown into commerce, under the name of salts. The whole 
process is simple, and may be conducted upon our farms without 
any- difficulty." Pearlash may be procured from the potash by 
calcination. See treatises on the Arts. 

The following observations may be found useful to the soap 
manufacturer, even if he be a planter or farmer, which I quote 
from Thornton's Family Herbal: In the large manufactories 
the lye for making soap should be made no stronger than to 
float a new laid egg when the workmen begin to form the mix- 
ture. The oil or tallow is first boiled with a weak lye until the 
whole is formed into a saponaceous compound. It is then kept 
boiling with a stronger lye until it acquires a considerable con- 
sistence, and seems to be separating from the fluid below. This 
separation is a very material part of the operation, and to effect 
it completely a quantity of common salt is added ; the materials 


are coDtinually boiled for three or four hours, and then the fire 
is withdrawn. The soap will now be found united at the top 
of the liquor, or what is called the waste lye, which is of no 
further use, and is therefore drawn off. The soap is now melted 
for the last time with a lye, or even with water. It is then al- 
lowed to cool, and afterward cast into wooden frames. The 
last melting is important, as giving compactness. A solution of 
sulphate of iron will mottle soap by dispersing it before the 
soap hardens thi'oughout the mass. 

A most economical mode of washing, which has been em- 
ployed by farmez-s, which reduces the labor of days to that of a few 
hours, might bo adopted in armies. The washing of an entire 
regiment, when in garrison or in cities, might be done syste- 
matically and collectively with far less exposure and loss of 
time. I obtain the method from some of the journals: 

On^the night preceding the day intended to be set apart for 
washing, the clothes, white and colored, coarse and fine, are put 
in tubs of clear water, where they remain all night. A large 
size vessel, the larger the better, is half tilled with water, which 
is raised to the boiling point. To one containing sixty gallons 
put two teaspoonsful of sal soda, one quart of soft soap, and one 
quart of lime water, made by pouring three gallons of water on 
one quart of lime the night previous, so that it may have had 
time to settle, and in proportion if smaller vessels are used ; stir 
the water and ingredients well together, when the clothes are 
put in, and boiled rapidly for an hour; they are then taken out 
and rinsed well. The same lime water maj' be kept until it is 
all consumed. The receipts for making the soap is as follo-ws: 
The ingredients for one hundred pounds do not cost more than 
one dollar and fifty cents. Take six pounds of potash, four 
pounds of lard, one-fourth pound of rosin; beat up the rosin, mix 
all together well and set aside for five days ; then put the whole 
in a ten gallon cask of warm water, and stir twice a day for ten 
days; at the expiration of which time, or sooner, you will have 
one hundred pounds of excellent soap. Strong lye water or 
concentrated lye may perhaps take the place of the potash. A 
gill of alcohol added to a gallon of soft soap, applied to clothes 
in the usual way, and soaked several hours before washing, fur- 
nishes an economical method. 

Lye from wood ashes added to tallow, eight ounces to two 


pounds, melted over afire, it is said, greatly increases the hard- 
ness of the candles made from it. 

EBD OAK, (^Quercus rubra.) Diffused ; grows in great abun- 
dance ; St. John's ; Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. April. 

U. S. Disp.; Griffith, Med. Bot. 587. Employed like the others 
as an astringent ; as a drying astringent powder it may be used 
in place of the Cinchona bark. It is easily obtained and con- 
veniently prescribed. I have myself found the bark of the tree 
of some service among negroes, in several cases where a tonic 
astringent injection was required, using it in cases of prolapsus 
uteri, where the organ became chafed and painful from exposure. 
The decoction of the bark, with sulphate of copper, is employed 
on the plantations to dye woollens of a green or black color, 
and for tanning leather. Hickory bark, with copperas, fur- 
nishes an olive color; maple gives a purple dye, the tea leaf 
(Hopea tinctoria) a yellow, and white oak a brown. Walnut 
leaves or roots, without copperas, repeatedly boiled, yield a 
black dye. Blacksmith's dust maybe used in place of copperas. 
The wood is not so durable as that of the Q.alba, but it is much 
used for domestic purposes. 

The following methods of making ink were furnished to Dr. 
Bachman by Mr. E. Euffin ; only native plants are required : 

Three different modes to make good Ink. — No. 1. Take one 
measure (or one handful of each half pint of ink intended to be 
made) of maple bark and as much of pine leaves, both fresh and 
previously and separately chopped to pieces of not more than 
half an inch long. Put them into an iron vessel and add two 
measures of water. Measure the then depth of the water and 
mark the height of surface on a pointed stick thrust to the 
bottom. Then add six more measures of water, (making eight 
in all.) Boil very slowly (or simmer) until three-fourths of the 
fluid has evaporated, which may be known by its then surface 
reaching the mark on the measuring stick. Then remove the 
vessel from the fire, and add, for every half pint of remaining 
fluid, one teaspoonful of copperas, as much sugar and a table- 
spoonful of vinegar — stir and let stand from twelve to twenty- 
four hours. Then strain the fluid (ink) from the solid refuse 
through a coarse cloth and bottle for use. 

No. 2. — First, make a strong infusion of the inner bark of red 
oak, by standing in water tvventj'-four hours, a handful of 


chopped bark for each half pint of water. (Or, otherwise, make 
a decoction, by boiling an hour and evaporating to the same 
quantit}^ of water.) Decant the fluid and add about a tea- 
spoonful of copperas for every half pint of fluid and keep for the 
use next to be directed. 

Take of ripe elder berries four measures, in a washbasin. 
Mash them well in the hands. Put the mixture of pulp and 
fluid juice into an iron vessel. Measure the depth of the whole 
mass, as dii-ected for No. 1. Then add one measure of the before 
prepared infusion of red oak bark, and boil very slowly until 
evaporation has reduced the quantity of fluid to what it was at 
first of the mashed elder berries alone. Remove the pot from 
the fire. Put in a teaspoonful of copperas for every expected 
half pint of fluid, and let the mixture stand for twelve or twenty- 
four hours. Then strain through a coarse cloth, using strong 
pressure. Bottle the fluid for use. 

NcT. 3. — Fill an iron pot half full of white oak bark, (coarse or 
fine,) one-fourth full of red oak bark, and one-fourth full of maple 
bark. Fill the pot with water and boil slowly and for a long 
time. A teaspoonful of copperas will set it. Strain and bottle 
for use. 

To dye a Blue Color without Indigo. — Make a strong dye of red 
oak bark, another of maple bark, and have in a third vessel a 
weak copperas water, and in a fourth vessel a weak lye. Wet 
the cotton thoroughly in each vessel of dye and rinse it out in 
the order in which they are mentioned, having each fluid gis hot 
as the hand can bear, repeating the process until the color is 
sufficiently deej). By making the thread a deep copperas color 
first and then going through the process you can have a good 

Quercus montana, Willd. Rocky soils in the Alleghany Moun- 
tains of South Carolina. Used as a substitute for the above. 

LIVEOAK, (Quercus virens^ Alton.) Grows abundantly on 
the seacoast, for the space of sixty miles from the ocean ; New- 
bern. Fl. June. 

U. S. Disp. 581; Eberle, Mat. Med. i, 376. This tree is of 
quick growth, and attains a large size in South Carolina. Its 
great value for manufacturing purposes, ship-building, etc., is 
well known. It is often exported for these purjjoses, to great 
advantage. Its branches extend out to some distance, and it 


affords one of our most venerable, magnificent, and ornamental 
shade trees, suited for avenues. The acorns are edible. 

Density of Wood. — I introduce the following under this 
species. Count Chaptal, in his Chemistry applied to Agricul- 
ture, makes the following remarks: "Soil, exposure, climate 
and season modify in a remarkable manner the fibre of vegeta- 
bles of the same kind. Vegetables raised in a dry and arid soil 
have a much harder and more compact texture than those of 
the same kind raised in a moist and rich soil; they have more 
perfume, contain a greater quantity of volatile oil, are decom- 
posed with more difiiculty, and during the combustion give out 
a much more intense heat. Every one knows that thickets 
having a southern exposure yield better fuel than those which 
lie toward the north ; the wood is more solid, and after having 
been cut, it will resist for a longer time the action of air and 
water. This fact was observed by Pliny, in regard to the 
woods of the Appenines." 

The difference between the hardness of trees growing in 
swamps and highlands is, I believe, referred to by Boussingault. 
The locality and the season of the year should have an influ- 
ence upon the tree, upon its structure, and secretions, and they 
should be considered, in reference to the growth of timber for 
ships, implements, etc. The best time for cutting wood is in 
the end of the winter, when the texture is hardened and con- 
densed by the cold. Boussingault, in his work on Sciei^tific 
Agriculture, describes a French method of preserving timber, 
superior to the Kyanized, by the absorption of the salts of iron. 
I would refer the curious reader to a paper, giving a most re- 
markable account of the enormous size and height of the trees, 
and the vegetable wonders of California, in Patent Office Re- 
ports, p. 4, 1851, by Wm. A. Williams. Trees sixty -eight feet in 
circumference, and three hundred and eighty feet in height, 
without a branch for two hundred and sixty feet ; vegetables 
relatively large. See Boussingault's work for similar state- 
ments. The general reader will find interesting references to 
such matters in Prof. O. W. Holmes' book, the *' Philosopher at 
the Breakfast Table;" also, paper in Patent Ofiice Reports on 
Agriculture, p. 655, 1851, by Thomas Eubank, Commissioner, 
containing extracts from writings of M. M. Naudin and Lecoq, 
(report to the French Academy,) on the taming of plants by 


cultivation ; they "taraed every individual species of the fierce 
family of thistles," converting them into a savory vegetable. 

It is well known, says a writer in the Patent Ofiice Eeports, 
1852, p. 257, that the most valuable timber is that which has 
attained its growth with most light and air. The wagon- 
maker takes care to combine toughness and durability by 
selecting his wood from trees of second growth, or from trees 
of first growth that from infancy have stood alone, or far apart, 
I have ascertained, in conversation with machinists and wood- 
cutters, that they separate many species of useful trees into two 
varieties, and make careful selection in cutting for the shop. 

SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK, (Quercus prinus, L.) Vicinity of 
Charleston; Newbern. This may be used medicinally as a 
substitute for the Q. alba. 

CHESTNUT OAK, (Quercus castanea, W.) S. and N. C. 

This is said to be the best for tanning as it gives a bright 
appearance to the leather. The wood is soft and easy to split. 

COEK TREE, (Quercus suber.) Exotic. 

The Patent Office has distributed for years past seeds and 
plants of the cork tree. See Reports, 1854, p. 32, for mode of 
culture and gathering of cork; and article on "Properties and 
Uses of Cork Tree." Patent Office Reports, 1858, p. 335. 


For method of raising acorn-bearing oaks, for feeding of hogs, 
varieties, etc., see Wilson's Rural Cyclop., art. "Acorn," "Oak." 
In some portions of England hogs are raised almost entirely 
upon acorns, and with but a limited supply of grain just before 
killing. " The farmers of Gloucestershire bestow nearly as 
much care upon the fruit of their oak trees as upon the produce 
of their orchards ; they seldom sell their acorns, yet usually 
estimate their value at from Is. 6d. to 2s. per bushel," etc. 
Wilson. See, also, Boutcher's "thoroughly practical" Treatise 
on Forest Trees. See Boussingault's Agricultural Chemistry, 
and Wilson's Rural Cyc, for method of preserving timber. 

BETULACEiE. (The Birch Tribe.) 

Bark astringent ; sometimes employed as a febrifuge. 

(Betula lenta, L.) Mountain mahogany. Mountain ridges of 
S. and N. Carolina. 


U. S. Disp. 1233. The bark and leaves possess a very aro- 
matic flavor. An infusion of them is useful as an agreeable, 
gently stimulant, and diaphoretic drink. The oil, obtained by 
distillation from the bark, has been shown by Proctor to be 
similar to that of the Gaultheria procumbens. (See index.) It 
also affords a saccharine liquor. Am. Journal Pharm. xv, 243 ; 
Ell. Bot. ii, 617. The wood, possessing a fine grain, which is 
susceptible of a beautiful polish, is much used by cabinet- 
makers. It would be adapted to the fine work on railroad cars. 
Is the handsomest of the species, and has the finest timber. 
" The timber, when fresh cut, has a rosy tint, and afterward 
deepens in color by exposure. It has a fine, close grain, and is 
susceptible of a very high polish. It is used for sofas, arm- 
chairs, the frames of coach panels, and various other purposes." 
Wilson ; Michaux's Travels, etc. 

" The Sap of the Birch tree reddens turnsole intensely. It is 
colorless, and has a sweet taste. The water which forms u 
greater pai't of it holds in solution sugar, extractive matter, 
acetate of lime, acetate of alumina, and acetate of potash. 
When properly concentrated by evaporation, it ferments on the 
addition of yeast, and then yields alcohol on distillation. The 
presence of the acetate of alumina may appear extraordinary 
in the sap for this reason, that alumina has not yet been dis- 
covered in the ashes of the birch tree." Boussingault's Eural 
Econ. p. 65, ed. 1857. 

EED BIECH, (Betula nigra, Linn. B. rubra, Mx.) Vicinity 
of Charleston ; collected on the Santee Eiver, St. John's Berke- 
ley; Newbern. Fl. March. 

Ind. Bot. Dr. Green states that a strong decoction of the 
bark cured cases of putrid sore throat. It is useful also in 
pleurisy. Lindley says that the black birch of North America 
is one of the hardest and most valuable we possess. This 
might suit the purposes of the engi'aver, and in the construc- 
tion of any implements requiring wood of firm texture. We 
have also the j^ellow and the cherry birch. The shoots and the 
twigs of the B. lanulosa, or B. nigra, said by Wilson to grow in 
the Carolinas, are used for hoops, and " made into excellent 
street brooms." Its wood is compact, nearly white, and streaked 
longitudinally, and useful for various ecoi^gmical purposes. 
Consult " Alnus serrulata," 


ALDER, (Alnus serrulata, Aiton.) Grows along rivulets, 
Charleston District; Richland; Newbern. Fl. April. 

U. S. Disp. 1224. The bark is astringent. N. Y. Journal 
Med. V. 7, 8. It had for a long time been neglected ; but in the 
article referi'ed to the decoction is spoken highly of as an altera- 
tive and astringent in scrofula and cutaneous diseases, and it is 
said to have been very successful in haematuria ; in these affec- 
tions producing beneficial results where all other means had 
failed. Shec, in his Flora Carol., spoke of the alder tags as 
being of great service on account of their alterative powers ; a 
decoction of the leaves has also been used to suppress hemorr- 
hage, and they have been found effectual in relieving dyspepsia 
and bowel complaints. An astringent decoction may be made 
of the bark, leaves, or tags — acting also as a diuretic. A tinc- 
ture may also be used. Poultices made of them are used as a 
local ajiplication to tumors, sprains, swellings, etc. The leaves 
arc applied externally to wounds and ulcers. The inner bark 
of the root is emetic, and it has been given in intermittents. 
It is used by tanners and dyers; the shoots, cut in March, will 
impart a cinnamon color to cloths and flannels. The black 
alder is used to color flannels : " Take the bark, boil it well, then 
skim or strain it well ; wet the cloth in a pretty strong lye and 
dip it into the alder liquor; let it remain till cool enough to 
wring, and it gives an indelible orange color." The wood does 
not absorb water easily, and is employed in making posts, and 
any structure liable to be submerged. The English Alnus (J.. 
glutinosa)- is planted along the side of water-courses, rivulets 
and sand-banks, to prevent the encroachment of water by the 
hardening and binding influence of the roots upon the soil, and 
also as a border to conceal unsightly or boggy lands. The 
wood is suited for pipes, pump-trees, and all kinds of subaque- 
ous wood-work, " where it will harden like a very stone," says 
an old writer ; now superseded, says Wilson, "for even these 
purposes by the Kyanized wood of more close grained trees." 
The wood of this is also used for various purposes of the 
turner, for the cogs of wheels, etc, "Charcoal made of its 
timber has long been highly valued for the manufacture of gun- 
powder." Wilson's Rural Cyclopoedia, art. Alnus. I do not 
know how closely our A. serrulata and A. viridis resemble the 
English tree. The bark of alders is astringent, and is used by 


tanners and dyers; see Wilson. It is, in other words, rich in 
tannin. The birch, {Betula 7iigra, L.,) in fact all of our species, 
no doubt, contain a certain proportion of the gummy, oily sub- 
stance peculiar to the B. alba of England. The flowers of the 
latter are highly odoriferous, and the oil is collected. Tlie bark 
is also used by the tanner. Kussia skins are said to be tanned 
with it, hence the peculiar odor. Our species of birch may no 
doubt be used for similar purposes. I have little doubt, in con- 
sideration of the possession of an astringent and oily, resinous 
principle, that a tincture of the catkins would serve as an ex- 
cellent astringent, stimulating diuretic, to be used in gleet, gon- 
orrhoea, and in chronic diseases of the genito-urinary apparatus. 
Birch wine is also made in England from the sap of the birch. 
The papery sheets of birch bark were used as a writing material. 

URTICACE.E. {The Nettle Tribe?) 

DWARF STINGING NETTLE, {Urtica wens, L.) Intro- 
duced. Grows around Beaufort; collected in Fairfield District; 
Ell. says at St. Mary's, Georgia; vicinity of Charleston ; N. C. 
Fl. February. 

Murray's App. Med. iv, 592 ; Bull. Plantes, Ven. de France, 
170. It causes an excessive discharge of urine, and Serapion 
said that thirty grains of it would purge. In the Supplement 
to the Diet, de Mat. Med. by Mer. and de L., 1846, p. 719, we 
have an account of the remarkable haemostatic virtues of this 
and the U. dioica, also found in South Carolina. It had origi- 
nally obtained some favor in this respect, and was used by 
Sydenham, but had for a long time fallen into disrepute. It 
has been reserved for M. Guinestet to restore the public confi- 
dence in it; and it is now spoken favorably of by Chomel, Lange 
and Desbois. Guinestet advises it in hemorrhage, and reports 
five cases of uterine hemorrhage in which bleeding was in- 
stantly arrested; two to four ounces of the juice were given, 
taken internally and in the form of injection. It has also been 
successfully employed in spitting of blood and epistaxis, and 
cases of two months duration were cured. The objections of 
others who were not &o successful have been satisfactorily an- 
swered, its pretended therapeutic action being denied by Drs. 
Kasciakewies and Fiard, who report a case of poisoning from 


the internal use of two ounces of the concentrated decoction. 
The supporters have produced well sustained arguments de- 
stroying the force of these statements ; and Merat himself speaks 
favorably of it in an official report made to the Academy, and 
published in the Bull, de Therap.; he furnishes a case of nasal 
hemorrhage, occurring in a girl who was giving birth to a child, 
and who was at the same time flooding, both of which he suc- 
ceeded in arresting with the juice of this plant, when every- 
thing else had failed. Many others have used it with very 
favorable results in this and in leucorrhcea. " Sperons," adds 
the author of the Diet, de M. Med., " que I'experience con- 
firmera cos heureux resultats." See Amusat's, Chevalier's and 
Merat's Eapport " sur I'emploi du sue d'ortie corame antihem- 
orragique," made in 1846, in the Bull, de I'Acad. Eoyale de 
Med. ix, 1015. Dr. Menicucci, of Kome, introduces into the 
vagina a sponge soaked in the juice ; and it may be at the same 
time administered internally. See Abeilhe Medicale, Mai, 1846. 
M. Guinestet attributes its haemostatic virtues to a constituent 
which coagulates milk in the same way that poisons do. See a 
letter of Merat, relating a case of uterine hemorrhage existing 
for two months, which was cured by the juice of the U. dioica 
(in French.) Idem, x, 364, 1845; Mer. and de L. vi, 875; Jour- 
nal de Med. vi, 492. By analysis, it contains a carbonate, am- 
monia, chlorophyl, mucus, black coloring matter, gallic acid, 
tannin and nitrate of potash, less abundant than in the U. dioica, 
(which see.) 

Induced by these notices to test it myself, I succeeded in ob- 
taining a quantity of the U. wens from Fairfield District, S. C. 
Assisted by Dr. E. A. Kinloch, of Charleston, I proceeded to ex- 
pose and divide the right common carotid arteries of two sheep, 
upon the bleeding orifices of which was applied lint covered with 
a sponge soaked in the cold infusion and the decoction respect- 
ively. The results were as follows : the first died from im- 
proper manipulation ; in the second, the bleeding ceased en- 
tirely — the animal was killed, however, a short time afterward. 
The juice of the plant seemed to have some effect in coagula- 
ting fresh blood poured out into the hand. Upon giving the 
cold infusion, made with two ounces of the plant to a pint of 
water, in doses of a wincglassful four times a day, to a patient 
affected with chronic hsematuria, who had used tannin, gallic 


acid, and the infusion of buchu ineffectually, she confessed 
having derived decided relief from it, but complained of its 
having brought out an eruption over the body. The experi- 
ments in both cases are obviously too meagre to enable me to 
pronounce positively as to the amount of power the plant 
possesses. Dr. W. B. Johnson, of Marion, Ala., has found this 
plant very eflficacious in uterine hemorrhage. U. S. Disp. from 
N. O. Med. and Surg. J. vi, 452. The irritant effect of the 
nettle applied to the skin is said to be owing to the presence of 
free formic acid in the sharp hairs. U. S. Disp., 12th Ed., from 
Am. J. Pharm. xxii, 181. Celsus employed the Urtica in para- 
lysis. De Ke Medica, 1. iii, 27 ; Bull. des. Sei. Med. ix, 77. Flag- 
ellation with the branches, which, it is well known, contain 
stings which produce great irritation, followed by inflammation, 
has been recommended for bringing out cutaneous and febrile 
eruptions, as in scarlatina, in apoplexy, in insensibility of organs, 
in poisoning by opium, in chronic rheumatism, and in fact where- 
ever a powerful external stimulating revulsive is required. For 
this purpose it has even been employed in the algid period of 
incurable cholera morbus. Dr. Marchand, Seance de I'Acad. 
Koy. de Med. ii, July, 1832 ; J. Stevoght, Diss, de Urtica, 1707 ; 
J. Francus, Tractatus Singularis de Urtica Urente, etc. Dilleng, 
1726. Both this and the U. dioica are found in the Southern 
States, and I would invite further and particular examination 
into properties which are of so valuable a description. I observe 
no notice of these experiments in the American works. The 
minute structure of the sting is said to be very curious. 

COMMON OE EED DEAD NETTLE, {^Urtica dioica, L.) 
Grows along roads and fences ; vicinit}^ of Charleston. Fl. Aug. 

Dem. Elem. de Bot. iii, 338. It is applied extensively as a 
stimulating and anti-septic astringent and detersive, the herb 
and seed being used ; the decoction is also alluded to in this 
work as being used in hemorrhage, bloody urine, etc. Urtica- 
tion with this also was employed in rheumatism, paralysis, 
etc. (Sec U. urens.) The root is advised in jaundice and 
nephritic diseases. Fl. Scotica, 57. A rennet was made with a 
strong decoction. One quart of salt was added to three pints of 
the decoction, and boiled for use, a spoonful of which was suffi- 
cient to coagulate a large quantity of milk. Stearns,- in the Am. 
Herbal. 136, refers to its use in jaundice, nephritic disorders, and 


in hemorrhage. "The juice snuffed up the nose stops bleeding, 
and a leaf put on the tongue, and pressed against the roof of 
the mouth, will answer the same purpose." Thornton's Fam. 
Herbal. Linnaeus, in his Veg. Mat. Med. 511, alludes to its em- 
ployment in hemorrhage ; it was considered lithontripic and em- 
menagogue, and adapted to those in whom the hemorrhagic 
diathesis prevailed; all of which opinions I quote, as coming 
from old authors. "Steel dipped in the juice becomes more 
flexible." The seeds produce an oil, which, taken in moderate 
quantities, excites the system, especially ^Hes plaisirs de I'arnour." 
Twenty or thirty grains of these induce vomiting, and a few of 
them, taken daily, are said to reduce excessive corpulency. Mer. 
and de L. Diet. de. M. Med. vi, 613. By Salladin's analysis, in 
Journal de Chim. Med. vi, 492, the plant contains nitrate of 
lime, hydrochlorate of soda, phosph. potash, acetate of lime, lig- 
neous matter, with silicate and oxalate of iron. Pallas, Voyage, 
i, 700; Gmelin, Flora Siberica, ii; Mathiole, Comm. 560. It is 
said that animals which feed on the plant become both fatter 
and stronger. Mem. de Hserlem, xxvi. The stalks have a fibre 
like hemp, and have been employed for making cordage ; the 
root boiled in alum will dye a yellow color. See Hooke's Mi- 
croscop. Bissrxxit, 12, and Guettard, Mem. de I'Acad. des Sci. de 
Paris, 1751, 350, for a description of the structure of the sting, 
and the Petersburg Journal, 1778, 370, for a notice of the value 
of the stalks in making ropes and paper. The U. S. Disp., 1303, 
barely notices the plant. Late experiments may have escaped 
the attention of its indefatigable authors. 

The nettle plants are known to be closely allied to those bear- 
ing textile fibres, and indeed thread can be made from all the 
netiles. Experiments may be made in the Southern States upon 
the yield of fibre from the Urtica urens and dioica, which grows 
spontaneously. Boiling in alkaline solutions and lime water is 
used in the preparation of such plants. See next article, 
Eamie; also, ^'Apocyniim." 

The common nettle, remarks Mr. Lawson, who ranks it with 
flax, hemp, cotton, phormium and other fibre-yielding economical 
plants, has been long known as affording a large proportion of 
fibre, which has not only been made into ropes and cordage, but 
also into sewing thread and beautiful white linen-like cloth of 
superior quality. The fibre, he adds, is easily separated from 


other parts of the stalk, without their undergoing the processes 
of watering and bleaching, although by such the labor necessary 
for that purpose is considerably lessened. Like those of many 
other common plants, the superior merits of this generally ac- 
counted troublesome weed have hitherto been much over- 
looked—quoted by Wilson in Eural Cyc. It is stated that the 
roots possess astringent and diuretic properties, and have been 
found serviceable in poultices for tumors and decoctions for 
other complaints. The leaves, chopped up with meal or with 
boiled potatoes, are used for feeding ducklings, young turkeys 
and full grown poultry, especially in winter, and are said to pro- 
mote the laying of eggs. Nettles are sometimes boiled and 
eaten in the manner of greens. Laborers use the young tops 
of nettles as a pleasant, nourishing and mildly aperient potherb, 
either in soups or in accompaniment with salt beef or pork. 
Eural Cyc. 

In China they use the Neilgherry Nettle called, also, "vegeta- 
ble wool," Urtica heterophylla, in the manufacture of coarse, stiff 
fabrics. It possesses a bright stiffness like coarse mohair, and is 
capable of being dyed. The bark of the young wood steeped in 
water, renders easy the separation of the fibre. P. O. Eep. 
Agricult., 1867. 

EAMIE, CHINA GEASS, (Boehmeria tenacissima, Boehmeria 

This, sometimes spoken of as a Mexican plant, is a native of 
China and Japan, and belongs to the Nettle family, (order 
Urticacece,) which has markedly strong fibres. It has been 
highly recommended as a substitute for Cotton, and successfully 
used in the manufacture of cambrics and other fine stuffs. No 
mention of it is made by Merat, Grifiith or other writers whom 
I have consulted. 

Some years since a new substitute for cotton was thus referred 
to by a Paris correspondent: "Great excitement prevails in 
those manufacturing districts of France where cotton is most 
used, on account of the discovery of a substitute for it. This is 
the China grass or white Urtica, (nettle weed,) which maj^ be 
cultivated cheaply in all parts of France. The experiments 
with this new textile fibre have been going on for a year or 
more under the direction of a competent committee appointed 
by the Chumber of Commerce of Eouen. And this committee. 


with the weed, the raw fibre, and various specimens of woven 
and colored and uncolored clothes in hand, have shown to the 
Chamber, beyond all question, that the substitute is a genuine 
one in every point. They declare, without reservation, that 
none of the qualities of cotton are wanting." 

I obtain the following from one of the journals of the day : 
" The Mexican plant, which is spoken of of late, as possibly a 
rival to the cotton plant, is slowly making itself known to the 
world of commerce. In New Orleans the Ramie fibre is begin- 
ning to become an article of trade, and a demand for the fibre 
is also springing up in the West. Of the merits of Ramie, it is 
stated to be as good as linen cambric or silk." 

Another journal, (1868,) mentions that " at an agricultural 
fair recently held in Alabama, it was one of the special features 
of the exhibition. Its fibres are said to be much finer and 
stronger than the best flax; that they are as fine as sea island 
cotton, and that, after cleansing, they become very soft and 
white, and take colors as readily as the finest wool or silk. 
Several articles of clothing made from this fabric were exhibited 
at the fair referred to, and were particularly noticed for the 
strength and beauty of the material. Its cultivation has been 
successful on a number of plantations in Alabama. 

"Since its introduction into the United States in March, 
1867, the Ramie has excited much interest among European 
manufacturers. The supply from the East is entirely inadequate 
to fill the demand, and unequal to the fibre here produced in 
quality; thej' are, therefore, very desirous of seeing it success- 
fully cultivated in some country where the yield will bo large 
and regular. The soil and climate of the Southern States are 
particularly adapted for the cultivation of Ramie* which requires 
a loose, sandy soil and temperate climate. In any of the Cotton 
States Ramie can be harvested at least three times a year; each 
harvest or cutting will produce between nine and twelve hun- 
dred pounds, making an average annual crop of about three 
thousand pounds of crude unprepared fibre, worth at present in 
Europe ten cents specie per pound; in preparing the fibre for 
manufacturing purposes it loses about one-half, and increases in 
value to sixty-five cents per pound. The fibre, when prepared 
for the spinner, is beautifully white, soft and glossy, closely re- 
sembling floss silk in appearance; it is much stronger than the 


best flax, and readily receives the most difficult dyes without in- 
jury to its strength or lustre," 

Mr. F. T. Knapp, who has an extensive plantation of it in St. 
Bernard's Parish, La., thinks it best in its propagation : " To bed 
up the earth in beds of about five or six feet width, and to mat- 
lay the stalks, when mature, in two rows, a foot apart, and to 
save the roots for sale. The stalks are laid longitudinally, lap- 
ping one another part of the way, and, by having two rows, if 
some miss in one row, the probability is that others will come up 
in the other row, so as to make it continuous in the beds. 
When these plants come up and mature, the first growth reach- 
ing about two and a half feet, he will layer them down, and 
thus have the whole bed grow up thick and high, like that we 
have just described. 

"Of the productiveness of the Eamie there can be no doubt, 
nor of its thorough security and safety in this climate and as 
far north as Tennessee. The fibre can be cleansed and prepared 
as readily as that of hemp or linen, and as it is equal to the 
latter in fineness, and far superior to it in lustre, almost equalling 
silk, there can be no doubt that it will soon take the lead of 
cotton in the world's market." 

I obtain a recent account of the Cultivation, etc., of this plant: 

The Ramie Plant. — The ramie, standing single, is inclined to 
make many side-shoots or laterals, which is especially the case 
the first season. As soon as it has been once or twice cut down, 
close to or rather about one inch under the ground, and the 
roots have become stronger, a large number of ratoons will 
sprout from the roots and bulbouns, and few or no side-shoots 
will show themselves. The shoots or ratoons from the roots 
will stand close and push each other up. These close standing 
shoots contain the best fibre ; they are hollow, almost as much 
so as cane. As soon as the fibre has the proper strength the 
stem begins to color a little darker near the ground. The size 
which the plants reach in a certain time varies according to 
richness and kind of soil, as well as weather and mode of culti- 
vation. As a general rule it may be said as soon as the stems 
have reached a little more than four feet, the fibre will be of 
good quality, but does not get hurt if left uncut till it reaches 
eight to ten feet in length. 

Culture. — It cannot be too much recommended to have the 


piece of land intended for the ramie deeply cultivated ; sub- 
soiled to fourteen inches would not be too deep, and this is the 
most laborious work in the whole cultivation. The first year 
weeds have to be cut out, but this will give but little trouble. 
The second year the plant will have so many ratoons that other 
plants will have no room to vegetate. From this time the culti- 
vation will give very little trouble, except one plowing be- 
tween the rows early in the spring and after each cutting, and 
manure over the fields during the winter season. The field 
ought to be laid x)ff in pieces of about twenty rows in width, 
and a passage left for a cart or wagon. The rows ought to be 
about four feet apart, and the plants in the rows half that dis- 
tance. When the field is ready for planting, a furrow is made 
every four feet, about three to four inches deep, and in these 
furrows the plants are placed, with little more care than negroes 
plant sweet potatoes. The furrows ought to be made so that 
the rain will not stand too long, yet all heavy washing ought to 
be prevented. Eooted plants as well as layers ought to be 
covered with earth nearly to the top; roots ought to be covered 
with earth two or three inches deep. In case some plants or 
roots should not grow, the vacancies should be filled as soon as 
possible, and always the best plants taken for this purpose, so as 
to get an even growing field. As soon as the plants have 
reached seven to eight inches in height, they should be topped 
(as in the nursery) to force out side-shoots. When these latter 
are grown to about five or six inches in length, the plant has a 
kind of bushy appearance; then the plant is hilled nearly to the 
top. It is now left to grow until it has reached nearly the 
height of three feet, when it is cut down even with the ground, 
or better, one inch below. The fibre of this first growth can be 
used, but is not perfect yet, because the roots and bulbs are not 
lai'ge enough, and there are as yet too many side-shoots. 

A few days after this cutting, a great many ratoons will make 
their appearance on the surface. The whole work now consists 
in keeping out all weeds. The second growth will be, under 
similar circumstances, a great deal more rapid than the first 
was and can be cut when about four feet high ; each growth 
will have fewer side-shoots and soon they will disappear alto- 
gether. The planting in the field ought to be done in the spring 
but can be continued until the beginning of September. Those 


which are planted late should be covered in winter with straw 
or leaves, because they are too young and tender to resist se- 
vere frosts. Those planted early in spring and summer do not 
need any protection, as they will make roots eighteen to twenty- 
four inches deep. All refuse matter falling off in cleaning the 
fibre ought to be fed or cured and put in the barn for winter 
use. All the manure coming from the plant ought to be care- 
fully gathered and put back on the field. In this way, such a 
field will give a rich return for many years without need of 
being replanted. The experience in regard to soil is yet limited, 
but it is certain that a rich sandy loam suits the plant very 
well. The plant can be grown so far north as the earth does 
not freeze more than four inches deep in winter. The best por- 
tions of this country will be the southern part of Texas, and the 
States of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Caro- 
lina and Florida. 

Use of the Ramie. — The ramie is useful in two ways. It con- 
tains, first, a silk-like fibre of uncommon strength and fineness; 
and, second, the refuse furnishes an excellent food for stock, 
which in quantity compai'es favorably with clover. The fibre 
will not only replace the cotton, but is bound to be a strong 
rival to flax. In strength its fibre is nearest to silk, and as soon 
as there is a little more experience and intelligence brought 
into requisition, by the cultivation and manufacture of the tex- 
tile, it will be found to be the best substitute for silk. 

Suppose this plant to have none of this useful fibre, its culti- 
vation would be of immense value as food for stock, in a great 
many portions of the South. Another most important point in 
introducing the ramie here, is its easy cultivation. The first 
year it requires no more work than sweet potatoes, and then 
the main work is in harvesting. The quantity of fibre will be 
more and the price double that of cotton. 

In case a field should be plowed up after a series of years 
for some other purpose, then the roots and bulbs will make ex- 
cellent food for hogs, or can be manufactured into a durable 

The fences have to be kept in good order, because if cows and 
hogs are once accustomed to it, they will break down a poor 
fence to get to it. During the winter cows can be turned into 
ramie fields, but hogs and horses should be kept out. So far 


this plant has no destructive enemies. The so-called nettle 
worm makes its appearance some seasons, but never hurts the 
fibre ; it is satisfied with the lower leaves of the plant, and is in 
this wa}' harmless. Besides, if they were as destructive as the 
cotton worm they could not injure the crop very much, as each 
cutting is matured in a very short period of time. 

The plants attain a height of twelve feet and grow very 
thickly together. I have examined specimens of the fibre 
which were several feet in length — white, glossy and fine. In 
the Patent Office Rep., 244, 1855, is an account of its value for 
manufacturing purposes, with a reference to Dr. J. F. Royle and 
Dr. Roxburgh's Treatises on the Oriental Fibres. Dr. Royle 
says that the China grass cloth is made from this plant and that 
the fibre has sold in England at from £80 to £120 a ton. 

In an article in P. O. Rep. Agricult., 1867, it is stated that the 
B. cq/idicans is also used. The plants have been raised in 
Washington from the seeds, which should be protected from the 

LOW NETTLE, (Pitcea pumila, Gray. Urtica piimila, L.) 
Grows in wet soils, vicinity of Charleston; Richland; Fla. Fl. 

Griffith, Med. Bot., 572. This is quite smooth ; is said to be 
an excellent application to inflamed parts, and to relieve the 
eruption caused by the Rhus. Griffith invites further investi- 

PELTITORY, {Parietaria Pennsylvanica, Muhl.) Growing 
in the upper districts of S. and N. C; with P. debilis, Forst, and 
P. Floridana, Nutt, growing in Fla., should be examined for the 
possession of sulphur, as some species are said to contain more 
sulphur than any other plants, Planche, Journ. de Pharm. viii, 
367; Griffith. 

HEMP, {Cannabis sativa.') Ex. Nat. Cultivated in the upper 

The value of this plant for manufacturing purposes, for 
making ropes and cordage, is well known. It may become a 
most important question whether or not we can raise it in the 
Atlantic States with as much profit as in Kentucky, or to repay 
the labor bestowed upon it. I have not been able to ascertain 
whether the juice of the plant, as cultivated here, possesses the 


intoxicating properties of the East India species, (C. Indica,) 
though it has been asserted that "water in which it is soaked 
becomes violently poisonous." See a paper in Patent Office 
Reports, 1848, p. 574, from the Louisville Journal, containing a 
full description of varieties, mode of production, and prepara- 
tion of hemp. Count Chaptal says, in his Chemistry applied 
to Agriculture, that M. Proust had determined, after numerous 
experiments, that the stalk of hemp furnished the best charcoal 
for the manufacture of gunpowder — better than the willow. 
From the seeds is extracted an oil, generally emplo^^ed by 
painters. The fine oil obtained from the seeds is peculiarly 
adapted for burning in chambers, as it is perfectly limpid, and 
possesses no smell. The Russians and Poles, even of the higher 
class, bruise or roast the seeds, mix them with salt, and eat 
them on bread. It expels vermin from plantations of cabbages 
if planted on the borders of fields ; if planted with that vege- 
table, no caterpillar will infest it. Willich's Dom. Enc. The 
seeds may be sown in April or May, from two to three bushels 
per acre, either broadcast, and hoeing out the plants to a dis- 
tance of sixteen or seventeen inches, or by the drill, at a dis- 
tance of thirt}' inches. In the autumn the plants are pulled, 
the male plants first, and the female plants six or seven weeks 
afterward, when they have ripened their seed. Thus there are 
two harvests of the hemp crop. The male plants are readily 
known by their faded flowers, and yellowish color. They are 
then tied in small bundles and carried to the pool, where they 
are to be steeped. Hemp, like flax, poisons the water in which 
it is steeped. The same process is followed when the female 
plants are pulled ; only these, before they are steeped, have 
their seeds beaten out. 

The process of steeping commonly lasts four or five daj'S, and 
is continued until the outside coat of the hemp readil}' sepa- 
rates. It is then carefully and evenly spread on some grass 
turf, where it remains for three or four weeks, being turned 
over about twice every week, by which the decomposition of 
the woody part of the stem is materially accelerated. It is 
next carried to the barn, where it is bruised by the brake, a 
machine constructed for the purpose ; it is then bound up into 
bundles, and carried to market. (Low's Prac. Agr. p. 348.) 
There is a paper on a species of African hemp by Mr. A. Hunter, 


(Trans. High. Soc. vol. iii, p. 87;) others on the cultivation of- 
hemp in America, by Mr. W. Tonge, (Ann. of Agr. vol. xxiii, 
p. 1 ;) in Italy, (ibid. vol. xvi, p. 439, and vol. ii, p. 216,) and in 
Catalonia. (Ibid. vol. viii, p. 243.) It seems that 100 parts of 
Indian hemp-seed yield 20 to 25 per cent, of oil. (Cora. Agr. 
Asiat. Soc. 1838, p. 69.) See flax. 

Among our native substitutes for hemp are the Apocynum 
cannabinum ; the Canada Golden Rod, {Solidago canadensis,) L., 
{S. procera, of Ell.;) the Sunflower (Helianthus) affords single 
filaments, which are said to be as thick and as strong as small 
packthread ; also our JEsclepias Syriaca, Urtica dioica and 
Yucca filamentosa or \)C2iV-gYSi^&. See these plants. Elliott eays 
that bear-grass possesses the strongest fibre of any vegetable 
whatsoever. Its roots are extensive, and bear transplanting. 
See Prep, of Hemp, Farmer's Encyc. See, also, files of the 
Kentucky Farmer. Paper is made of waste hemp, whitened. 
The seeds afford an oil, which, boiled in milk, is recommended 
against coughs, and is also said to be useful in incontinence of 
urine. In India an intoxicating liquor is made from the leaves, 
resembling opium in its eff'ects. 

HOP, (Humulus hqouliis, L.) Grows in the mountains of 
South Carolina (Dr. McBride) and on the Mississippi, and gen- 
erally cultivated in Southern States, 

Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 185 ; Chap. Therap. and Mat. Med. 
i, 348, and ii, 455; Eb. M. Med. ii, 55; U. S. Disp. 374; Big. 
Am. Med. Bot. ii, 163; Freake, Med. Phys. Joui-nal, xiii, 432; 
Thompson's Lond. Disp. 200; Bigsby, Lond. Med. Repos. v, 97; 
Bryorly's Inaug. Diss. Phil. An. 1803 ; Ives in Silliman's Jour- 
nal, ii, 302; Thornton's Fam. Herbal. 820. This plant is cer- 
tainly possessed of some narcotic power. According to Dr. 
Latham, an infusion of it is a good substitute for laudanum. It 
is employed in doses of one and a half drachms in allaying the 
distressing symptoms of phthisis. It augments the secretions, 
removes pain and irritability, and induces sleep. Dr. Maton, 
Fell. Roy. Soc. Coll. Phys., says that large doses produce head- 
ache. It is thought to be a specific in removing asthmatic 
pains, without increasing the secretions. Mer. and de L. Diet, 
de M. Med. iii, 544; Pliny, lib. xxi, c. 15; Flore Med. iv, 196. 
It is given with good eff'ect as a stomachic, in inappetency and 
weakness of the digestive organs. Mat. Med. Indica. 120; Bull. 


des. Sci. Med. xvi, 145 ; Journal des Sci. Med. xli, 376 ; Edinb. 
Journal, iv, 23 ; Diss. Medici de Humuli medici viribus medicis, 
Edinb. 1803; Bromelius, "Lupulogia," Stockholm, 1687; Obs. 
of Freake on the Hop, Lond. Lupulin, obtained from it, is said 
to diminish the force of the pulse. See Journal de Chim. Med. 
ii, 527; Journal de Pharm. viii, 228 and 330. In the Supplem. 
to M. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 184:6, a case is reported of a 
girl being poisoned by tbe hop. Rev. Scientifique, Mars, 1845 ; 
Journal de Pharm. Mars, 1842. Much use is made of the hop 
poultice in allaying pain, applied over the part. Its domestic 
value in preparing the liquor known as yeast is obvious, as well 
as for other purposes where fermentation is to be established 
in the manufacture of many alcoholic drinks and malt liquors. 
The medicinal properties of the hop are said to depend upon 
the Inpulin, a peculiar resinous secretion contained in the glands, 
which is obtained by threshing and sifting the strobiles. By 
analysis it consists of volatile oil, bitter principle, or lupulin, 
resin, etc.; when administered internally, this has all the good 
effects of the hop; given in pill, in doses of six to ten grains, 
or in tincture in those of a half to one drachm ; and it may also 
be added to poultices, ointments, etc. Ives' Experiments; Grif- 
tifth, Med. Bot. 574. The tincture of lupulin is said to be pref- 
erable; dose, one to two fluid drachms. The uses of the hop 
pillow and the tincture of hops, as sedatives and mild narcot- 
ics, are well known ; but for the medicinal application consult 
the various works on the Materia Medica. 

The Patent Office Eep. 280, 1857, contains a very full treatise 
on the hop, condensed from various sources — an analysis of the 
plant, the best mode of cultivation, gathering, etc. As the 
raising of the hop is of great importance, I would refer culti- 
vators to this article. It is said to be one of the very most 
exhausting among cultivated plants, both in respect to the or- 
ganic and mineral constituents which it extracts from the soil; 
so that valleys containing the debris of the surrounding country 
should be selected. See, also, Wilson's Rural Cyc, art. " Hop," 
" Beer," " Ale." His account of cultivation, diseases, etc., of 
the hop is full and instructive. The stem of the hop contains a 
fibre like hemp, which is used in making a strong white cloth 
in Sweden, though it requires long steeping to separate the 
fibre. The hop plant is rich in tannin, and has been used for 


tanning: the ash yields 25. of potash, 15. of lime, magnesia, 
salt, etc. The suckers of the hop are said to form an agreeable 
vegetable for the table when dressed like asparagus. Honey- 
dew is frequent on hop plants from the perforations of the 
aphis. It is said to be veiy abundant on cotton plants. 

An article also on the cultivation of the hop can be found in 
Patent Office Eeports, 1854, p. 354. 

I quote from the paper mentioned above as follows, as I con- 
sider information on this topic important : 

The hop is a perennial plant of easy cultivation, and will 
grow in any part of the Western States. Its domestic uses are 
so obvious, that no farm or garden should be without one or 
more roots. It requires a rich, deep, mellow soil, with a dry, 
pervious, or rocky sub-soil. The exposure in a Northern climate 
should be toward the south, as on the slope of a hill, or in any 
well sheltered valley. It may be propagated by seeds, or by 
divisions of the roots ; but it is more usual to plant the young 
shoots which rise from the bottom of the stems of old plants. 
These are laid down in the earth till they strike, when they 
are cut off and planted in a nursery bed. Care must be taken 
to have only one sort of hops in the same plat or field, in order 
that they may all ripen at the same time. The ground having 
been prepared for planting, it is divided by parallel lines six 
feet apart, and short sticks are inserted into the ground along 
the lines at seven feet distance from each other, and so as to 
alternate the rows, as is frequently done with fruit trees and 
other plants, in what is called the " Quincunx form." By this 
method every plant will be just seven feet from each of its 
neighbors, although the rows will be only six feet apart, and 
consequentl}^ about one-eighth of land will be actually saved, as 

indicated in the diagram below: 


At each stick a hole may be dug two feet square and two feet 
deep, and lightly filled with the earth dug out, mixed with a 
compost prepared with well rotted dung, lime and muck. Fresh 
dung should never be applied to hops. Three plants are next 
placed in the middle of this hole six inches asunder, forming an 
equilateral triangle. A watering with liquid manure will greatly 


assist their taking root, and they will soon begin to show "vines." 
Sticks three or four feet loog are then stuck in the middle of 
the three plants and the vines are tied to them with twine or 
bass, till they lay hold and twine around them. During their 
growth the ground should be well hoed and forked up around 
the roots, and some of the fine mould thrown around the stems. 
In favorable seasons a few hops may be picked from these young 
plants in autumn, but in general there is nothing the first year. 
Late in autumn the ground may be carefully dug with a spade, 
and the earth turned toward the plants, to remain during the 
winter. Early in spring the second year the hillocks around 
the plants should be opened, and the roots examined. The last 
year's shoots are then cut oif within an inch of the main stem, 
and all the suckers quite close to it. The latter forms an agree- 
able vegetable for the table when dressed like asparagus. The 
earth is next pressed round the roots, and the parts covered so 
as to exclude the air. A pole about twelve feet long is then 
firmly stuck into the ground near the plants; to this the vines 
are led, and tied as they shoot, until they have taken hold of it. 
If by accident a vine leaves the pole it should be carefully 
brought back to it, and tied until it takes new hold. 

Mr. J. J. Bennett, of New York, says : "The manner in which 
I cultivate hops is as follows : After plowing the ground in- 
tended for hops, I use about ten loads of leached ashes per acre 
for a top-dressing, after which it should be well harrowed. The 
rows should be eight feet apart and the hills seven feet apart. 
In setting, a line is used with marks indicating the distance be- 
tween the hills. After the line is drawn, small sticks are set to 
each mark. Eoots ai'e to be cut, two joints on each piece, three 
pieces to the hill; cover about two inches. The ground may be 
planted with corn the first year, as the hops will not run until 
the second. It should be sown the first of May in drills three 
and one-half feet apart ; sow with seed-drill. The first year 
corn may be raised ; plant one foot from the teasel row. I weed 
them twice the first year ; the second year they are to be culti- 
vated and hoed twice. The first of August I cut such as are 
ripe, which will be known by the shedding of the blossoms. I 
cut at four diff'erent times, the stems to be about four inches 
long. They are to be spread on shelves about eight inches deep, 
one tier above another, Thei'e should be a good circulation of 


air, that they may cure well. I paid for cultivating five acres 
forty-two dollars ; paid for harvesting eighty-five dollars." See 
a full description of hops, mode of cultivation, preparations, 
adulterations, etc., in Johnson's Chemistry of Common Life, 
vol. ii, p. 36 ; also Ure's Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures, 
articles "Hop," "Ale," "Beer," etc. Consult Pereira's Mat. 
Medica, Chaptal's Chemistry applied to Agriculture, Boussin- 
gault's Treatise on Agriculture in its relations with Chemistry, 
andThaer's Agriculture for mode of planting, preparation, etc. 
See, also, Phillips' History of Cultivated Yegetables. 

The great importance of cultivating this plant on a large 
scale for manufacture of yeast should be impressed upon the 
people. The mode of making hop Beer is as follows : For a half 
barrel of beer, take half a pound of hops, and half a gallon of 
molasses. The latter must be poured by itself into the casks. 
Boil ^he hops, adding to them a teacupful of powdered ginger 
in about a pailful and a half of water; that is, a quantitj^ suf- 
ficient to extract the virtue of the hops. When sufficiently 
brewed, put it up warm into the cask, shaking it well in order 
to mix it with the molasses. Then fill it up with water quite 
up to the bung, which must be left open, to allow it to work. 
You must be careful to keep it constantly filled up with water 
whenever it works over. When sufficiently worked it may be 
bottled, adding a spoonful of molasses to each bottle. Thorn- 
ton's Southern Gardener. 

Ale and beer can be made in the Southern States, though not 
with the same advantage as in colder climates. Though without 
practical experience, I am forced to the conviction that the de- 
sideratum is cool cellars. In the rural districts what are called 
dry cellars are constructed in the clay, just above the water- 
bearing stratum, the top enclosed or covered with a closed house. 
The temperature of these cellai's is quite low, and they are used 
in keeping milk, butter, melons, cider, etc. I think their tem- 
perature would allow the manufacture and preservation of 
either wine, ale or beer. Ale has been made near Charleston, 
at Mount Pleasant ; but to prevent fermentation, cellars are re- 
quired. The reader interested in the subject can find a descrip- 
tion of the English method of making malt liquors in Ure's Dic- 
tionary of Arts and Manufactures, in Wilson's Eural Cyclo- 
poedia, (art. "Ale,") in Solly's Rural Chemistry, p. 178, see art. 


"Fermentation and Distillation;" also Thornton's Family 
Herbal. ''Mentha," p. 565, Child, on Brewing, and Corabriine's 
Theory and Practice of Brewing. In England they use Gen- 
tiana lutea, purpurea and rubra as substitutes for hops. Consult 
this volume, art. "Persimmon," {^JDiospyros,) "Sassafras," {Lau- 
rus,) " Blackberry " and "Cherry," (Cerasus,) "Apple," {Pyrus,) 
for liquors. 

MULBERRY, (Morus alba, L.) Nat. Diffused ; vicinity of 
Charleston. Fl. March. 

Bell's Pract. Diet. 319 ; U. S. Disp. 463 ; Dem. Elem. de Bot. 
The root is bitter and very astringent, and is useful in relaxed 
states of the bowels, diarrbcea, etc. Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 186. 
It contains 7nyroxyJ)C acid Avith lime. Turner, 640. See analysis 
in the Joarnal de Chim. Med. x, 676. The bark is a purgative 
vermifuge, but is more important on account of" the leaves being 
the favorite food of the silk-woi-m." That this plant is easily 
cultivated in the Southern States may some day make it a source 
of great profit in the production of silk. The mania may again 
be revived, under auspices which may deprive the term of the 
slight suspicion of reproach which is attached to its objects. 
Mir. and de L. Diet, de M. Med., Supplem. 1846, 496; Griffith, 
Med. Bot. 579. 

As " this is the species upon which the silk-ivorm feeds," the 
following brief directions concerning the manufacture of Silk, 
from the Eural Cyc, may be useful; and as the production of 
the raw silk is in the power of almost any one, if the females of 
numerous families throughout the Southern States would devote 
their leism-e to it, the aggregate amount of silk produced would 
contribute still further to render us independent as a people. 

After the worm has enveloped itself in the cocoon, seven or 
eight days are allowed to elapse before the balls are gathered. 
The next process is to destroy the life of the chrysalides, which 
is done either by exposui-e to the sun, or by the heat of an oven, 
or of steam. The cocoons are next separated from the floss, 
or loose, downy substance which envelopes the compact balls, 
and are then ready to be reeled. For this purpose they are 
thrown into a boiler of hot water for the purpose of dissolving 
the gum, and being gently pressed with a brush, to which the 
threads adhere, the reeler is thus enabled to disengage them. 
The ends of four or more of the threads thus cleared are passed 


through holes in an iron bar, after which two of these compound 
tlireads are twisted together, and made fast to the reel. The 
length of reeled silk obtained from a single cocoon varies from 
three hundred to six hundred yards; and it has been estimated 
that twelve pounds of cocoons, the produce of the labors of 
two thousand eight hundred worms, which have consumed one 
hundred and fifty-two pounds of mulberry leaves, give one 
pound of reeled silk, which may be converted into sixteen yards 
of gros de Naples. Those cocoons' which have been perforated 
cannot be reeled, but must be spun on account of the breaks in 
the thread. The produce of these balls when worked is called 
fleuret. The raw silk, before it can be used in weaving, must be 
twisted or thrown, and may be converted into singles, tram, or 
organzine. The first is produced merely by twisting the raw silk 
to give more firmnews to its texture. Tram is formed by twist- 
ing together, but not very closely, two or more threads of raw 
silk, and usually constitutes the weft or shoot of manufactured 
goods. Organzine is principally used in the warp, and is formed 
by twisting first each individual thread, and then two or more 
of the threads thus twisted, with the throwing-mill. The silk 
when thrown is called hard silk, and must be boiled in order to 
discharge the gum, which otherwise renders it harsh to the 
touch and unfit to receive the dye. After boiling about four 
hours in soaped water, it is washed in clear water to discharge 
the soap, and is seen to have acquired that glossiness and soft- 
ness of texture which forms its principal characteristic. The 
yarn is now ready for weaving. Kural Cyc. I saw in Italy 
the manufacture of silk going on in most of the large towns, 
and many in the country prepare raw silk for the manufacturer 
and weaver. 

The successful rearing of silk-worms, remarks Wilson, is a 
distinct art, and requires peculiar attention. They are subject 
to a variety of maladies. In many places it is usual to import 
the eggs from some district that has acquired reputation for 
their production. These are packed like grain, and are chosen 
in the same manner. The eggs are in many places hatched by 
the heat of the human body. The silk is contained in the form 
of a fluid resembling varnish, in long, cylindrical sacks many 
times the length of the animal, and capable of being unfolded 
by immersion in water. This fluid is easily forced out, and 


advantage is sometimos taken of this circumstance to procure 
threads much coarser than usual, which are extremely strong 
and impervious to water. Eural Cyc. At the agricultural 
meetings in South Carolina and Georgia, articles of home-made 
silk are occasionally presented. 

A correspondent from Sumter, S. C, furnishes the following: 
" In South Carolina silk growing was successfully and pro- 
fitably executed. The mother of the celebrated Pinckneys car- 
ried to England some silk produced on her plantation in South 
Carolina, and it was there woven into tissues, and the gowns 
made of it were presented by her to the mother of young 
George the Third, and to the Earl of Chesterfield. As early as 
the year 1660, the silk-worms of Virginia furnished the corona- 
tion robe of Charles the Second. The mulberry was indige- 
nous in the colony, and the success of silk industry was fully 
established, until it yielded to the tobacco plant, very probably 
because the latter was found more profitable under the unskilled 
and careless labor of the imported Africans. In 1732, ma- 
chinery, eggs and trees were introduced into Georgia ; and in 
1735, Queen Caroline, of England, wore on a great State occa- 
sion, a beautiful robe of Georgia silk. In 1749, that colony 
exported large quantities of cocoons, and one large silk estab- 
ment erected in Savannah, received and used annually during 
the years 1758 to 1766, from ten to twenty thousand pounds of 
cocoons. The war withdrew the fostering care of the parent 
government, and reduced the demand for export, and the re- 
turn of peace found the silk business suspended by cotton 

" In Cowdin's recent report to the Department of State, (Cow- 
din, U. S. Commissioner to Paris P]xposition,) it is said that 
* silk husbandry and manufacturing had almost ceased to exist 
in the United States at the commencement of this century.' 
Since then they have not kept pace with the advance in kin- 
dred pursuits. Nevertheless, they have always been prosecuted 
to an encouraging extent in various parts of New England, 
New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. As, for example, 
Mansfield, already referred to, has done a large business in sew- 
ing silks, and produced in 1839 five tons of the raw material. 
Washington, Penn., always kept up the business. It was intro- 
duced into the State Prison, at Auburn, N. Y., in 1841 ; and, the 


first year, the product of sewing silk was about $13,000. It 
was steadily increasing in tlie country when, some twenty-five 
years ago, its growth was checked by a disastrous speculative 
furor in the Morus multicaulis shrub, which, for a few years, 
raged throughout the Union like an epidemic. 

" The reaction fell heavily upon the whole business, covering 
it temporaril}'- with odium and ridicule. It has since been 
slowly recovering from this season of delusion and folly. 

"In 1840, the product of silk raised in the United States was 
estimated at about sixty thousand pounds, valued at §250, 000. 
In 1844, it had increased to about four hundred thousand pounds, 
worth §1,500,000. By the census of 1860, when the effects of 
the speculative mania alluded to had culminated, the annual 
product was reported at only fourteen thousand seven hundred 
and sixty-three pounds. Then it began to revive ; and by the 
census report of 1860, it appears that the manufacture of sew- 
ing silks was carried on extensively in Connecticut, New Jer- 
sey, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and New York — the States 
being named in the order of the value of their products. The 
annual production in these States, including tram, organzine, 
etc., was placed at upwards of $5,000,000. Eibbons were made 
to a small extent, as were also silk stuffs. But, aside from 
sewin<£ silks, the chief silk manufacture consisted of ladies' dress 
trimmings, coach laces, etc., of which the cities of Philadelphia 
and New York are reported as producing about $2,300,000. 

" Since 1860, the business in all its departments has made 
steady progress ; and the current period is more favorable than 
any previous one for its energetic prosecution. Our country is 
specially fitted for silk culture. The experiments in Georgia 
and South Carolina proved that their soil and climate were pe- 
culiarly suited to it. May we not hope that after the lapse of 
eighty-five years it will be resumed." 

From an Essay on the Culture and Manufacture of Silk. By 
H. P. Byram, Brandenburg, Meade County, Ky. — Experience 
of past ages has fully proved that the climate of the United 
States is as well adapted to the nature and habits of the silk- 
worm and the production of silk, as that of any other country. 
Several varieties of the mulberry are indigenous in our soil, 
and those generally used in the native country of the silk- worm 
succeed equally well in our own soil and climate. Hence, from 


the nature and habits of American people, we must soon be- 
come the greatest silk growing nation on the earth. The first 
step towai'd the production of silk is to secure a supply of 
siiitable food for the silk-worm. 

Having tried all the varieties introduced into our country, I 
find the Morus imtlticaulis and the Canton varieties, all things 
considered, most suitable for that purpose. 

Propagation of the ATulherry. — Although the experience of 
some years past has rendered this subject familiar to many, yet 
those now most likely to engage in the legitimate business of 
silk growing may be less acquainted with the propagation of 
the tree. I shall give some brief directions on the subject': 

Almost any soil that is high and dry, and that will mature 
Indian corn, is suitable for the mulberry. That, however, which 
is inclined to be light or sandy is the best. 

The Morus midticaulis may be propagated by cuttings or layers, 
(or a good variety may be raised from the seed.) Cuttings may 
be of one or more buds, planted perpendicularly in a light, 
mellow bed of good soil. They should be planted when the 
spring has fully opened, or about the usual time of planting 
corn. They may be planted in the rows, about twelve inches 
apart, and the rows at a sulhcient distance to admit of thorough 
cultivation with a plow or cultivator. The ground should bo 
kept mellow until past midsummer. Select a suitable piece of 
ground for a permanent orchard. It would be well if broken 
up in the fall, and again plowed in the spring, and, if followed 
with the sub-soil plow, it would be advantageous. After a 
thorough harrowing it should be laid off in rows, each Mvay eight 
feet by four, with the plow. The trees at one year old from 
the nursery should be taken up, the tops cut off near the roots, 
and one planted in each of the squares or hills. Having tried 
various methods of planting and different distances, I prefer 
those here given, This will admit the free use of the plow and 
cultivator both ways. 

In latitudes north of 38° or 40°, where land is dear, they may 
be planted much nearer. If a sufficient quantity of cuttings 
fi'om old trees cannot at once be procured, the trees from the 
nursery should be taken up in the fall and buried in a cellar, or 
upon the north side of a bank or hill, in alternate laj'ers of trees 
and earth, and the whole protected by a shed from the rains of 


winter, as the plants seldom sufficiently mature the first season 
from the cuttings to withstand the winters of a Northern cli- 
mate, particularly that portion above the ground. South of 38° 
of latitude these precautions may not be necessary. 

The Canton mulberry is a more hard}^ kind, resembling in 
some degree the varieties known as the common Italian, pro- 
ducing a large, full, thick leaf This variety is propagated from 
seed and from layers, but does not readily strike root from 
cuttings. In 1838 I procured a quantity of this seed from 
Canton, which produced a variety of plants. Those producing 
the greatest quantity of fruit yield an inferior leaf They are 
now propagating this variety very extensively at the silk 
growing establishment at Economy, Pennsylvania, which, in 
connection with the Morus multicaulis, constitute the principal 
food used at this establishment. 

The^ fruit should be gathered when fully ripe, and the seed 
washed out and dried. If south of the 39th parallel of lati- 
tude, they may be planted the same season. North of this, 
they should be planted in the following spring, in a bed of rich 
earth prepared as for beets or onions, and planted in drills about 
eighteen inches apart. The young plants should be thinned to 
the distance of from one to three inches from each other. They 
should be well cultivated, when they will attain the height of 
three or four feet the first season. In the fall, in a Northern 
climate, the young trees should be taken up and protected 
during the winter, as directed for the Morus multicaulis. [This 
is not necessary in the Southern States.] 

In the following spring the branches may be taken oif near 
the main stem, the top shortened, and the whole tree planted, 
completely covering the roots and main stem from one to two 
inches deep. In this way two or more trees may be produced 
from each plant. If a full supply can be procured, the roots of 
the young plants may at once be removed to the orchard. They 
may be allowed to stand much nearer than the multicaulis, 
leaving only sufficient room for cultivation. When seed is re- 
quired it would be well to plant out a portion from the seed-bed 
at once, as standards for this purpose, always selecting those 
bearing/M7^ heart-shaped leaves. The leaves of the white Italian 
produces a good, heavy cocoon, and should always be used in 
the last age of the worms when other larger-leaved varieties 
cannot be obtained. 


Cultivation. — The mulberry orchard should be annually culti- 
vated. The ground kept mellow and free from weeds until the 
middle of July. The fields should be divided into three equal 
parts, and after the second season from planting, one-third each 
year should be cut down near the ground. This will cause a 
more vigorous growth, and an abundant crop of foliage. 

Feeding apartments. — Various plans have been proposed and 
adopted for cocooneries, or feeding-sheds, for the silk-worms, 
none of which, I think, are without objection, except a perfect 
laboratory, so constructed as to be able to fully control the at- 
mosphere and temperature within. This, however, would be 
too expensive, and require too much skill and judgment for 
general adoption. Open or shed-feeding has been employed 
with success of late years, and for general use may be the most 
successful for family establishments. This, however, confines 
the whole business, particularly in the Northern States, to one 
or two crops in the season. South of Ohio more can be success- 
fully fed. 

These sheds may be cheaply made by setting some durable 
posts in the ground, say fi*om six to eight feet high, with a roof 
of shingles or boards. The roof should project two feet over 
the sides. There should be some temporary protection to the 
ends and sides of the shed ; perhaps the best and cheapest can 
be made of strong cotton cloth, (Osnaburg ;) three or four widths 
should be sewed together, with small rods across the bottom, 
which will answer as weights, and also as rollers, which, by the 
aid of a pulley, may be rolled or let down at pleasure. The 
width of the sheds must be governed by the size of the hurdles 
or feeding-trays used. The width that I have adopted is from 
eighteen to twenty feet. The length according to the extent of 
the feeding contemplated. 

Where it is designed to carry on an extensive business, a 
building should be constructed expressly for the purpose. It 
should be on an elevated situation, convenient to the mulberry 
orchard. There should be a cellar under the building. Any 
material commonly used for building may be employed. If of 
wood, weather-boai'ded and plastered. It would be well to fill 
up the space between the two with tan-bark or unburnt brick, 
or something of the kind, which will render the temperature 
more uniform. The width of the building should be twenty or 
twenty-eight feet — the former admitting of two, and the latter 


of three double ranges of hurdles or trays of suitable size; the 
length suited to the extent of the business designed. It should 
be two stories high, and so constructed as to be thoroughly 
ventilated. There should be two double doors in each end, with 
doors, windows and ventilators in the sides. The windows 
should extend to near the tops of the rooms. There should be 
sliding ventilators near the floor. The windows may be filled 
with oiled paper or cloth, which will admit the light and ex- 
clude the sun. It would also be important to have under each 
tier of hurdles, through the floor, two planks of ten inches 
width each, hung with hinges, that they may be raised at 
pleasure by a pulley. Also an upright ventilator on the roof, 
fitted with blinds, through which a constant draft may be 
kept up. 

In one end of the building, in each of the two doors, there 
should be a ventilating wheel made of thin boards (plank) 
much after the form of the wheels applied to the sterns of our 
steam-propellers. These wheels should be about two feet in 
diameter. They should be put in motion for a few minutes 
every hour, or oftener in still weather. Both may be made to 
turn'by one crank, connecting each by bands and whirls to the 
main shaft. 

An air-furnace, such as is now employed in heating churches 
and other buildings, should be constructed in the cellar, and so 
arranged as to draw from the feeding-rooms all the air neces- 
sary to supply the furnace. The air, when heated in the cham- 
ber, should be conveyed through the whole length of the rooms, 
in a square pipe with openings at short distances from each 
other, which should increase in size as they recede from the 
furnace. These openings may be so connected as to be all 
closed at once, or a valve applied at the air-chamber may be 
used to cut off the communication of heated air when the tem- 
perature is sufficiently high in the rooms, suffering the hot air 
to escape outside of the building. In the last ages of the worms 
the furnace will be found of great benefit, even when the heat 
is not required in the rooms, for the purpose of drawing off and 
consuming the impure air of the cocoonery. 

At Economy, they not onl}'' make use of air furnaces, but in 
an adjoining building they have a large air-pump constantly in 
operation, connected with the cocoonery by a pipe with small 


openings through the length of the building. This pump is 
kept in motion by a steam engine. 

With good eggs, when proper means have been employed for 
their preservation, and the feeding apartments thoroughly ven- 
tilated, I do not know of a single instance where the worms 
have proved unhealthy. From the conviction that proper 
regard had not generally been paid to the ventilation of cocoon- 
eries, in the summer of 1842 I commenced a series of experi- 
ments, by which I ascertained that the silk-worm during its last 
age consumed nearly its own weight of leaves daily ; and that 
the amount of exhalations or imperceptible perspiration given 
off in proportion to the quantity of food consumed, was about 
equal to that ascertained to escape from a healthy man. 

I found from the most careful experiments, that the weight 
of one hundred thousand silk-worms, about five days before 
their time of winding, was four hundred and fifty-eight pounds, 
and that they would consume daily three hundred and seventy- 
two pounds of leaves,* and that their increased weight in 
twenty-four hours from the food consumed was forty-six pounds, 
and that the enormous amount of two hundred and six pounds 
was given off in the same time, in the form of exhalations or 
imperceptible perspiration alone. This, then, I think, fully ex- 
plains the cause of disease complained of by many, and estab- 
tablishes the importance of ventilation in every possible form. 

In one corner of the building there should be a hatching- 
room, with which the furnace below should be connected, so as 
to receive a greater or lesser degree of heat, as may be required, 
without reference to the temperature of the feeding-rooms. 

Fixtures. — In fitting up the hurdles or feeding shelves for a 
building of twenty feet wide, it will require a double range of 
posts, two and a half or three inches square, on each side of 
the centre of the room, running lengthwise, and the length of 
the shelves apart in the ranges, and each two corresponding 
posts, crosswise of the ranges, about the width of the two 
shelves apart. On each double range across the posts are 
nailed strips, one inch or more in width and about fifteen inches' 

*Had these worms been fed in the ordinary manner they would have 
consumed many more leaves in the same time. But to preserve the greatest 
possible accuracy, through the whole experiment they were fed rather spar- 


apart, on which the trays or hurdles rest, which may be drawn 
out or slid in as may be found necessary in feeding. The aisles 
or passages of a building of the above width will be four feet 
each, allowing two feet for the width of each single hurdle. 

The hurdles that I have used for many years are of twine 
net-work. A frame is first made five feet long and two feet 
wide, of boards seven-eighths of an inch thick, and one and a 
half inches wide. There should be two braces across the frame 
at equal distances of five-eighths by seven-eighths of an inch 
square. On a line, about half an inch from the inner edge of 
the frame, are driven tacks nearly down to their heads, at such 
distances as will make the meshes of the net about three-quar- 
ters of an inch square. Good hemp or flax twine is passed 
around these tacks, forming a net by passing the filling double 
over and under the warp, or that part of the twine that runs 
lengthiyise. This twine should be somewhat smaller than that 
running lengthwise. On a damp day the twine becomes tight; 
1 then give the netting two good coats of shellac varnish. This 
cements the whole together and renders it firm and durable. 
The varnish is made by dissolving a quantity of gum shellac in 
alcohol in a tin covered vessel, and placed near the fire. It 
should be reduced, when used, to the consistency of paint. 

Another set of frames is made in the same way and of the 
same size, and covered with strong cotton or tow cloth; this is 
secured with small tacks. Upon these the net frames rest, 
which serve to catch the litter that falls through from the worms. 
Hurdles made and supported in this manner admit of a more 
free circulation of air, and the litter is less liable to mould or 
ferment, and can be removed and cleaned at pleasure. With 
this kind of hurdle and screen I make use of winding-frames, 
constructed in the following manner : a light frame is made of 
boards one and a half inches wide, and the length of the hur- 
dles, and two feet and four inches wide; this is filled crosswise 
with thin laths about one inch apart in the clear. The manner 
of using these will be hereafter explained. They answer the 
twofold purpose of winding-frames and mounting-ladders. 

The care and expense required in fitting up a house on this 
plan may prevent its general adoption. The most common 
method that has been heretofore employed is permanent shelves; 
but the labor required to keep the worms properly cleaned 
renders this plan objectionable. 


At Economy, Penn., the rearing of the silk-worm is now 
carried on to a great extent, and more successfully than in any 
other part of the United States, or perhaps the world. Their 
houses are two stories high. The worms are fed on small trays 
about eighteen or twenty inches wide, and about three feet 
long. They are supported in the same manner as the hurdles 
above described, and are about six inches apart. When the 
worms are about ready to wind, they are transferred to the 
upper story, to permanent shelves about sixteen inches apart, 
where they form their cocoons in bunches of straw placed up- 
right between the shelves. The worms are cleaned at least 
once after every moulting, and after the last, every day. For 
this purpose they have nets woven or knit of cotton twine, 
something larger than the size of the trays, with meshes of 
various sizes suited to the age of the worms. For the last age 
they are about three-quarters of an inch square. They are 
used without frames. When it is required to remove the worms 
from their litter, the nets are laid lightly over them, and then 
plentifully fed. When the worms have arisen upon the fresh 
leaves, they are removed by two persons taking hold of the 
four corners of the net and transferring them to clean trays, 
held and carried off by a third person. One hundred thousand 
are changed in this manner in two hours. 

Description of the Silk-worm. — It will be necessary for the in- 
experienced culturist to have some knowledge of the forms, 
changes and appearances of the silk-worm before he entei"S 
upon the duties of his interesting charge. The silk-worm is a 
species of caterpillar, whose life is one continual succession of 
changes, which in due time becomes a moth or winged insect, 
like others of the genus. The time occupied in going through 
its ditferent forms of existence varies in different countries — 
governed by climate, temperature and the quality and quantity 
of the food upon which it is fed, and the nature of the particu- 
lar variety of the insect. 

The worm changes or casts its skin (of the common varieties) 
four times before it attains its full growth. These changes are 
called moultings, and the periods intervening between the 
several moultings are termed ages. When it is first hatched it 
is of a blackish color, which afterward becomes lighter, varying 
almost daily to different shades, and in different varieties 
through every age, to the close of the last, or near the time of 


spinning, when it assumes a grayish yellow, semi-transparent 

Having tried all the varieties that have been introduced into 
the United States, those I consider the best are known as the 
Chinese Imperial, producing a large, salmon-colored, peanut- 
shaped cocoon; and a kind called the Peanut, producing a 
mixture of white and salmon-colored cocoons. This variety 
produces a larger and more firm cocoon than any of that name 
that I have seen. 

Time of hatching. — Rearing. — When the leaves of the mulberry 
have put forth to the size of about an inch in diameter, it may 
be generally inferred that the proper time for hatching the 
worm has arrived. The papers or cloths containing the eggs 
should then be brought out and placed in the hatching-room, 
upon a table or trays made for the purpose. When artificial 
means4ire emploj'ed, the temperature should be gradnaUy raised 
until the time of hatching, which will be in about ten daj's, to 
75° or 80° of Fahrenheit's thermometer. But few worms will 
make their appearance on the first day, but on the second and 
third the most will come out; should there be a few remaining 
on the fourth day, they may be thrown away, as they do not 
always produce strong and healthy worms. When the worms 
begin to make their appearance, young mulbeny leaves cut into 
narrow strips should be laid over them, to which they will readily 
attach themselves; these should be carefully removed, and 
placed compactly upon a cloth screen or tray prepared for them, 
and other leaves placed upon the eggs for the worms that still 
remain, which should be passed otf as before. A singular fact 
will be observed, that all the worms will hatch between sunrise 
and before noon of each day. Care should be taken to keep the 
worms of each day's hatching by themselves, as it is of the 
greatest importance to have the moultings and changes of all 
the worms as simultaneous as possible. It is also important 
that the worms that have been transferred to the trays should 
not be fed until the hatching for the day is completed, so that 
all may be fed equally. Young and tender leaves should be se- 
lected to feed the worms with; these should be cut with a sharp 
knife into pieces not, exceeding a quarter of an inch square, and 
evenly sifted over them. They should bo fed in this way six or 
eight times in twenty -four hours, as nearly as possible at regular 
and stated periods. 


It will be impossible to lay down any definite rules for the 
quantity of leaves necessaty for a given number of worms for 
each succeeding day through every age. After a little acquaint- 
ance with their nature and habits, the intelligence and judg- 
ment of the attendant will be the best guide ; they should, how- 
ever, have as much as they ;svill eat, but after a few days care 
should be taken not to give them more than they will generally 
consume, as this will increase the accumulation of litter, which 
will endanger the health of the worms. In the last age they 
eat voraciously, when they should be well supplied. A quantity 
of leaves should always be on hand in case of wet weather. 

When the average range of the thermometer is between 70° 
and 80° the several moultings will take place near the fifth, 
ninth, fifteenth and twenty-second days after hatching. It may 
be known when the worms are about to east their skins, as they 
cease to eat, and remain stationary, with their heads raised, and 
occasionally shaking them. This operation will be more dis- 
tinctly observed as they increase in size through their succeed- 
ing ages. Assuming the above temperature as the standard, the 
quantity of leaves for the first three days of this (the first) age 
must be gradually increased at each feeding, after which they 
will require less at each succeeding meal until the time of moult- 
ing arrives, when for about twenty -four hours they eat nothing. 
But as it is seldom the case that all cast their skins at one and 
the same time, some will still be disposed to eat, when a few 
leaves must be cut fine and sparingly scattered over them, so 
that those that remain torpid may be disturbed as little as 
possible. They must now be carefully fed in this way until it 
is discovered that some have moulted, when the feeding must 
cease altogether until the most of them have recovered. This 
rule must me particularly regarded through all the succeeding 
moultings, otherwise some of the worms will be far in advance 
of others ; and this want of uniformity will increase through- 
out each succeeding age, and to the period of winding, which 
will not only result in great inconvenience in gathering the 
cocoons, but will materially injure the worms, and consequently 
lessen the crop of silk. 

When the greatest portion of the worms have moulted, and ap- 
pear active, leaves a little wilted are laid over them, by which 
they are passed to clean trays. If any still remain that have 
moulted, they must be transferred in the same manner, by 


laying more leaves upon them. The remnant of worms that 
have not changed their skins should be left upon the litter and 
added to those of the next day's moulting. By closely regarding 
these rules throughout the several ages, the worms will gen- 
erally all commence the formation of their cocoons about the 
same period. 

After having gone through and furnished all the worms with 
a quantity of leaves, it is well to go over a second time, and add 
more where they seem to require it. Yery young and tender 
leaves must be given to the worms in the first age, after which 
older ones can be given as they advance in age until after the 
last moulting, when they should be fed upon sound, full-grown 
leaves. After the second moulting the leaves, where large crops 
are fed, may be cut by running them twice through a common 
rotary hay or straw-cutter, of Hovey's, or one of a similar 

The worms will frequently heap together and become too 
thick, as they increase in size. When they are fed the leaves 
must be spread, and the space enlarged, or they may be removed 
by leaves or twigs of the mulberry to places unoccupied. If 
they are permitted to be crowded, disease is apt to follow and 
the whole crop is endangered. It will sometimes be observed, 
when the light falls more directly on one side of the hurdle 
than the other, that the worms will incline to leave that side 
aud become crowded on the opposite, when the hurdle should 
be turned around. 

Up to the last moulting it is best to feed the worms entirely 
upon the leaves of the multicoulis, after which the Canton or 
white Italian should be used if a full supply can be obtained — 
the former being consumed with greater avidity, and the accu- 
mulation of litter is consequent!}- less. The Canton and Italian 
produce the heaviest cocoon, while the multicaulis yields a finer 
and stronger fibre. In pursuing this course the advantages of 
both are in some degree secured. 

The worms should bo removed from their litter immediately 
after each moulting, and in their fourth age the hurdles should 
be cleaned a second time, and after the last moulting they 
should be removed at least every second day. Where nets ai'e 
not used in the last ages, the worms are changed by laying over 

them the small branches of the mulberry. Eecently branch- 



foedinjx, as it is termed, has been introduced with some success, 
and with great economy of time ; in the hist ages of the worms 
care shouhi bo taken to hvy the branches as evenly as possible, 
especially where it is designed to use the twine hurdles, other- 
wise it will be ditlieult for the worms to ascend through the 

"When the worms are about to spin they present something of 
a yellowish appearance; they ivfuse to eat, and wander about in 
pursuit of a hiding-place, and throw out tibres of silk upon the 
leaves. The hurdles should now be thoroughly cleaned for tho 
last time, and something prepared for them to form their co- 
coons in. Various plans have been proposed for this purpose. 
The lath frames, before described, 1 prefer. They are used by 
resting the back edge of the frame upon the hurdle, where tho 
two n\eet in the double range, and raising the tront edge up to 
the underside of the hurdle above, which is held to its place by 
two small wii'o hooks attached to the edge of the hurdle. A 
covering of paper or cloth ehould be applied to the lath frames. 
In using the hurdles and screens 1 remove the screen tVom under 
tho hurdle, turning the underside up, and letting it down di- 
rectly upon the winding-frame. This atfords double the room 
for the worms to wind in. Lath frames of this description have 
advantages that no other fixtures for winding possess that I 
have ever seen tried. The frame resting upon the backside of 
each hurdle renders this side more dark, which places the worms 
instinctivel}' seek when they meet with tho ends of tho laths, 
and immediately ascend to convenient places for the formation 
of their cocoons. From these frames the cocoons are gathered 
with great facility and free from litter and dirt, and when they 
arc required they are put up wnth great expedition. 

"Where branch-feeding has been adopted by some, no other 
accommodation has been provided for the winding of the worms 
than that atlbrded them by the branches from which they have 
fed. This is decidedly objectionable, as the worms are always 
disposed to rise until their course is obstructed above. When 
this is not the case they wander about for hours upon the tops 
of the branches, and only descend after their strength becomes 
exhausted, and the result is the production of a crop of loose, 
inferior cocoons. !^ext to lath frames, small bunches of straw 
at^brd the best accommodatioo for this purpose. Eye straw is 


preferred. Take a Hmall buneh, about the Kize of the little fin- 
gci', and with wome Htrorig twin*; tic it firmly about half an inch 
from th(! butt of the straw ; cut the bunch off about half an 
incli longer than the diHtancc between the hurdles. They are 
tliuH placed upright with their butt-ends downward, with their 
tops spreading out, interlacing each other, and pressing against 
the hurdles above. Th<;y Khould be thickly set in double rows 
about sixteen inches apart across the hurdles. These may be 
preserved for a number of years. 

After most of the worms have arisen, the few remaining 
may be removed to hurdles by themselves. In three or four 
days the cocoons may bo gathered. While gathering, those 
designed for eggs should be selected. Those of firm and fine 
texture, with round, hard ends, are the best. The smaller co- 
coons most generally produce the male, and those larger and 
mor<i^full at the ends the female insect. PJach healthy female 
moth will lay from four to six hundred eggs. But it is not alvvaj'S 
safe to calculate on one-half of the cocoons to produce female 
moths. Therefore, it is well to save an extra number to insure 
a supply of eggs. 

The cocoons intended for eggs should be stripped of their 
floss or loose tow. which consists of irregular fibres, by which 
the worm attaches its work to whatever place it is about to 
form its cocoon. These should be placed on hurdles, in a thin 
layer, and in about two weeks the moths will come out; always 
in tlic forepart of the day, and generally before the sun is two 
hours high. If laid upon a net hurdle (which is best) they will 
immediately fall through the meshes and remain suspended on 
the underside where they are not liable to become entangled in 
the cocoons. As soon as the male finds the female the}' become 
united. They should be taken carefully b}' the wings, in pairs, 
and placed upon sheets of paper, to remain until near night, 
when the female will be anxious to lay her eggs. Then lake 
each gently by the wings and separate them, placing the fe- 
males at regular distances — about two inches from each other — 
upon sheets of paper or fine cotton or linen cloth; these should 
hang over a line, or be attached to the side of the house. In 
two or three nights the moths will complete their laying, when 
they should be removed from the papers or cloths. Frequently 
the males appear first in the greatest numbers, some of which 


should be reserved each day in case there should afterward be 
an excess of females. They should be shut out from the light, 
otherwise they are liable to injure themselves by a constant 
fluttering of their wings. The female is largest, and seldom 
moves or flutters. 

Killing the chrysalides. — After the cocoons have been gathered, 
those that are intended for sale or for future reeling should be 
submitted to some process by which the moths avIU be killed, 
otherwise they will perforate and spoil the cocoons. This is 
done by various methods. The most simple and convenient ig 
to spread them thinly on boards, and expose them to the direct 
rays of the sun. In a hot day many-of them will be killed in a 
few hours ; but they must be stirred occasionally, or some will 
be liable to escape the heat, and afterward come out. At 
Economy, they place them in an air-tight box containing about 
ten bushels, (the box should always be full, or if not, a partition 
is fitted down to the cocoon,) sprinkling evenly through the 
whole, beginning at the bottom, about three ounces of camphor 
slightly moistened with alcohol, and finely pulverized. The 
box is then closed, and the seams of the top covered by pasting 
strips of paper over them. They remain in this way about 
three or four days. They are then spread out thinly in an upper 
loft to cure, where they should be occasionally stirred. It will 
require some weeks to thoroughly cure them. Before cam- 
phoring, the dead and bad cocoons must be taken out, otherwise 
they will spoil the good ones. 

When it is convenient, it is best to reel as many of the 
cocoons as possible immediately after they are gathered, as 
they reel much more freely before they are exposed to the sun 
or dried. 

Succession of crops. — Preservation of eggs. — Eepeated attempts 
have been made to feed a succession of crops of worms through- 
out the entire season from the same stock of eggs. In most 
instances success has failed to attend these efforts. When 
proper means are employed, and due care observed, the eggs 
may be preserved, and worms successfully I'aised until the feed 
is destroyed by the frost. In many jears experience I have 
never failed in this respect. In the spring of 18-10 I communi- 
cated to Miss Rapp, of Economy, my method of preserving 
eggs, which she immediately adopted, and has pursued it until 


the present time with perfect success, feeding from eighteen to 
twenty-five crops each year. The following is an extract of a 
letter from the Postmaster at Economy, dated January 19, 

" Between May and September we raised near two millions 
of worms, in eighteen sets, of near equal numbers, about a 
week apart, producing three hundred and seventy-one bushels 
of cocoons. The last crop hatched the 9th of September, and 
spun the 10th of October. We found no difference in the 
health of the different sets. We are of the opinion that the 
late keeping of the eggs does not bring disease on the worms if 
they are kept right, and gradually brought forward as they 
ought to be." 

It may be remarked that the qualities of the mulberry leaf 
are such in the latter part of the season that as heavy cocoons 
wilLnot be produced as in the first. A bushel of the first crop 
raised at Economy, in the season referred to, produced twenty- 
three and a quarter ounces of reeled silk, and the last crop, 
wound in October, but nineteen ounces. About one month of 
the best part of that season of feeding was lost by the severe 
frost that occurred on the 5th of May, which entirely killed the 
young leaves, and must have materially injured the crop of the 

My method of preserving eggs is to place them in the ice- 
house in February, or early in March, or sooner if the weather 
is warm. For this purpose a box or square trunk is made, ex- 
tending from within one foot of the bottom of the ice to the 
top. This may be made in joints, so that as the ice settles the 
upper joints may be removed. The eggs should be placed in a 
tin box, and this enclosed in a wood one, and suspended in the 
trunk near the ice. The communication of warm air should be 
cut off by filling the opening with a bundle of straw or hay. 
The eggs should be aired for a few minutes as often as once in 
one or two weeks, always choosing a cool, dry morning ; when 
selections for succeeding crops may be made these should be 
placed in another box, and gradually raised in the trunk for 
several days, avoiding a too sudden transition from the ice to 
the temperature of the hatching-room. 

The ice-house at Economy is connected with the cellar, the 
bottom of the former being eighteen inches below that of the 


latter. A loufr wooden box, extending into the ice-house, level 
with the bottom of the cellar floor, contains all the smaller 
boxes of eggs. The door of the box opening in the cellar is 
kept well closed to prevent the admission of warm air. They 
emplo}' another ice-house, sunk deep in the cellar, with shelves 
graduall}^ rising from the ice up to the top of the ground, upon 
which the eggs of succeeding crops are placed, and raised one 
shelf higher every day until they are taken into the hatching- 
room. The past season they have hatched about Jive ounces of 
eggs, or one hundred thousand worms every four days. 

Diseases of the Silk-ioorm. — The si Ik- worm, like every other 
animal or insect, is liable to disease and premature death. Eu- 
rojiean writers have enumerated and described six particular 
diseases to which it is subject. But in our more congenial cli- 
mate nothing is wanting to insure a healthy stock of silk- 
worms and a profitable return from their labors, but to give 
them sufficient room, a regular and full supply of suitable food, 
a strict regard to cleanliness and a proper ventilation of their 
apartments. In excessively hot, damp or sultry weather, in 
the last age, the disease known as the yellows sometimes occurs. 
Where open feeding is adopted, some fine air-slaked lime may be 
sifted on the worms once or twice a day before feeding, and the 
diseased and dead worms picked out and thrown away. In a 
regular cocoonery, pi'operly ventilated and supplied with an 
air-furnace, dry air should be made to circulate freely. But if 
the temperature is above 80'^ or 85° the ventilating apparatus 
should be constantly employed until a change of weather occurs 
or the disease disappears. 

A feeding-house should be so arranged as to cut off all com- 
munication of rats and mice from the worms and the cocoons. 

Reeling. — We have now arrived at another branch of the silk 
business, which more properly comes under the head of manu- 
facturing. Every farmer who engages in the silk culture, in 
order to avail himself of an additional profit should provide his 
family with a suitable reel, by the use of which, after a little ex- 
perience, ho will be enabled to offer his silk in market in a form 
that will greatly enhance its value and much reduce the trouble 
and expense of transportation. Heels can now be procured in 
almost any of the principal cities at a small cost, or they can be 
made by any ingenious farmer or carpenter. The reel now 
iiniformly used is that known as the Piedmontese. 


All attempts to improve this reel in its general principles, I 
believe, have failed. At Economy, however, they have made an 
addition which may be found useful. It consists of two pairs of 
whirls, made of wire, in the form of an aspel to a reelj about 
four inches long, and two and a half inches across from arm to 
arm, making the circumference about six inches. These whirls 
are set in an iron frame, and run each upon two points or 
centres. Each pair is equidistant on a direct line, about eight 
inches apart, between the first guides and those on the traverse 
bar, instead of making the usual number of turns around each 
thread as they pass between the guides on the reel. With this 
arrangement each thread is taken from the basin and passed 
through the first guides, then cai'ried over and around the two 
whirls, and where they pass each other on the top the turns are 
made necessary to give firmness to the thread, then passing di- 
rectly through the guides in the traverse bar to the arms of the 
reel, making each thread in reeling independent of the other. 
This enables the reeler, when a remnant of cocoons are to be 
finished on leaving the work, to unite both threads into one, 
retaining the necessary size, whereas both would be too fine if 
continued on the reel in the ordinary manner. 

Directions for Reeling. — In family establishments a common 
clay or iron furnace should be procured, to which should be 
fitted a sheet-iron top about twelve inches high, with a door on 
one side, and a small pipe on the opposite side to convey off the 
smoke. This top should retain the same bevel or flare as the 
furnace, so as to be about twenty inches in diameter at the top. 
The pan should be twenty inches square, and six inches deep, 
divided into four apartments, two of which should be one inch 
larger one way than the others. They should all communicate 
with each other at the bottom. In large filatures a small steam 
engine to propel the reels, etc., and to heat the water for reeling 
would be necessary. 

Before the operation of reeling is commenced the cocoons 
must be stripped of their floss, and assorted into three separate 
pai'cels, according to quality or of difl'erent degrees of firmness. 
The double cocoons, or those formed by two or more worms 
spinning together, the fibres crossing each other, and rendering 
them difficult to reel, should be laid aside to be manufactured in 
a different manner. 


Aftec tho cocoons have been ai^sol•ted as above directed, the 
operation of reeling may be commenced. The basin should be 
nearly filled with the softest water, and kept at a proper heat 
by burning charcoal, or some other convenient method of keep- 
ing up a regular heat. The precise tem])erature cannot be 
ascertained until the reeling is commenced, owing to the differ- 
ent qualities of the cocoons. Those of the best quality will re- 
quire a greater degree of heat than those of a more loose and 
open texture ; hence the importance of assisting them. Cocoons 
also require less heat, and reel much better when done before 
the chrysalides are killed and the cocoons become dried. 

The heat of the water may be raised to near the boiling 
point, (it should never be allowed to boil,) when two or three 
handsful of cocoons may be thrown into one of the large apart- 
ments of the basin, which must be gontlj^ pressed under water 
for a few minutes with a little brush made of broom-corn, with 
the ends shortened. The heat of the water will soon soften the 
gum of the silk, and thereby loosen the ends of the filaments; 
the reeler should then gently stir the cocoons with the brush 
until the loose fibres adhere to it; they are then separated from 
the brush, holding the filaments in the left hand, while the 
cocoons are carefully combed down between the fingers of tho 
right hand as they are raised out of the water. This is con- 
tinued until the floss or false ends are all drawn ofi^", and the fine 
silk begins to appear ; the fibres are then broken off, and laid 
over the edge of the basin. The fioss is then cleared from the 
brush, and laid aside as refuse silk, and the operation continued 
until most of the ends are thus collected. 

If the silk is designed for sewings, about twentj'-five fibres 
should compose a thread ; if intended for other fabrics, from 
eight to fifteen should be reeled together. The finest silks 
should always be reeled from the best cocoons. The cocoons 
composing the threads are taken uj) in a small tin skimmer 
made for the purpose, and passed from the large apartment of 
the basin to those directly under the guides. As the ends 
become broken they are passed back into the spare apartment, 
w4iere they are again collected to be returned to the reel. The 
requisite number of fibi'es thus collected for two threads are 
passed each through the lower guides. They are then wound 
around each other two or three times, and each carried through 


tile two giiidcH in the tniverse bar, and then attached to the 
arniH oftlie reel. The turning should now be comnrienced with 
a slow and steady motion until the threads run freely. While 
the reel is turning, the person attending the cocoons must con- 
tinually bo adding fresh ends as they may be required, not 
wailing until the number she began with is reduced, because 
the internal fibres are much finer than those composing the ex- 
ternal layers. In adding new ends the reeler must attach them, 
by g<;ntly pressing them with a little turn between the thumb 
and finger, to the threads as they are running. As the silk is 
reeled off the chrysalides should be taken out of the basin, 
otherwise they obscure and thicken the water, and injure the 
color and lustre of the silk. When the water becomes dis- 
colored it should always be changed. If in reeling the silk 
leaves the cocoon in burrs or bunches, it is evident the water is 
too hyt ; or when the ends cannot be easily collected with the 
brush, or when found not to run freely, the water is too cold. 

A pail of cold water should always be at hand, to be added 
to the basin as it may be required. When the cocoons yield 
their fibres freely, the reel may be turned with a quicker mo- 
tion. The quicker the motion the smoother and better will be 
the silk. When from four to six ounces have been reeled, the 
aspel may be taken off that the silk may dry. The end should 
be fastened so as to be readily found. Squeeze the silk together 
and loosen it upon the bars, then on the opposit^e side tie it with 
a band of refuse silk or j'arn, then slide it off the i-eel, double 
and again tie it near each extremity. 

The quality of the silk depends much upon the art and skilful 
management of the reeler. All that is required to render one 
perfect in the art of reeling is a little practice, accompanied at 
the beginning with a degree of -patience, and the exercise of 
judgment in keeping up the proper temperature of water, and 
the threads of a uniform size. 

Manufacture of Perforated Cocoons. — The perforated and double 
cocoons can be manufactured into various fabrics, such as stock- 
ings, gloves, undershirts and the like. Before the cocoons can 
be spun they must be put into a clean bag made of some open 
cloth, and placed in a pot or kettle, and covered with soft water, 
with soap (hard or soft; added sufficient to make a strong suds, 
and boiled for about three or four liours. If they are required 


to be very nice jvnd white, the water may be changed and a 
small quantity more of soap added and again boiled for a few 
minutes. After they are boiled they may be hung up and 
drained ; they should then be rinsed while in the bag, in fair 
water, and hung out to dry, without disturbing them in the 
bag. "When completely dry they may be spun on the common 
flax-wheel by lirst taking the cocoon in the tingers and slightly 
loosening the fibres that become flattened down by boiling, and 
and then spinning off from the pierced end. The silk will run 
entirely off, leaving the shell bare. The double cocoons may 
be spun in the same manner, but should be boiled separately. 

A species of edible mulberry is planted pretty generally for 
feeding hogs. I am informed that it continues to bear during 
several months, from April to Jul}' or August, and is considered 
highlj' advantageous. This is called the Ever-bearing JIulberry. 
The following account I obtain from the Southei'n Field and 
Fireside : 

Ever-bearing JIulberries. — There are now three varieties of 
ever-bearing mulberries presented to us for selection or for gen, 
eral adoption. Doicning's Ever-bearing is a seedling of the imd- 
ticaulis, which it resembles in wood and foliage. It is, therefore, 
necessarily somewhat tender, and not suited to a more Northern 
climate. Mi*. D. has given us an ample description of its fruit 
in his Fruit Trees of America, and merits much credit for orig- 
inating so excellent a fruit. 

IIerbemo7ifs or Jiieks' Ever-bearing is a much hardier variety- 
and superior to the preceding in size and quality of its fruit, 
which is produced during a considerably larger period of time. 
It is a prodigious bearer; the berries are usually nearly two 
inches in length, sweet and delicious. At the South the fruit 
continues to ripen from the 25th of April until the 15tii of 
August, and here at the North the crop extends to a late period 
in the autumn. This tree has dark red wood and indented 
leaves, very distinct from Downing's. 

White Ever-bearing, sweet berries, partakes considerably of 
the character of the white Italian. It grows vigorously and 
yields immense quantities of fruit. 

The first two varieties have been in fruit with us this season. 
Of Downing's, from a young tree, we gathered but a few ber- 
ries, of which we preferred the more vinoiis and decided flavor 

to tliat of tlio iricks. The lattor dooH not materially vary in 
quality from the common wild npeeieH, of which it \h a variety, 
differing in its extended period of bearing. Our young tree, of 
about twice the age of JJowning's, began to ripen the firHt of 
May, and liaH juHt stopped fruiting for the seaHon. The fruit 
is worth growing on plantatiouH for y)Oultry and Hwine, as it is 
very prolific. A mulberry orchard of this kind would furnish 
the latter a full supply of food for about three months. It is to 
be found at all nurseries, and we venture to commend it to our 
agricultural friends as a valuable farm crop for the cheap rear- 
ing of good hogs. 

The juice of the mulberry is used to give a dark tinge to 
confections. When properly fermented the fruit yields a pleas- 
ant vinous liquor, mulberry wine, and is mixed with apple juice 
to form mulberry cider. The bark of the root is a powerful 
cathartic. Farmers's Encyc. 

COMMON MULBKKIIY, (Morus rubra, L.) Grows along 
rivers and swamps ; vicinity of Charleston ; Kichland ; Florida. 
N. C. Fl. March. 

U. S. Disp. 463. The fruit is edible, laxative and cooling, and 
a grateful drink and syrups arc made from it, adapted to febrile 
cases. The bark of the mulberry can be converted into cordage, 
ropes and brown paper. The itmer bark of the root of the 
black mulberry, in doses of from half to a whole teaspoonful of 
the powder, is said to act as an excellent purgative. A syrup 
of the ripe fruit is an excellent laxative for children. A tincture 
of the inner bark of the root is considered a valuable laxative 

Tartaric acid is obtained from tht; mulberry, the grape, cur- 
rant, etc. It is almost always found in vegetables combined 
with potassa, with which it forms a nearly insoluble salt ; it is 
the union which occasions it to be so easily precipitated from 
the liquors in which it is contained, especially when they fer- 
ment. The coats of tartar which are found deposited upon the 
sides of casks are a combination of tartaric acid, potassa and 
extracted matter. Chaptal. 8ee Pereira, and treatises on 
chemistry for mode of formation of Cream of tartar. 

Citric acid, also, is found in the skins of the red currant, of 
wild plums, cherries, strawberries and raspberries. In these it 
is found united with malic acid. The orange and lemon, of 


course, furnish it in the largest i)roportion. Tlie process adopted 
by Scheele for obtaining and crystallizing citric acid is to satu- 
rate the juice with lime, the insoluble salt, thus formed, being 
decomposed by sulphuric acid diluted with water. The liquor 
is then evaporated, and the acid obtained in a crystalline form. 
See Chaptal, Ure, works on Chemistry and Mat. Medica, Pereira, 
U. S. Dispensatory, etc. 

The production of citric acids in the warmer portions of the 
Southern States is quite practicable, as the lemon grows abun- 
dantly. Citric acid supplies the place of lemon juice for domestic 
purposes, and in the arts, by its being freed from mucilage, 
which renders the juice liable to undergo speedy change, and 
from a diminution of its bulk by concentration. Chaptal. 

To give a flavor to food, citric acid is preferable to vinegar, 
on account of the aromatic principle it contains. Dissolved in 
water, it forms a very wholesome drink; "about thirty grains 
of the acid, dissolved in a pint of water, and sweetened with 
sugar, composes an excellent lemonade." From its refreshing 
and anti-putrescent properties, it is invaluable during the hot 
months, and especially as an article for sea stores of vessels in 
warm latitudes, Chaptal ; and particularly for the prevention of 
scurvy. " Citric acid is also particularly useful in the arts ;" 
like oxalic acid, "it is employed in forming reserves in printed 
goods, and in removing spots of ink or rust." Chaptal. See, 
also, acetic acid, vinegar, etc., and Orange, " Citrus,'" in this 

Ell., in his Sketches of the Botany of S. C, says the wood is 
preferred, in the building of boats, to that of any other tree, 
except the red cedar, (Juniperus Virginiana.) The other woods 
suitable for ship-building found with us are, the live-oak for the 
timbers and knees, and the cypress, cedar, willow and several 
species of pine for the timbers as well as the spars — being pre- 
ferred on account of their strength, lightness, or peculiarity of 

Wilson says of this tree that the wood is fine grained, com- 
pact, strong and solid, and by many persons is esteemed fully 
equal to the locust. It is employed in naval architecture at 
Philadelphia and Baltimore, for the upper and lower parts of 
the frame, for knees and floor timbers, and for tree-nails; it is 
hardly inferior to the locust, but is scarce in the ship-yards. 


For posts it is considered nearly as lasting as the locust, but it 
grows more slowly, and requires a richer soil. From experi- 
ments made in France it was ascertained that the leaves were 
not as good for the silk-worm as those of the J£. alba. A much 
less quantity was obtained than from worms fed on the white 
mulberr}', and there was a greater mortality. Rural Cyc. See, 
also, my article in August number, 1861, of DeBow's Review. 

Broussonetia papyrifera, the paper mulberry of our yards, be- 
longs to this family, (Chapman.) Fustic is also got from the 
same family. As the paper mulberrj^ is planted in this country, 
I will insert the account given by Wilson of its uses. The 
islanders of the Pacific make a kind of clothing from this tree, 
in the following manner: twigs of about an inch in diameter 
are cut and deprived of their bark, which is divided into strips, 
and left to macerate for some time in running water ; after the 
epidermis has been scraped off, and while yet moist, the strips 
are laid out upon a plank in such a manner that they touch at 
their edges, and two or three layers of the same are placed 
upon them, taking care to preserve an equal thickness through- 
out. At the end of twenty-four hours the whole mass is adhe- 
rent, when it is removed to a large flat, and perfectly smooth 
table, and is beaten with little wooden clubs till it has attained 
the requisite thickness. It is easily torn, and requires to be 
washed and beaten many times before it acquires its full sup- 
pleness and whiteness. The paper which is used in Japan, and 
many other countries in the East Indies, is made from this 
plant ; for this purpose the annual shoots are cut off after the 
fall of the leaves, tied in bundles, and boiled in water mixed 
with ashes; after which the bark is stripped off by longitudinal 
incisions, and deprived of the brown epidermis. The bark of 
the more tender shoots furnishes a very white paper for 
writing. Hair pencils must be used in writing on this paper. 
Silk-worms eat the leaves of this tree also. Rural Cj'c. 

FIG, (Ficus carica.) Ex. Cult. Flourishes in South Caro- 
lina ; Norfolk, Va. In the garden of Mr. T. Farr Capers, 
Charleston, the Fig trees are thirty feet in height and three in 
circumference. They are trimmed to the height of ten feet. 

Shec. Flora Carol. The milky juice of many plants of the 
Family Moraceae contains much caoutchonc. We have three 
native species growing in S. Fla. The fruit is well known ; the 


juice has been substituted for sympathetic ink, as the characters 
written with it are not visible till exposed to the sun. The 
decoction of the green branches and leaves imparts a deep gold 
color, of a brown shade, to cloth prepai"ed with a solution of 
bismuth. I have heard it stated as a curious fact, that there is 
but one male fig in America, which grows in Louisiana ! Some 
botanists describe the plant as containing both stamens and 
pistils within the fruit or pericarp. 

Figs are excellent pabulum for vinegar, which may be con- 
stantly replenished with the over-ripened fruit. 

The following easy process of making white vinegar from 
honey may not be amiss, even in a work of this kind, which 
professes to teach economical modes of becoming independent 
of foreign supplies. It is obtained from ^Vilson's Rural Cyc. 
The matei'ials can be easily obtained. Four very good kinds of 
household vinegar, perfectly suitable for pickling, and for other 
domestic purposes, may easily be made from respectively — 
honey, brown sugar, British wines, and sour ale. First, as to 
honey or white vinegar : dissolve three-quarters of a pound of 
honey in rain water, and put it into a seven-gallon cask, with a 
quart of malt spirit; shake it well, then fill up the cask with 
rain water ; shake it well, and keep near the kitchen fire, where 
it must stand without being moved or shaken. Let it remain 
five months in this place, and the vinegar will be made. Draw 
it off by piercing the lo-wer part of the cask, and let it run till 
the concretion which is formed at the top, and is termed 
"mother of vinegar," begins to appear. You rciQ.y then begin 
the process again without cleaning the cask. Pi'ojjerly toasted 
bread, saturated with yeast, would take the place of the malt 
spirit referred to above. See article "Yinegar," in Rural Cyc, 
for other methods. 

The fruit is well known, and when properly prepared for 
market in the warmer portion of the Southern States, might con- 
stitutes an article both for export and for home consumption. 
Many persons believe implicitly in the power of the atmosphere 
about this tree to render meat tender. Our "Southern matrons" 
now put up this fruit in a most palatable shape for winter use, 
dried in the sun, after being boiled in a syrup. The celestial fig 
is the best for this purpose. Molasses can also be made from 
the fig and watermelon. Mr. C. 11. Owen, of Charleston, made 


it from the white fig. One peck yielded three pints. From a 
bushel he obtained seven quarts, according to the following di- 
rections : 

" Wash the figs, then put them in a porcelain vessel ; cover 
with pure water, boil carefully one hour. When cool, strain 
through a muslin cloth; then boil again until it is boiled down 
to a proper consistency, which you can easil}' tell by dipping up 
a spoonful and cooling. The above is all the preparation neces- 
sary. In boiling for the last time, take the scum off." 

" F. J. S.," a correspondent of the Charleston Mercury, writes 
as follows on "our resources :" " You spoke, in the article above 
alluded to, of different coloring substances. The juice of the 
skin of our blue fig is abundant, and of a deep, brilliant red color ; 
a half page written with it a few days since had the appearance 
of having been done with red ink. The pomegranate, which 
grows in great abundance in Southern Georgia, furnishes, in the 
rind ofthe fruit, a jet black fluid, which writes very smoothly, 
and retains its jetty hue. The metallic pen used may darken 
its color." 

I have seen blue cakes resembling indigo, intended for dyeing 
and marked fig blue — probably extracted from the skins of the 
fig. Since the war the stems of the fig and titi {Cliftonia) have 
formed favorite materials for pipe stems. I have ascertained 
that the ashes of the leaves of the fig are useful in polishing 
metal-utensils, etc. 

ULMACE^. {The Elm Tribe.) 

SLIPPERY ELM, (Ulmus fulva.) I have observed it in Fair- 
field District. It is sometimes found irr the lower districts ; 
N. C. 

Am. Herbal. 139 ; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. and Therap. 228 ; 
U. S. Disp. 727 ; Dr. McDowell's Med. Exam. 244 ; West Jour. 
Med. and Phys. Sc; Michaux, Fl. Americana, i, 172^; and N. Am. 
Sylva, iii, 89 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 563. A decoction of the bark 
was much used by the Indians in the cure of leprosy. It is an 
excellent demulcent employed as an emollient application, and 
internally is especially recommended in supression of urine, in- 
flammation of the bladder, dysentery and diarrhcea. A decoc- 
tion made of this, combined with the root of the sassafras, and 
guaiac, is esteemed as a valuable drink to increase cutaneous 


transpiration, and to improve the tone of the digestive organs. 
Griffith considers it a good substitute for acacia, and he has wit- 
nessed its beneficial effects, externally applied, in obstinate cases 
of herpetic and syphilitic eruptions; he is inclined to ascribe 
higher curative powers to it than are generally admitted. It 
forms a good vehicle for enemata, where a mucilaginous fluid is 
required. The bark, cut in the form of a bougie, has been used 
in dilating sinuses and contractions of the urethra. The sub- 
stance exuding from the bark is called ulmin. It could be 
largely collected for the use of soldiers — suitable wherever 
a highly mucilaginous substance is required. See Bene "^Ses- 
amum." This is the best wood we have for blocks, and is ex- 
cellent for rails, as it splits easily, and is of long duration. It is 
more durable than the white elm. 

I append the following to the second edition : 

Dr. C. W. Wright, of Cincinnati, states (Western Lancet) that 
slippery elm bark has the property of preserving fatty sub- 
stances from ranciditj^ ; a fact derived originally from the In- 
dians who prepared bear's fat by melting it with the bark in the 
proportion of a drachm of the latter to a pound of the former, 
keeping them heated together for a few minutes, and then 
straining off the fat. Dr. Wright tried the name process with 
butter and lard and found them to remain perfectly sweet for a 
long time. (Am. J. Pharm. xxiv, 180,) U. S. Disp. 12th Ed. Dr. 
McDowel, of Virginia, used the bark for the dilatation of fistulas 
and strictures, (Med. Exam, i, 244,) and Dr. H. E. Storer, of 
Boston, subsequently for dilating the os uteri. (Bost. Med. and 
Surg. J. liii, 300.) See U. S. Disp. 

WHITE ELM, ( Ulmus Americana, Mx.) Vicinity of Charles- 
ton ; N. C. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 799 ; Coxe, Am. Disp. 
611; Phil. Med. Mus. 11. The U. fulva probably referred to. 

The wood of the white elm, like that of the common Euro- 
pean elm, is of a dark brown ; and cut transversely, or obliquely 
to the longitudinal fibres, it exhibits the same numerous and 
fine undulations, but it splits more easily and has less compact- 
ness. It is, however, used at the North for the naves of coach- 
wheels, because it is difficult to procure the black gum. In 
Maine it is used for the keels of vessels. Its bark is said to be 
easily detached during eight months of the year; soaked in 


water and suppled by pounding, it is used in the Northern 
States for the bottoms of common chairs. Miehaux, 

WAHOO, (Ulmus alata, Mx.) Rich soils; Florida; South 
and North Carolina. 

The wood is fine grained, more compact, heavier and stronger 
than that of the American white elm. It is employed for coach- 
wheels, and is even preferred to the black gum, as being more 
hard and tough. Miehaux. Farmer's Encyc. 

The following statement has been published: 

" Wahoo Rope. — We have seen a specimen of rope made of 
wahoo bark, by Mr. T. J. Howard, of this county. He has 
used the wahoo rope with great success in bagging cotton, and 
we can safely recommend his contrivance to the attention of 
planters. The common impression is that the bark is not in 
good condition, except in the spring of the year. This is a 
mistime. It can be used to great advantage at this season in 
bagging cotton. The manner of using the rope made of wahoo 
bark is altogether similar to that which has been in ordinary 

SUGAE-BEERY ; HACKBEREY, {Celtis occidentalis, L.) A 
noble tree, growing along the mai'gin of streams and in damp 
lands; collected in St. John's; vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern. 
Fl. June. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 170 ; Fl. Med. i, 90 ; Grif- 
fifth, Med. Bot. 563. It yields a gum resembling that of the 
cherry tree ; the root and leaves are somewhat aromatic, and 
were used by the Indians in syphilis. The berries have a sweet 
and pleasant taste. 

The wood of this tree resembles closely, says Wilson, that of 
the C. australis. The timber of the latter is exceedingly dura- 
ble, and was formerly employed by British coach-makers for 
making the frames of their vehicles; and by the Italian musical 
instrument-makers for making flutes and pipes. Eural Cyc. 

MYEICACE.E. {The Gale Tribe.) 

Aromatic and sometimes astringent. 

WAX MlETLE,; BAYBEEEY, {Mijrica cerifera, L.) Grows 
abundantly in the swamps^f the lower country; Newbern. 
Fl. May. 


Ell. Bot. .Med. Notes, ii, 27S; Matson's Yeg. Pract. 1118; U. S. 
Disp. 200; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap, 78(5 ; Biir. Am. Med. Pot. 
iii, 32 ; Am. Journal Med. Sei. ii, 313; Bergii, Mat. Med. ii, 541 ; 
Nicholson's Journal, iv, 187 ; Kalnvs Travels, i, 120 ; Dana in 
Silliman's Journal 1; Thacher's U. S. Disp. 288; Mor. ami de 
L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 531; Pe Cand. Kssai, 772; Pind. Nat. 
Syst. Bot. 180. The root is a powerful astringent, and a decoc- 
tion is employed in diarrhoea, dysentery, hemorrhage from the 
uterus, in dropsies which succeed fevers, and as a gargle in sore 
throat. It is also given to some extent by the vegetable prac- 
titioners. Griffith states (Med. Bot. 583^ that the bark of the 
root is also stimulant and acrid, and in doses of a drachm causes 
a sensation of heat in the stomach followed by vomiting and 
sometimes diuresis. The powder is an ftctivo errhino, and the 
leaves have some celebrity in domestic practice, as being anti- 
spasmodic, anti-scorbutic and astringent. Dr. Dana found the 
powdered root powerfully sternutatory, liigelow says that the 
bark and leaves contain gallic acid, tannin, resin and a small 
quantity of mucilage. The berries atford a large amount of 
wax, which rises to the surface when they are boiled, not re- 
markable for adhesiveness or unetuosity. Dr. Bostock consid- 
ers it a tixed, vegetable oil, rendered concrete by oxygen ; and 
by the experiments of Dr. Dana, it coi\stitutes one-third of the 
whole berry. It is emplo3'ed for candles, emitting a fragrant 
odor, and it also forms the basis of a tine soap. It appeai-s to 
possess some astringent and slightly narcotic properties, and 
has been administered by Dr. Fahnestock in an epidemic of 
tvphoid dysentery. He gave it in doses of one to two drachms, 
and he is of opinion that its active principle resides in the green 
coloring matter. Am. Journal Med. Sci. ii, 313. Eatinesque states 
that a tincture of the berries, with heracleum, is beneficial in 
flat\ilent colic. De Cand., Essay upon the Louisiana Myrtle, (in 
French ;) see Ann. de Chim. xliv, 141, and xlvi, 77 ; C. L. Cadet, 
Mem. on the Myrtle of Louisiana and Pennsylvania, Paris ; 
Thiebault de Bernaud, Mem. sur le cirier, on abre a cire, Paris, 
1810. See my own experiments upon the applicability of the 
leaves as a substitute for oak bark, under " Li<2tiidambar," swe^ti 

Dr. Wood, U. S. Disp., 12th Ed... s^^iys that a volatile oil might 
probahh' be collectv^d from the leaves by distillation, and used 

i'<)V Himil.'ir piir))OH''>H (o iIiohc to wl)i<;li oil of pirnoiilo i< a))|tlic<l, 
'J'lic )»ovv(it,i' oC tli(} b:irk liiiH a pociiliai" aromatic o<Joi' and irri- 
tut(;h i,li(j noHtrilH atid tliroal whan iiilialed. ItyicldM its virtues 
i.o watfir and alcohol. Chemically cxarained by Mr. G. M. 
Ilatnhri^lit it waH f'odrid to contain volatile oil, Ktarch, li^nin, 
^iim. aU^urticn, extractive, a red colorinj^ Hubhtance, tannic and 
gallic acidw, an acrid renin Holuble in alcohol and not in ether, 
and a ))ecijliar acrid principle having acid propertic/s, analagouH 
to xrrponin, for which the name of myricinic acid in jiroposed. 
CAm. J, J^harm., May, 1803.) The Eclectics line the bark in 
di:irrh<ca, jaundice, scrofula, etc., and an alcoholic extract 
jippropriafely called myricin, in given in doKCH of about live 
grairiH. The done of the powder* is about thirty grains, of a 
d<i(octioti mad<; with an ounce of the powdered baik to a pint 
of watei'; tljc doh<j is on<5 or two fiuid ounccH. U. S. I>isp. 

"'I'Ue northern nations fornnjrly eni[doyed this plant in place 
of hops, and it is still in use for that purpose in som(i of the 
western isles; unless it is boiled a long time it is rej»orte<l to 
occasion headache." Nicholson also says, in Ids Enc^clopoidia, 
of the M. cerip'/ra, that "it is used in tanidng calf-skins; gath- 
ered in autumn, it will dye wool yellow, for which purpose it is 
used both in Sweden and in Wales ; the Welsh lay branchcn of 
it upon atid under their beds to keep off fleas and moths." 
Hoiissingault, in his iiural Chemistry applied to Agricultun*, 
1859, says of the wax-bearing myrtle: "The fruit yields as 
iriuch as twenty-five per cent, of wax, and a single shrub will 
yield from twenty-four to thirty jjounds of beiries. The crude 
wax is green and brittle, and to be made into candles requires 
the addition of a certain quantity of grease." Proust diKco\- 
ered that vegetable wax formed part of the green fecula of 
man}' plants. In the common cabbage it occurs in large quan- 
tity. Oleine is said to predominate in the fluid vegetable oiln. 
See, on this subject, Queen's Delight, (Styllimjia sehifera.) The 
berries of the Pride of India {Melia) also yield an oil when dried 
and boiled. Wax has also been collected by scraping the stalk 
of the sugar-cane. See " Sorghum," in this volume. 

I have repeatedly seen the wax produced from the myrtle in 
large amounts. The berries are boiled, and the wax rises on 
the surface of the water. The boiling should be continued a 
long time, and the berries stirred and bruised. The wax may 


be remelted to purify it. Four pounds of this will make forty 
pounds of poap. The candles made of it are dark green in 
color. Candles and soap were made in considoi-able amounts 
during the war by those residing in the low countiy of South 

Wilson, in his Eural Cyc, quotes Hamilton, who says that 
the wax, after being skimmed off the water, should be strained 
through a coarse cloth to free it from foreign matter. When no 
more wax rises, the berries are removed with a skimmer and a 
fresh supply put into the same water, taking care to add boiling 
water to supply the place of that evaporated during the pro- 
cess. The wax should be dried, and melted again to free it 
from impurity. See Charles Louis Cader's Memoir, inserted 
in the Annales do Chimie, who said that the myrtle had been 
successfully cultivated near Berlin, and Hamilton recommends 
its cultivation in England for its wax-producing properties. 

In F. S. Holmes' Southern Farmer, p. 236, is the following : 

Large amount of Soap produced from Myrtle Wax. — I find the 
following recipe for making soap fi'om myrtle wax (Mi/rica 
ceriferd) in an old number of the Southern Agriculturist. As 
one of the complaints of soap-makers is the difficulty and ex- 
pense of obtaining the grease, it will be well for us to avail 
ourselves of a production of nature, found abundantly in our 
lower country. The fruit is now matured, and may be had in 
abundance for the picking. I have seen very good candles 
made of myrtle wax. I trust our planters, residing in the 
vicinity of the myrtle, will profit by these advantages before 
the season for picking has passed : 

"To three bushels and a half of common wood ashes add half 
a bushel of unslaked lime. This being well mixed together, put 
into a cask capable of containing sixty gallons and fill up with 
water. In forty-eight hours the lye will be strong enough to 
float an egg. Then draw off, and put from six to eight gallons 
of it into a copper kettle capable of containing twenty-five gal- 
lons. To this add only four pounds of myrtle wax. Keep con- 
stantly boiling for six hours. For the first three or four hours 
pour in occasionally a supply of strong lye, the whole frequently 
well stirred with a ladle. After six hours boiling, throw two 
quarts of common large grain salt into the kettle ; leave one 
hour more to simmer over a slow fire. The liquor must be 


j)luoe<I in tubs to cool for twenty-four hours. Take out tlie soap, 
wipe it clean ; put it to dry, 

"The produce of this soap when it was weighed the next 
day was found to be forty-nine pounds of good, solid soap, from 
the materials and by the process above mentioned. At the end 
of six weeks the soap had only lost a few pounds from the 
cvapoi'ation of its watery particles. 

"In many parts of our State the myrtle tree is abundant, 
and from three pecks to a bushel may be gathered from a hand 
])er day," 

There have been recent orders from the North for several 
thousand pounds of the wax, (1868.) 

Since my examination and recommendation of the mj'rtle 
leaves as a tanninii'erous agent, I see that it has been used by 
Mr. J. Commins, of Charleston, in tanning leather. He states 
that j^e used it extensively during the war and found it to 
answer all the purposes required. 

I had observed, also, an unusual amount of astringency in 
the berries of the myrtle. The water in which they are boiled, 
with copperas, is used as a dye. I have seen an excellent dark 
brown obtained with very little copperas. If walnut leaves, 
bark, or the rind of the fruit is added the color is very black. 
I am informed in St. John's Berkeley, S. C, that a blue dye is 
obtained without a mordant, by using the same water repeated- 
ly in boiling the berries for the extraction of the wax! This 
seems an unexpected result. 

Myrica Caroiinensis. Grows in dry soils; Eichland; collected 
in St. John's; Newbern. 

Griffith's Med. Bot. 583. Supposed to possess similar prop- 
erties with the above. It can scarcely be distinguished from 
the others. 

FEEN BUSH; SWEET FERN, (Comptonia asplenifolia, Ait.) 
Mts. of North Carolina and northward. An aromatic astringent 
used by Barton and others as a pleasant drink in the summer 
complaints of children, Shoepf says on the authority of Colden, 
that chewing the root will check a spitting of blood, and that it 
is useful in rachitis and the debility following fevers. Griffith. 

JUGLANDACP]^. (The Walnut Tribe.) 
BUTTERNUT; OIL-NUT, (Juglans cinerea,Jj.) Grows in 
the mountains of South and North Carolina. Fl. April. 


IT. S. Disj). 710 ; Archives Gen. 3c seric, x, 399, and xi, 40; 
Frost'8 Elcms. Mul. Med. 131. '■ The inner bark of the rool. af- 
fords one of the most mild and efficient hixatives we possess." 
The extract was a favorite remedy in General Marion's camp 
during ihe Eevolutionary war. It is very efficacious in hab- 
itual constipation, in doses often to thirty grains; the tirst 
acting as a laxative, the maximum purging. Big. Am. Med 
Bot. ii, 115; Mx. N. Am. Sylva, 160; where it is spoken of as a 
mild cathartic, operating without pain or irritation, and re- 
sembling rhubarb in its property of evacuating without debili- 
tating the alimentary canal. Dr. Rush employed it during the 
Avar. Wood says it is highly esteemed in dysentery' ; Lind. Nat, 
Syst. 181. The rind of the fruit and the skin of the kernel are 
exiremely astringent, anthelmintic and cathartic; the oil ex- 
tracted from the fruit is of a very drj-ing nature. Mer. and do 
L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 687, (J. cathartica.') He remarks that 
the inner bark of the root is acrid and caustic, and purges, but 
occasions neither heat nor irritation ; adapted to bilious consti- 
tutions and to dysentery ; often combined with calomel. It is 
given to animals in a disease called '-yellow water;" Bull, des 
Sci. Med. Fer. xii, 338. To extract the cathartic principle, the 
bark is boiled in water for several hours; remove the extraneous 
matter and boil down liie decoction to the consistence of honey 
or molasses — pills may be made of this. A s^-rup may also be 
made. The bark is strongest in the early summer. The pow- 
dered leaves are rubefacient, and act as a substitute for can- 
tharides. Coxe, Am. Disp. 365. The bark of the branches af- 
fords a large quantity of soluble matter, chiefly of the extractive 
kind, water seeming to be a solvent. Wetherill found in it fixed 
oil, resin, saccharine matter, lime, potash, a peculiar principle, 
and tannin. Dr. B. S. Barton, in his Collections, 23, 32, thinks 
it is possessed of some anodyne property. Dr. Gray ascertained 
that four trees, eight to ten inches in diameter, produced in one 
day nine quarts of sap, from which was made one pound and a 
quarter of sugar, equal, if not superior to that produced from 
the maple. This plant is always given in the form of extract or 
decoction. Griffith's Med. Bot. 589 ; Thacher's Disp. 245 ; Eush's 
Med. Obs. i, 112; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 767 ; Lind. Med. 
Fl. 387. The wood of the butternut is used for the sleepers and 
.posts of frame houses and barns, for posts and rail fences, 
troughs for cattle, etc. For corn-shovels and wooden dishes it 


is preferred to the red flowering maples, because it is lighter and 
less liable to si^lit ; consequently, hollow-ware and other articles 
made of it sell at higher prices. In Vermont the wood is used 
for the panels of coaches and chaises, being well adapted for this 
purpose, not only for its lightness, but because it is not liable to 
split. It receives paint in a superior manner, its pores being 
very open, more so than poplar and basswood. Mx. Am. Sylva; 
Farmer's Encyc. 

BLACK WALNUT, {Juglans nigra, L.) Diffused in lower 
and upper country of South and North Carolina; Newbern. Fl. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 687; Griffith, Med. Bot. vi, 
89. The bark is styptic and acrid ; the rind of the unripe fruit 
is said to remove i-ing-worms and tetter ; and the decoction is 
given with success as a vermifuge. " A kind of bread is ob- 
tainqil from the fruit." In a communication received I'rom J. 
Douglas, M. D., of Chester District, South Carolina, his corres- 
pondent, Mr. McKeown, informs me that a bit of lint, dipped 
in the oil of the walnut kernel and applied to an aching tooth, 
is an effectual palliative ; he has employed it for thirty years 
with great satisfaction. 

The following appeared in one of the journals dui*ing the year 

Walnut leaves in the treatment of Diseases. — Dr. Negries, phy- 
sician at Anglers, France, has published a statement of his suc- 
cess in the treatment of scrofulous disease in different forms by 
preparations of walnut leaves. He has tried walnut leaves for 
ten years, and of fifty six patients, afflicted in different forms, 
thirty-one were completely cured, and there were only four who 
appeared to have obtained no advantage. The infusion of the 
walnut tree leaves is made by cutting them and infusing a good 
pinch between the thumb and forefinger in half a pint of boiling 
water, and then sweetening it with sugar. To a grown person, 
M. Negries prescribed from two to three teacupsful of this 
daily. This medicine is a slightly aromatic bitter; its efficiency 
is nearly uniform in scrofulous disorders, and it is stated never 
to have caused any unpleasant effects. It augments the activity 
of the circulation and digestion, and to the functions iniijarts 
much energy. It is supposed to act upon the lymphatic system, 
as under its influence the muscles become firm, and the skin ac- 
quires a ruddier bue. 


Dry leaves may bo used throughout the winter, but a pyrup 
made of green leaves is more aromatic. A salve made of a 
strong extract of the leaves mixed alone with clean lard and a 
few drops of the oil of bergamot is most excellent for sores. A 
strong decoction of the leaves is excellent for washing them. 
The salutary effects of this medicine do not appear on a sud- 
den — no visible effect may be noticed for twenty days, but per- 
severance in it will effect a cure. As walnut tree leaves are 
abundant in America, and as the extract of them is not dan- 
gerous or unpleasant to use, and scrofula not uncommon, a ti'ial 
of this simple medicine should be made. In directing attention 
to it good results may be expected. 

A gray dye may be prepared with young, unripe walnuts. The 
walnuts should be beaten in a mortar, boiled with water — the 
yarn is previously prepared with lye water. See '' Rhus" 
I obtain the following from a journal, (1862:) 
To Dye Wool Yarn a Durable Black without Copperas. — Place 
in a kettle a layer of walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, then 
a layer of leaves and another of yarn, and so on till the kettle 
is full ; pour on water till all is covered, and boil all day. The 
next morning pour off the liquor into another vessel, and put 
fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as before, and pour the 
same liquor over it and boil again all day. Then hang the yarn 
in the air a few days, after which wash it and it will be a fine 

The walnut leaves should be gathered in the autumn jusl as 
they begin to fall from the trees. 

Both the black and white walnut possess a durable wood, and 
are secure from the annoyance of worms. The stem of the 
black walnut is easily perforated, and like the titi {Cb'ftonia) is 
much used for pipe-stems among the soldiers in camp. The fig 
is also used for the same purpose. 

At a Convention of Gunsmiths, held at Atlanta, Ga., August 
29, 1861, some facts were elicited which are interesting in this 
connection : 

Mr. Hodgkins, a gunsmith, stated " that the greatest diflS- 
culty was to get wood for the stocks ; that wood of one or two 
years was not sufficiently seasoned. It ought to be cut twenty 
years. The bark should be taken off the tree at once. Some 
thought it best to cut the timber in the summer, others in the 


fall or winter." Gen. Wayne road tlie following from the Ord- 
nance Manual : 

"Tlie most suitable season for felling timber is that in which 
vegetation is at rest, which is the case in midwinter or mid- 
summer. Kecent experiments incline to give the preference to 
the latter season — say the month of July ; but the usual prac- 
tice is to fell trees for timber between the first of December 
aud the middle of March." 

"Gen. Wayne, on being inquired of, gave it as his opinion 
that there was no artificial process of seasoning wood that 
would answer for making gunstocks. 

" Mr. Esther said that maple timber could be seasoned rapidly 
by being boiled in oil. It prevented its cracking. It soon sea- 
soned thoroughly, and would not spring, 

" Mr. Lamb stated that walnut was the best for stocking 
guns,*but harder to season. It required a great number of 
years — say twenty years, or nearly so. Maple was next, and 
persimmon the next. These could be seasoned by artificial 

The reader will find some information on the felling of timber 
in Wilson's Rural Cyc. The fruit is edible, and pleasant to tbe 
taste. The wood is very compact and durable, with a black, 
fine grain, susceptible of a high polish, and forming a valuable 
substitute for mahogany, from which, when seasoned and var- 
nished, it can scarcely be distinguished. It is much used in the 
South in the manufacture of tables, stair-railings and the inner 
work of houses. The writer has seen as beautiful book-cases, 
tables, stair-railings and cabinet-work made from the wood pre- 
pared on our Southern plantations, when well seasoned, as any 
imported from elsewhere. The roots, particulai-ly those of old 
trees which have died, have a peculiarly rich black color, and 
are useful in making furniture and gunstocks. 

The trunk of a walnut tree, tapped on the 11th February, 
yielded a sap containing some cane sugar. The saps of the 
sycamore, of the Acer negundo, and of the lilac tree, contained 
the sa7ne species of sugar; but that of the birch tree held in 
solution some grape sugar. In the sycamore and birch tree M. 
Biot observed an extremely interesting fact. He ascertained, 
on felling these trees, that the greater portion of the descending 
sap was accumulated toward the middle of the trunk. That of 


Iho birch Iroe ^va^ ao'ul and saocluvriiio; the j^ap of that porlion 
of the trunk whiih was buried in the ground contained no 
sugar, but a substance possessing the principal characters of 
gum. v^Annales ilu Museum d'Histoii'e Ilsaturelle, t. ii.) It ■was 
probably an etTect of the season, for Knight states that he 
never eouhl discover the knist trace of saccharine matter during 
winter in the alburnum either of the stem or of the roots of the 
S3-camore. Boussingault's Eural Econ. in its relation to Chem- 
istry, etc.. Law's edition, 1S57. 

"Walnut leaves soaked in water for some hours, then boiled 
and applied to the skins of horses and other animals, will pre- 
vent their being bitten or worried by flies. 

In Patent Otfice Heporis, 1S55, is a paper on the Persian wal- 
nut, or Madeira nut, {Juglans regia,) which appears to be well 
ailapted to the climate of the Middle or Southern States. Ii 
produces an immense amount of oil and cake. It is preferred 
to linseed oil, and gives an excellent light. The husk of the 
walnut is used in dyeing woollen stufts. 

IIICKOKY, i^Ciinja amani, porcin<j, alba, etc.) Ell. Sk. The 
barks are astringent. Mr. Fred. Stearns, of Detroit, has called 
attention to the bark of the several species of Hickory, in his 
paper on the raeiiical plants of Michigan, published in the 
Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc, 1859, p. 249. Mr. Chaffinbury, of the 
same State, had found great advantage from chewing the inner 
bark in dyspepsia, and has used a tincture made from the same 
bark in intermittent fever. Many in the neighborhood used it, 
the infusion also being found equally etfectual. U. S. Disp., 12th 

A dye for woollens used on the plantation is made from that 
of most of the species. The fruit of many of the hickory trees 
is pleasant to the taste, particularly the C. alba, shell-bark 
hickory, which is an article of trade. It should be spared in 
clearing land. 

To color yelloic. — '' Take three-fourths of hickory bark, with 
the outside shaved off, and one-fourth of black oak bark done 
in the same manner; boil thera well together in a bell metal 
kettle until the color is deep; then add alum sutRcient to make 
it foam when stirred up, then put the yarn in and let it simmer 
a little while ; take it out and air it two or three times, having 
a pole over the kettle to hang it on, so that it may drain in the 

1<(-Lll(!; wlieii dry ririKO it in cold vvatcj'." Tiiorriton'H Souilicrn 
<^;urdcncr, \). 182. lIi('l<o)'y hark with sugar makes a good yel- 
low dye for wool without coiJpLras. The writer haw seen negro 
ciotheH and other stuffrf dyed on the plantations with either 
hickory or oak barks, cither alunri or commercial copperas being 
used. The crab-apple dyes a canary color. The hickory baik, 
with coppei'as, d3'e.s yain.s an olive color — w ith alum, a green — 
the yarns must be put in hot. The wood of the hickory fields 
a viivy fine lye wlien reduced to ashes, and I will include much 
that is said of soap under this genus. The wood is also valuable 
foi' many purposes in the mechanical arts on account of its 
weight, jjIiabiliL}', toughness and dui-ability. In Georgia and 
the Carolinas split hickory is used in making chair bottoms and 
plantation baskets. In Pennsylvania an oil is extracted from 
the nuts of the C. aviara, butternut hickory, which is used for 
the la^)]), and for other inferior pui'poses. I would suggest that 
the nuts of any species would serve, if broken and boiled, for 
the manufacture of soap; sultjected to the test of experiment, 
however, 1863, 1 could not extract the oil after boiling the broken 
nuts several hours. I insert the following from Michaux : • 

^'Properties and vses of hickory wood. — The wood of all the 
species of hickory bears a striking resemblance, both as to fibre 
and the uniform i-eddish color of the heart. It possesses great 
weight, strenglh and unusual pliability and toughness. "When 
exposed to heat and moisturu it is subject to rapid decay, and 
is peculiarl}- liable to injury from w^orms. 

" Throughout the Middle States it is selected for the axle-trees 
of carriages, for the handles of axes and other carpenters' tools, 
and for large screws, particularly those of book-binders' presses. 
The cogs of mill-wheels are made of hickor}' heart, thoroughly 
seasoned ; but it is proper only for sutdi wheels as are not ex- 
posed to moisture ; and for this reason some other wood is by 
many millwrights preferred. The rods which form the backs 
of Windsor chairs, coach-whip handles, musket-stocks, rakc- 
teeth, flails for threshing grain, the bows of yokes, or the ellip- 
tical pieces which pass under the necks of cattle: all these are 
objects customarily made of hickory. At Baltimore it is used 
for the hoops of sieves, and is more esteemed than the white- 
oak, which is equally clastic, but more apt to peel off in small 
shreds into the substance sifted. In the country near Augusta, 


in Georgia, 1 have remarked that the common chairs are of 
hickory wood. In New Jersey it is employed for shoeing 
sledges — that is, for. covering the runners or parts which slide 
upoD the snow ; but to be proper for this use it must have been 
cut long enough to have become perfectly dr3^ 

" Of the numerous trees of North America east of the Alle- 
ghany Mountain-^, none except the hickory is perfectly adapted 
to the making of hoops for casks and boxes. For this purpose 
vast quantities of it are consumed at home and exported to 
the West India Islands. The hoops are made of young hicko- 
ries from six to twelve feet high, without choice as to the spe- 
cies. The largest hoop-poles sold at Philadelphia and New 
York in February, 1808, at three dollars a hundred. Each pole 
is split in two parts, and the hoop is crossed and confined by 
notches, instead of being bound at the end with twigs, like 
those made of chestnut. From the solidity of the wood, this 
method appears sufficiently secure. 

" When it is considered how large a part of the productions 
of the United States is packed for exportation in barrels, an 
estimate may be formed of the necessary consumption of hoops. 
In consequence of it, j'oung trees proper for this object have 
become scarce in all parts of the country which have been long 
settled. The evil is greater, as they do not sprout a second 
time from the same root, and as their growth is slow. The 
cooper.canuot lay up a store of them for future use, for unless 
employed within a j'car, and often within six months after being 
cut, they are attacked b}^ two species of insect, one of which 
eats within the wood and commits the greatest ravages. 

" The defects which unfit the hickory for use in the building 
of houses equally exclude it from the construction of vessels. 
At New York and Philadelphia, the shell-bark and pignut hick- 
ories have been taken for keels, and are found to last as long as 
those of other wood, owing to their being always in the water. 
Of the two species, the pignut would be preferable, as being 
less liable to split, but it is rarely found of as large dimensions 
as the other. 

" In sloops and schooners the rings by which the sails are 
hoisted and confined to the mast are always of hickory. I have 
also been assured that for attaching the cordage it makes excel- 
lent pegs, which ax'e stronger than those of oak ; but they 


should be set loosely in the holes, as otherwise, for want of 
speedily seasoning, they soon decay. For handspikes the hick- 
ory is particularly esteemed on account of its strength; it is 
accordingly employed in most American vessels, and is ex- 
ported for the same purpose to England, where it sells from 
50 to 100 per cent, higher than ash, which is brought also from 
the north of the United States. The hickories are cut without 
distinction for this use, but the pignut, I believe, is the best. 

" All the hickories are very heavy, and in a given volume 
contain a great quantity of combustible matter. They produce 
an ardent heat, and leave a heavy, compact and long-lived coal. 
In this respect no wood of the same latitude in Europe or 
America can be compared to them; such, at least, is the opinion 
of all Europeans wlio have resided in the United States. 

" It has been seen by what precedes that though hickory -svood 
has essential defects, they are compensated by good properties 
vt^hich render it valuable in the arts." 

In concluding this article, Michaux recommends particularly 
for propagation in European forests the shell-bark hickory and 
the pignut hickory, whose wood unites in the highest degree the 
valuable properties of the group. He thinks, also, that the 
pecannut merits attention from pi'omoters of useful culture, not 
so much for its wood as for its fruit, which is excellent, and more 
delicate than that of the European walnut. It might probably 
be doubled in size, if the practice was successfully adopted of 
grafting this species upon the black walnut, or upon the common 
European walnut. 

Oak and hickory bands for cotton hales. — A tie dispensing with 
the use of iron or rope bands in bailing cotton has been patented. 
The editor of the Southern Field and Fireside says on this sub- 
ject: "Precisely such 'ties' have been used to fasten strong 
hoops on tubs in distilleries and breweries a longer time than any 
living man can remember. Thirty years ago we made a score of 
large tubs for tanning leather, and tied the staves together (made 
of two-inch plank) as above described, save the teeth on the iron 
rings or bands. The fastening is very simple and perfectly 
reliable. A small iron ring, formed like the capital letter D, is 
used. It should hold both ends of a hoop two inches wide, 
each end being a half-inch in thickness ; and also a wedge three- 
fourths of an inch thick. Such a hoop, made of oak, ash or 


hickory, will have more than four timo3 the strength of the 
rope usually ein])loyed in baling cotton. Green or sound wood 
is hard to break when pulled length u-ise. On our Southern 
plantations oak, hickory, ash and grape-vines are much used in 
place of rope in baling hay, fodder," etc. 

The following practical remarks on the manufacture of pot- 
ash and soap, I introduce here in connection with the hickory, 
from an editorial by Dr. Lee, in the Southern Field and Fire- 
side, January 18, 1862. (For "Soda," see '' Salsola," in this 
book, and " Quercus."') The ashes we may obtain by burning 
corn-cobs yield more potash than any other available substance ; 
and the alkali from this source is rapidly converted into salcra- 
tus or good soap. Corn-cobs are mentioned because we often 
see them wasted in quantities where hogs are fed and where 
much corn is shelled. Soap-makers at the North buy all kinds 
of wood-ashes, and find no difficulty in making soap from them ; 
but many Southern negroes, who make a little soap, do not un- 
derstand the art under consideration. They require ashes from 
hickory, walnut, poplar, or some other wood rich in potash to 
succeed in producing good soap. The quantity of lime named in 
the directions given in the article we copied is two or three 
times larger than it need be. A peck of recentl}'' slaked lime is 
abundant for a barrel of ashes. Lime that has been long slaked 
and exposed to the air will not answer. The object of the lime 
is to decompose all the carbonate of potash dissolved out of the 
ashes, so that the pure alkali will combine, with grease or oil, 
to form soap. When the amount of potash in wood is small, as 
in pines and decayed, wood the whole of the alkali unites with 
carbonic acid, or some other, if free, when the wood is burnt. 
When ashes are kept some time, if partly caustic when first 
burnt from wood they part with their causticity by imbibing 
carbonic acid from the atmosphere, as freshly burnt lime will 
do. Hence, recently burnt ashes will often make soap with- 
out lime, but will not do if kept several months. As caustic 
lime has a stronger affinity for carbonic acid than potash or 
soda has, soap-makers find no trouble whatever in making soap 
from old ashes, or any ashes that have not been wet and washed. 
Having stated the reason why lime is used, we will give the 
simplest and best practice in the art of combining potash with 
an animal or vegetable oil or fat, which chemical compound is 


soap — soft if potasli is used, and hard if soda is used. Refuse 
barrels and hogsheads arc ofien used to drip and leacli ashes in, 
and sliould stand on boards or plank, so as not to waste the 
\ye. This done, a few inches of clean broom-straw should bo 
placed over all the bottom of the barrel and pressed down. For 
a hogshead of ashes, a good bushel of recently slaked lime 
should be spread evenly over all the straw ; but a peck of lime 
will do for a barrel of ashes. More lime will do no harm, and 
some ashes may require a little more. Now fill up the bari-el of 
ashes, pound them down moderately and pour on boiling water, 
or that which is hot, until the lye runs out at the bottom. If 
the ashes are good, this lye will make soap with very little 
boiling; but if the potash is too diluted, some of the water 
must be evaporated before the chemical union between the 
alkali and grease will take place. If too little givase is put 
in thej)ot or kettle, more must be added; and if there is too 
much for all to combine with the potash, the excess must be 
removed after the soap is cold. Where salt is cheap, it is 
largely used in the manufacture of bar soap. Turpentine and 
rosin are also used in this branch of business. The explana- 
tions in reference to soda and turpentine soap will be given 
elsewhere. Salt is at times too expensive to be used in soap- 

In an article on Soap and Potash from the Atlanta Common- 
Avealth, in the Southern Field and Fireside for October, 1861, 
great sti'ess is laid upon tlie ease with which we can manufac- 
ture potash in lax-ge quantity within the limits of the Southern 
States, and the consequent production of soap : " But whether 
we make our soap or establish manufactures, we need lye or 
potash in large quantities. To have this we must burn the light 
kind of wood, for some wood is better than other sorts, and we 
must save all the ashes and take good care of them. The ashes 
Should not only be saved for this purpose, but to be used as ma- 
nure. It is a shame that we have been so long and so willingly 
dependent on the North for so large a catalogue of the com- 
monest articles, and even for the article of soap." 

The following on the same subject is from the Eichmond Dis- 
patch, which I condense : "The great scarcity of Soap at the 
present time arises from the want of potash and soda ash. 
Either will make soap. The latter is found in its natural state 

Potato stem 55 lbs. 

Corn-stalks 17 " 

Oak bark and elm leaves 24 " 


(natron') in Egypt and South America, but the principal supply 
has been obtained from Great Britain, procured by the burning 
of sea-weeds. The former (potash) is supplied mostly from 
Canada and the State of New York. There is in the Southern 
States any quantity of material to make potash, and I would 
call the attention of farmers to its production. It requires but 
a simple process in its manufacture — a few large iron pans and a 
half dozen whiskey barrels, with heads out, and an iron ladle, 
being all the apparatus required. 

" Most weeds furnish potash, in a greater or less degree, to 
every one hundred pounds. The following plants will furnish 
of potash : 

Oak wood 2h lbs. 

Wheat straw '. 4^ " 

Barley straw 5 " 

" These articles can be obtained by the farmers at little cost. 
Select a shaded position, gather in a large heap, set fire to it, 
keeping the fire up until several bushels of ashes are obtained; 
fill each barrel about one-quarter full of slaked lime; fill it then 
with water, stirring the ashes well; let it stand over night, or 
for about twelve hoia"s, stirring frequently; strain off the lye as 
clear as possible; pour in the kettles and evaporate over a wood 
fire. The kettle should be kept constantly full for two days, (a 
little experience will soon teach the quuntitj^ of lye it will re- 
quire to make them half full with potash.) The evaporation 
should be continued until the mass obtains the consistency of 
brown sugar ; then increase the fire, by which it will be fused ; 
continue it until quiescent and looks like melted iron ; with a 
ladle transfer it to iron pans or baking ovens, and allow it to 
cool ; it may be then broken in pieces and packed in tight boxes 
or bari-els. The experiment will pay well any enterprising 
farmer. The article cannot now be obtained at any cost, and 
can be sold at a high rate. We hope this may induce some to 
try it. The expense of fixtures is small. Pine wood furnishes 
but little potash," 

Ure, in his Dictionary of Science and Man u fact ui-es, art. 
Potash, p. 457, says : In America where timber is in many places 
an incumbrance upon the soil, it is felled, jjiled up in pyramids 
and burned, solely with a view to the manufacture of potashes. 
The ashes are put into wooden cisterns having a plug at the 


bottom of one of the sides under a false bottom; a moderate 
quantity of water is then poured on the mass, and some quick- 
lime is stirred in; after standing for a few hours, so as to take 
up the soluble matter, the clear liquor is drawn off, evaporated 
to dryness in iron pots, and finally fused at a red heat into com- 
pact masses, which are gray on the outside, and pink-colored 
within. All kinds of vegetables do not yield, he adds, the same 
proportions of potassa. The more succulent the plant, the 
more does it afford; for it is only in the juices that the vege- 
table salts reside, which are converted by incineration into al- 
kaline matter. Herbaceous weeds are more productive of pot- 
ash than the graminiferous species, or shrubs, and these than 
trees ; and for a like reason twigs and leaves are more produc- 
tive than timber. But plants in all cases are richest in alkaline 
salts when they have arrived at maturity. The soil in which 
they grow, also, influences the quantity of saline matter. The 
following table exhibits the average product in potassa of sev- 
eral plants, according to the researches of Yauquelin. Pertuis, 
Kirwan and DeSaussure : 

In 1000 parts 


Pine or fir 0.45 

Poplar 0.75 

Trefoil 0.75 

Beech wood 1.45 

Oak 1.53 

Boxwood 2.26 

Willow 2.85 

Elm and maple 3 90 

Wheat straw 3.9C 

Bark of oak twis:s...4.20 

In 1000 parts I In 1000 parts 

Potassa. Potassa. 

Thistles 5.00 Bastard chamomile — 

Flag stems 5.00| Anthemiscoiula, 11.19.06 

Small rushes 5.08jSunflower stalks 20.00 

Vine roots 5.50|Common nettle 25.03 

Barley straw 5.80IVetch plant 27.50 

Dry beech bark G.OOlThistles, full gro'th. 35.37 

Fern 6.26 

Large rush 7.22 

Stalk of maize 17.15 

Bean stalks 20.00 

Dry straw of wheat 

before earing 47.00 

W^ormwood 73.00 

Fumitory 79.00 

Stalks of tobacco, potatoes, chestnut-husks, broom-heath, 
furze, tansy, sorrel, vine leaves, beet leaves, orach and many 
other plants abound in potash salts. In Burgundy the well 
known cendres gravelees are made by incinerating the lees of 
wine pressed into cakes and dried in the sun; the ashes contain 
fully sixteen per cent, of potassa. To manufacture carbonate of 
potassa, chlorate, etc., from ashes, see, also, lire's Dictionary. 
The corn-shuck and cob contain potash, and an economical soap 
is made from corn-shucks. See "Zea," in this volume. 

Count Chaptal, "Chemistiy applied to Agriculture," p 290, 
refers to the method of using economy in washing and bleach- 
ing cloths, linen, etc., by a soapy liquor, a solution of oil and 


soda, in place of ordinary soap. He also introduces and de- 
scribes a plan for washing and cleansing household linen and 
cotton yarn by steam from alkaline solutions. The expense is 
three-sevenths of the expense of the common method. 

I introduce the following from Chaptal's Chemistry applied 
to Agriculture, as it shows the very different composition of 
different plants — the potato, for example : 

"It appears that the three earths which form the basis of the 
most fertile soil enter into the composition of plants. Berg- 
mann has proved this by an analysis of several kinds of grain, 
and Euckert, by the results of his experiments upon a variety 
of vegetable productions, in a way to put it beyond doubt. 
About one hundred parts of ashes well leached, and conse- 
quently disengaged of all their salts, yielded : 

Silica. Lime. Alutnina. 

Ashes of wheat 48 37 15 

" oats 68 26 6 

" barley 69 16 15 

" rye 63 21 16 

" potatoes 4 66 30 

" red clover 37 33 30" 

"Soft soaps" says Ure, "are usually made in this country 
with whale, seal, olive and linseed oils, and a certain quantity 
of tallow; on the Continent, with the oils of hemp-seed, sesame 
(be7ie, which is planted in the Southern States,) rapeseed, lin- 
seed, poppy-seed and colza, or with mixtures of several of these 
oils. When tallow is added, as in Great Britain, the object is 
to produce white and somewhat solid grains of stearic soap in 
the transparent mass, called figging, because the soap then re- 
sembles the granular texture of a 'fig-'" "The potash lyes 
should be made perfectly caustic, and of at least two different 
strengths," etc. See Ure, p. 668, for method. Any of the seeds 
of our oily plants, the cultivation of which I have so often rec- 
ommended, can be pressed in a flannel bag in an ordinary cotton 
press. If the pressure is exercised in a warm room heated by 
a stove, the escape of the oil will be much facilitated. 

A lye made of wood ashes will stop the rust in wheat, if the 
seeds are soaked in it before being planted for two or thi'ee 
hours. It is a useful substitute at this time for the brine which 
is usually made of sulphate of copper or salt. 


As the Concentrated Lye may be made from ashes, I am in- 
duced to insert the following on this all-important subject. 
Eesin is abundant in the Southern States, and vegetable wax 
and oils can be obtained. See " Ifyrica" and bene, (" Sesamum."') 
See method of preparing concentrated lye under white oak, 
" Quercus alba," in this volume. 

Yellow or Rosin Soap. — Dissolve one pound of concentrated 
lye in one half gallon of water and set it aside ; heat in a kettle 
one gallon of water and three and a half pounds of fat or tal- 
low, and commence to make the soap just as above for hard 
soap, with small quantities of lye and a very small fire, until 
the soap is ready for salt, but add no salt. Put in now one and 
three-fourth pound of powdered rosin, and let it boil down by 
constantly stirring until the soap sticks on the kettle and gets 
very thick. It is now finished, and may be put into a mould. 

H§rd Fancy Soap. — Dissolve one pound of the concentrated 
\yQ in two and a half pounds of hot water and let it cool; then 
melt by a low heat five pounds of clear fat or tallow, pour in 
the lye in a very small stream and stir it rapidly ; keep stirring 
until all has assumed the appearance of thick honey, and falls 
off the stirrer in large drops. , It is then finished. Cover it up 
and set the batch in a warm place ; or better, cover it with a 
woollen blanket to keep in the heat and let it stand for twenty- 
four hours, when it will have set in a fine, hard soap, which 
may be perfumed and variegated with colors by stirring the 
desired colors or perfumes into the mixture just before cover- 
ing. If lard or olive oil is used, no heating of the same is 

Soft Soap. — To one pound of the concentrated lye add three 
gallons of soft water, and four and one-half to five pounds of 
fat or tallow; boil until the mass gets transparent and all the 
fat has disappeared. Now add fifteen gallons of water, boil a 
few minutes and the soap will be ready for use. As soon as 
cold, it will be a perfect jelly. If too thick, add more water, 
which can be done to make the soap to any consistency desired. 
Twenty-five gallons of good soft soap can be made in this way 
out of one pound of the concentrated lye. 

Pump water is softened and made fit for washing as follows : 
dissolve one cake of the concentrated lye in one gallon of water, 
and keep it for use in a well-corked demijohn or jug. To a 


tub full of pump or hard spring water add. from one-eighth of a 
gill to a pint of the clear solution ; the quantity of course varies 
according to the size of the tub and the nature of tlie water, 
some taking more and some less. A tablespoonful will gener- 
ally be found enough to make three to five gallons of water fit 
for washing. In all the above operations, it should be remem- 
bered to replenish the water which may evaporate while dis- 
solving the concentrated lye, or while boiling. 

Consult '' Salsola kali" for soda and soda soaps from ashes; 
also "oak," {Quercus alba,) for additional information. 

To make twenty pounds of cheap Soap from four pounds. — The 
Southern Field and Fireside directs: four pounds of turpentine 
soap, one-half pound of soda, add two gallons water, boil ten 
minutes, add a spoonful of salt and boil ten minutes more. 

Economy in the Use of Salt. — I insert the following for its 
utility in the periods of exigency : " Green wood contains some 
forty per cent, of its weight of moisture, which forms a watery 
vapor when burning; and even dry wood has over forty per 
cent, of the elements of water, oxygen and hydrogen that 
forms vapor when such wood is burnt. Coal consists mainly of 
the carbon in wood, which in burning forms a very drying heat. 
Most of our readers are familiar with the usual process of bar- 
becuing large pieces of meat over coals. If such meat were too 
high above the coal fire to roast, it would soon dry. When dry, 
a very little salt and smoking will keep it indefinitely. Like 
cured bacon, it should be packed in tight casks, and kept in a 
dry room. 

"After one kills his hogs, if he is short of salt, let him get 
the water out of the meat by drying it over burning coals as 
soon as possible, first rubbing it in a little salt. Shade trees 
around a meat-house are injurious by creating dampness. Dry 
meat with a coal fire after it is smoked. You may dislike to 
have meat so dry as is suggested, but your own observation will 
tell you that the dryest hams generally keep the best. Cer- 
tainly, sweet, dry bacon is far better than moist, tainted bacon, 
and our aim is simply to show how meat may be cured and long 
kept with a trifle of salt, when war has rendered the latter 
scarce and expensive." As this is an important question in 
every point of view, I will also cite 07i the manufacture of salt an 
elaborate article in the P. O. Reports, 1855, p. 143, by W. C. 


Dennis, of Key West, Florida ; also P. O. Eeports, 1857, p. 133. 
Tlic mode of crystallizing, etc., is explained in a plain, practical 
manner, with wood-cuts of machinery. Evaporation through 
thorns, wood-shavings, etc., is described. 

PECAN; MISSISSIPPI NUT, {Garya olivceformis.) Culti- 
vated in the Atlantic States. 

I have observed it growing wild in Ward's swamp, St. John's 
Berkeley, S. C, in company with the C. myristicceformis or nut- 
meg hickory of Mx. No doubt the fruit was disseminated from 
neighboring plantations, where it is cultivated. The fruit of 
the plants of this order are favorite articles for table use in the 
Southern States. The pecannut is rich and nutritious, and the 
tree might be planted as a source of profit, as it is a rapid 
bearer, attaining a large size. 

Michaux advises that the shoots should, for the purposes of 
fruifing, be grafted on stalks of the common walnut tree. The 
tree abounds in upper Louisiana and Illinois. A swamp of 
eight hundred acres is said to exist on the right bank of the 
Ohio, opposite the Cumberland Eiver. The wood is coarse 
grained, heavy and compact. Michaux. 


L.) Grows in inundated soils; Richland; vicinity of Charles- 
ton ; Newbern ; and collected in St. John's, where the root is 
used, in the form of a poultice, in discussing tumors, and as an 
application in abscess of the breasts occurring after labor. It 
is thought by many to possess great value in this respect. In 
a note to Ell. Bot., 505, it is also said that the fresh root is 
applied with advantage as an emollient and discutient to in- 
flamed surfaces. After the frequent employment of the boiled 
roots of this plant beaten up and used as an economical material 
for poultices, I would particularly recommend it, as the roots 
can be abundantly and easily obtained in almost every swamp 
along the seaboard. Whether it is endowed or not with medici- 
nal properties it is a pleasant, soothing application, adapted to 
the wants of large bodies of soldiers in camp, or negroes on our 
plantations. I have employed it to promote suppuration in 
mammary abscess. Grease may be added to the mass. 

SALTCACE^. {The Willow Tribe.) 

Bark generally astringent, tonic and stomachic. 

BLACK OE SWAMP WILLOW, {Salix nigra, L.) Grows 
along streams ; Eichland ; vicinity of Charleston ; collected in 
St. John's; Newbern. Fl. May. 

Bell's Pract. Diet. 403; U. S. Disp. 622. See work of younger 
Michaux, Ball, and Gar. Mat. Med. 337 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, 
de M. Med. vi, 185 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 583 ; Schcepf, Mat. Med. 
43 ; Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, ii, 671. The willow^ is supposed to 
furnish us with one of the best substitutes for Peruvian bark ; 
the S. alba, which may be included among the many varieties 
found in the Southern States, and which are not yet accurately 
distinguished, seems to be held in high estimation. But this 
species, also, is considered valuable ; the bark possessing some 
power as a purgative, anti-intermittent and vermifuge. It also 
furnishes the principle called solicin, which, from the results of 
late experiments, is found to be much less valuable than quinia, 
but is a good bitter tonic. See Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. for 
the mode of preparation. The bark of the root and branches 
is officinal It is tonic and somewhat astringent. The decoc- 
tion made with one ounce of bark to one pint of boiling water, 
of which the dose is two fluid ounces, should be boiled ten 
minutes, and strained while hot. Dose of salicin from two to 
eight grains and increased. It might well attract attention as 
a substitute for quinine. The large stems of this tree are light 
and durable, and are used for the timbers of boats. 

There are several other species in the Southern States. The 
willow — osier willow, (see article in Farmer and Planter, Sept., 
1861,) is cultivated extensively in Germany, France and Bel- 
gium for making baskets, hats, screens, etc., etc. After most 
careful experiment it has been found that the best species to 
introduce into the Southern States for the purpose, are the 
Salix forbey ana, Salix purpurea, purple willow and Salix triandra, 
long-leaved willow. Forbes' willow is very productive and hardy, 
one of the most valuable species for common work, where un- 
peeled rods are used. It does not whiten well. 

Purple Willoiv. — Experiments have shown that this species 
is the most valuable and profitable for osiers in this country. 
With good ordinary culture its shoots wnll average ten feet in 


length; will thrive best in deep, moist soil, where it will easily 
yield from four to five tons per acre of the most excellent rods, 
well qualified for the finest work. The purple willow, aside 
from being the most valuable for manufacturing all the finest 
kinds of willow-ware, is the best species for hedges, and is most 
extensively used for that purpose in Germany and Holland. 
The leaves and the bark being so very bitter will not be touched 
by cattle, while the shoots may be formed into any shape, and 
the hedge thereby made impregnable. Fine hedges or screens 
of twenty-five feet in height may be grown from willow cut- 
tings of this species in five years, thus aff"ording almost imme- 
diate shelter, so indispensable at all seasons of the year. We 
have seen, the writer adds, screens in Russia, of the willow, 
forty-feet high, surrounding parks from three to four hundi-ed 
acres in extent, affording the most perfect shelter against the 
sweejting winds and storms. Its soft, green and glossy foliage 
will make it an object of great beauty and attraction. 

The last mentioned, the Salix triandra, long-leaved willow, 
will grow with almost equal vigor in any soil of depth ; ripens 
its shoots very early and whitens beautifully ; is tough and 
pliable, and a general favorite with our German basket-makers 
for split-work. This willow is most extensively cultivated in 
Germany by the thousands of acres. Its cultivation is highly 
esteemed by the people and much encouraged by the govern- 

Salix caprea, though not valued as an osier, is deserving of 
attention, as it will grow in wet situations where other trees 
will hardly exist. It furnishes food for bees at a time when it 
is most needed. In early spring, before other flowers appear, 
this tree is a mass of dazzling bloom, most eagerly sought after 
by bees. This willow is also valuable for hoops. 

The cuttings, in our climate, should be prepared in fall or 
early winter, and if planted at that time the ends will form the 
callosity preparatory to sending out roots. In setting the cut- 
tings in the ground prepared for them, care should be taken to 
have them set deep enough ; a small portion only should re- 
main above ground, the strongest roots always start from the 
lower end of the cutting or set; by doing so the most vigorous 
growth will be obtained. 

In establishing a willow plantation, cuttings of vigorous up- 


land growth, that have had an abundance of room, should onlj^ be 
purchased and used, and, if obtainable, select wood of one year's 
growth, with a portion of two 3-cars wood from the lower ex- 
tremity. Deep soils, free from standing water, but yet so soft 
that plowing is impracticable, will grow enormous growths of 
S. triandra, requiring no further cultivation but keeping the 
weeds down for the first year or two, after which time the wil- 
lows will be of sufficient strength to take care of themselves, 
and provide for their own shade and well-being. We have in the 
Southern States large districts of deep alluvium, often inclining 
to swamps, which are so much drained as to do away with their 
swampy character, and with no other preparation than remov- 
ing the trees, may make excellent willow plantations. Sir J. 
W. Hooker observes: "The many important uses rendered to 
men by the diiferent species of willow serve to rank them 
among the first in the list of our economical plants." The edi- 
tor of the Southern Farmer and Planter then quotes a state- 
ment by W. P. Eupert, of Geneva, N. Y., showing a net profit 
of $533 per acre from planting the osier willow. 

See, also, Chaptal's Chemistry applied to Agriculture for the 
method of planting willow along borders of land liable to inun- 
dation, to lessen the force of the water, to strengthen the soil, 
and reclaim the land. A border of willow and poplar is planted 
over the banks or along the sides of the watercourses, and the 
plants are cropped at the tops so as to increase the thickness of 
their growth. 

In a paper in Patent Office Reports on Agriculture, p. 46, 
1851, by W. G. Haynes, of Putnam County, N. Y., it is stated 
that four or five million dollars worth of willow were imported 
annually into the United States from France and Germany. 
The prices ranged from $1 to 11 30 per ton weight. The writer 
confines his attention to the "three kinds best adapted for 
basket-making, farming, tanning and fencing." He says: "The 
Salix viminalis is that specimen of all others best adapted for 
basket-makers. An acre of this properly planted, and culti- 
vated upon suitable soil, will yield at least two tons weight per 
year." See the paper cited for yield. The people of England, 
till 1808, relied entirely for their supply upon Continental Eu- 
rope. The Salix alba, or Bedford willow, is much planted by 
the Duke of Bedford. " The bark is held in high estimation 


for tanning, the wood for shoemakers' lasts, boot-trees, cutting- 
boards, gun and pistol stocks, and house timber; the wood being 
fine grained, and susceptible of as fine a polish as rosewood or 
mahogany. An a0re of this kind of wood, ten years old, has 
sold in England for £155." The ^' Salix alba is extensively 
used by retired tradesmen who build in the country for the 
purpose of securing shade in a short time, and by the nobility 
around their fish-ponds and mill-dams, and along their water- 
courses and avenues. This is the principal wood used in the 
manufacture of gunpowder in England." It requires twelve 
thousand cuttings to plant one acre. Much land worth for little 
else might be planted in willow. 

The next species is the Huntingdon willow, {S. caprea,) 
"which is a good basket willow, and is used extensively in 
England by the farmers for hoop-poles and fencing. Their 
manrrer of planting for fencing is by placing the ends of the 
cuttings in the ground, and then working them into a kind of 
trellis-work, and passing a willow withe around the tops or 
ends, so as to keep in shape for the first two years. They cut 
the tops off yearly, and sell them to the basket-makers, thus 
having a fence and crop from the same ground." Another de- 
scription of fence is also made from the Salix caprea, "known 
in England by the name of hurdle fences, which may be re- 
moved at the pleasure or discretion of the proprietor." 

In England, Wilson saj's, an acre of osier will yield greater 
profit than one of wheat. The Salix purpurea, as was stated, is 
also valuable. "The cutting of a basket twig should be made 
slopingly within three buds of the point whence the shoot 
issued ; and the cutting of a hoop willow may be made so low 
as to leave only the swell at the bottom of the shoot. Basket 
twigs are commonly sorted into three sizes, and tied into bun- 
dles of each two feet in circumference; and when they are to 
be peeled, they are set on their thick end, a few inches deep in 
standing water, and left there till commonly the latter part of 
the following May. The apparatus for peeling is simply two 
round rods of iron, nearly half an inch thick, sixteen inches 
long, and tapering a little upward, welded together a little at 
one end, which is sharpened, so that it may be easily thrust 
down into the ground. When thus placed in a piece of firm 
ground, the peeler sits down opposite to it, and takes the willow 


in the right hand by tho small end, and puts a foot or more of 
the great end into the instrument, the prongs of which he 
presses together with the left hand, and with the right draws 
the willow toward him, by which operation the bark will at 
once be separated from the wood ; the small end is then treated 
in tho same manner, and the peeling is completed. After being 
peeled they will keep in a good condition for a long time, till a 
proper market be found. Rural Cyc. 

Charcoal made of willow or oak is a useful anti-septic agent, 
possessing the power of absorbing gases, and useful in dyspep- 
sia and ill-conditioned states of the gastro-intestiual mucous 
membranes. It is also used as a mechanical laxative, in doses 
of ten to fifteen grains. It is supposed to act as a prophj'lactic 
in yellow fever, and to prevent the acetous fermentation when 
added to casks of wine, cider, etc. In preparing it, the com- 
mon charcoal from green wood is reduced to powder. This is 
reheated and burned to ignition in a tightly covered vessel. It 
is then kept for use in closely stopped bottles, as it will absorb 
moisture and gases from the atmosphere. It is used also as a 
general purifyer. Brackish water strained thi'ough a layer of 
sand and powdered charcoal is made sweet and pure. 

For making gunpoicdcr charcoal, the lighter woods, such as 
the willow, dogwood and alder, answer best ; and in their car- 
bonization care should be taken to let the vapors freel}' escape, 
especially toward the end of the operation, for when they 
are re-absorbed, they greatly impair the combustibility of the 
charcoal. The charcoal of some wood contains silica, and is, 
therefore, used for polishing metals. Dr. Mushet published the 
following table of the quantity of charcoal yielded by different 
woods : 

Chestnut 23.2 of charcoal — glossy, black, compact, firm. 

Oak 22.6 black, close, very firm. 

Walnut 20.0 dull black, close, firm. 

Holly 19.9 dull black, loose and bulky. 

Beech 19.9 dull black, spongy, firm. 

Sycamore... 19.7 fine black, bulky, moderately firm. 

Elm 19.5 tine black, moderately firm. 

Norway pine 19.2 shining black, bulky, very soft. 

Sallow or willow.. ..18. 4 velvet black, bulky, loose, soft. 

Ash 17.9 shining black, spongy, firm. 

Birch 17.4 velvet black, bulky, firm. [Am. Fanner's Enc 


On the subject of Nitre, and the materials for gunpowder, I 
will introduce the following from Chaptal's Chemistry, applied 
to Agriculture, p. 153, and refer the reader to Prof. Leconte's 
paper on nitre beds, published in Columbia, 1862. Different 
kinds of wood, he says, j-icld coal of very different quality; the 
best coal is heavy and sonorous, and is produced from wood of 
very compact fibre. The heat it affords is quick and strong, 
and its combustion, though vigorous, lasts a long time. The 
charcoal of the green oak of the South burns at least twice as 
long as that of the white oak of the North, and the effects pro- 
duced by the heat it affords are great in the same proportion. 

The light, porous, white woods afford a brittle, spongy coal, 
of less weight, and which may be easily reduced to powder; 
this coal consumes quickly in our fireplaces, but is useful for some 
jiurposes, particularly in the manufacture of gunpowder, for 
which, use it is prepared bj^ the following process : a ditch of 
five or six feet square and of about four in depth is dug in a 
dry soil ; the ditch is heated by means of a fire made of split 
wood ; the shoots and leaves are stripped from the long branches 
of elders, poplars, hazels and willows, of which the coal is to be 
made, and as soon as the ditch is sufficiently heated the branches 
are thrown gradually in ; when carbonization is at its height the 
pit is covered over with wet woollen cloths. This charcoal is 
more light and inflammable than that of the denser woods, and 
is susceptible of being more easily and completely pulverized. 
M. Proust, who has made numerous experiments to ascertain 
the kinds of plants which furnish the best coal for powder, 
found that procured from the stalk of hemp to be preferable to 
any other. 

The niost perfect process of carbonization is by means of 
a close apparatus; for this purpose a stone or brick building 
is constructed of eighteen to twenty-five feet square; this is 
matted over and the inside of it lined with a brick wall; through 
the extent of it cast-iron cylinders are laid in such a manner 
that one of the two ends shall have an external communica- 
tion, while the other carries the smoke into one of the chim- 
neys. As soon as the building is filled with the wood for 
carbonization the cylinders may be heated. The vapor which 
is distilled from the wood is received into sheet-iron pipes, 
placed in the top, which convey it into tubs where it is con- 


donsod. Count Thaptal ostooms this to bo tho bost and most 
ot'onomioal sipparaliis for lunUinij rhanojil; bosidcs, it allows 
tho prosorvation of tho pyrolii«;noous aoid, which briai;s a i;t>od 
prii'o, and n\ay also bo jnuMliod and oonvortod into vinoijar. 

In I'iJigland, ohaivoal is proparoil in two ditVoront ways. In 
ono, billots of wooil aro lorniod into a hoap, whioh is oovorod 
with turf, and a low small oponii\i:;s oidy loll Cov tho admission 
of tho air roquisito to maintain it in a stato i>f low oombustion 
at\or it is liijchtod. Whon tho wholo hoap is on tiro, tiio holos 
aro stoj^pod, and at\or iho mass has oooloil tho rosiduo is ohar- 
vox\\. This is substantially tho mothod adoptod on our planta- 
tatioMs. in thoothor modo, tho wood is distillod in iron oylin- 
dovs, in whioh oaso tho products aro pyndii;noous aoitls and 
on\pyroumatio oil ; and what romains in tho rotort is oharooal. 
Tho quantity of tho distillod products, as woU as o\' tho oharooal, 
do[>omls i>n tho kintl ot" W(>od omployotl, Ono hundred parts of 
driod oak yields of pyrolignoous aoid, 43. parts ; carbonate of 
potassa, 4.5 parts; ompyroumatic oil, 9.06 ]iarts; charcoal, 2l».2 
]>arts. Farmers Encyc. I'ros Oict. of Arts and Rural Cyc. 
Soo, jilso, ^' Qut'iYUs" and '' J*inus," in this voluino. 

Fivo hundred cords willow was contracted for, to bodolivoroil 
on tho lino of tho canal, at tho govoriunont powder factory, at 
Auixusta, Cia.. duriuij tho recent war. " Tho willow may bo of 
any size, tho smaller branches boinu; proterred ; tho larger sticks 
must bo split into ]Kirts not larger than tho arm. It must bo 
cut into uniform lengths ot" throe feet, and each cord will mea- 
sure tourteen toot long, three toot high and three foot broad, 
cimtaining ono hundred and iweniy-six cubic feet. Tho bark 
must bo carefully pooled otV at tho time ol' cutting.'' 

Purification of Witter hi/ C/uirohU. — The reader is referred to 
Chaptal's "Chemistry applioil to Agriculture" for much that 
is practical in tho domestic economy of our plantations in tho 
South on tho ittanutacturo of wine, brandy, etc. In his chapter 
on the 'moans of preparing wholesome drinks for tho wso of 
country people," he gives tho following mothod for rendering im- 
pure water pure. It would be found of great service at the pres- 
ent time, and our generals in tho tiold might thus, at little cost, 
]Mirify water for the use of their camps, for want of which sim- 
ple expoiiient, moves, possibly disastrous, have ot\en to be made 
in face of an enemy. " The water ntado use of is often muddy, 

or lijiH u bad Hrri(;ll, <;ithf;r of wliif,}i faults rnay be corroctod f^y 
filtering it tbrough charcoal ; tbc proce«H may be performed in 
the fbllowin;^ rtianner: plae*; a lar^e eaHk uiin-^Ui, in the coolest 
Hitualion you <an coinniarid, knock out the li'-ad, arid form in 
the bottom of it a bed of clean Hand upon which place one of 
charcoal, and above these fasten securely a double head pierced 
with holes. Wlien this is done the cask may be imm<;diately 
filled with the water which is to be purified. The filtrated 
fluid may be drawn off by means of a stop cock placed at the 
bottom of the bed of sand ; it will be found to have become 
clear and inodorous in its passage through the fand and char- 
coal. The preservation of this apparatus i-equires but little 
care ; when the charcoal ceases to produce the desired effect, it 
must be either well washed or replaced by a new portion," 
This plan can be put in practice by any one, and at any time. 

WEEPING WILLOW, (t'^alix Jiahiloni.m.) Completely natu- 
ralized. ^ 

It forms one of our most beautiful and graceful ornamental 
ti-ees. Only the jiistillate plant is fViund here; arid hence it 
(Joes not maturt! its fruit as the ofhers do. 

W J J I TE J'Ol'LA \i, (PopuluH olha.) Introduced. 

This is an aquatic plant, yet will grow on dry BoiJH. It is 
easily propagated by suckers, grows rapidly, is very tenacious 
of life, arid is one of the tr*ees planted to prevent the encroach- 
ment of the sea or rivers, by being planted with willows on tlie 
margin. See, also, willow, (,Salix.) 

The poplar has a very white, light wood, very suitable for 
flooring; also eminently suited, on account of its lightness, for 
the manufacture of trays, bowls, etc. "It is excellently adapted 
for the purposes of the bellows-maker, and of the manufac- 
turer of woofJen soles of shoes; it is good for light carts; exccl- 
Jent also for laths and packing-cases; very superior for wooden 
constructions under water; and in fact &h available for an 
almost innumerable variety of purposes, from the mean ones of 
fuel and poles to the noble ones of tools atid furniture. Pontey 
even asserts it to be perfectly suitable for almost every article 
usually made of mahogany, and quite capable of being stained 
and doctored into a very close imitation of tliat valuable wood." 
Wilson. The wood of our wild, tulip-bearing poplar {Lirioden- 
dron) is adapted to similar purposes, being light, and easily 


worked, and used by the cabiiiot-niaUor I'or many purposes. It 
is slated in tlio Farmer's Encyelopaniia that b}' splitting the 
wood of the wliito popUir into thin sliavings like tape or braid, 
the stutf called sparU'rie, used for liats, is manufactured. Those 
shavings are always made from green wood. One workman 
can, with tlie aid of a child to carry oif the shavings, keep 
several plaitcrs employed. Tnis might be made a source of 
successful industry in the Southern States. 

Paper from Wood Pulp. — A company of two hundred gentle- 
men, representing the newspaper and book publishers of New 
York, Boston and this city, paid a visit (1866) to the Manayunk 
AYood Paper Pulp Works, and witnessed the entire process of 
converting cord wood into paper pulp, and its manufacture into 
paper. The pulp works are very extensive, buildings and 
machinery having cost $500,000. The great feature of the 
works is the economy in the use of chemicals, which disin- 
tegrate the wood and bleach the pulp, the refuse being carried 
to the evaporating house, where the chemicals are rendered fit 
for using again, only twenty per cent, of fresh stock being 
added to make it equal to its former strength. A poplar tree 
was taken from the hill-side for their benelit, and converted into 
clear, white, soft paper, in the space of five hours. At the ad- 
joining. Great Rock Paper Mills, excellent printing paper is 
made with eighty per cent, of wood pulp and twenty per cent, 
of straw })ulp. From ten to fifteen tons of wood pulp are 
turned out daily. The Avorks have but recently gone into oi)e- 
ration, and already the price of paper is reduced three cfcnts 
per pound. 

Upon examining the excrescences caused by an insect in 
large numbers on the leaves of the cotton-wood tree, (P. hctero- 
phylla, L.,) I find them possessed of great bitterness, and sug- 
gest an examination into their tonic properties. 


SWEET GUM, (LiquiJambar styraafiua, L.) Diff'used from 
Fla. to Maryland. Fl. Atarch. 

U. S. Disp. 273 ; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 18-1 ; Ed. and 
Vav. Mat. Med. 303 ; Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. vi, 190; Eoyle, 
Mat. Med. 502; Bergii, Mat. Med. ii, 798; Linn. Veg. M. Med. 
In former times the resin was used in scabies ; and it is said 

(Am. Herbal, by J. Stearns) to be useful in resolving hard 
tumors in the uterus. The Indians esteemed it an excellent 
febrij'ugc, and employed it in healing wounds. Mer. and de L, 
Diet, de M. Med. iv, 128, and the Supplem. 1846 ; Ann. de Mont- 
pcllier, 1805, 327; Journal de Pharm. vii, 339, and vii, 568; Bull, 
de Therap., October, 1833, where I). L'lleritier proposes to treat 
blennorrhagias and leucorrhoeas with liquid styrax. A kind of 
oil, called copalm, is extracted from it in Mexico, which, when 
.solidified, is called copalm resin ; this is an excitant of the 
mucous sj'stem, and it is given in chronic catarrhs, and in affec- 
tions of the lungs, intestines and urinary passages. This is 
cordial and stomachic ; it excites both perspiration and urine ; 
it is also used in perfumery. In South Carolina and Georgia 
the temperature is not high enough for this tree to furnish 
much gum. Dr. Griffith experimented with it in the latitude of 
Baltimore, and obtained a small quantity by boiling the twigs 
and iTranches; he found that it exists in greatest abundance in 
the young trees just before the appearance of the leaves. It is 
about the consistence of honey, of a yellow color, and of a 
pleasant, balsamic odor and taste. The acid obtained from the 
gum is not benzoic, as the English assert, but cynamic. See 
Am. J. Pharm. The tree is of rapid growth, and is orna- 
mental — frequently assuming the appearance of a sugar-loaf. 
The wood is soft, but not durable. A decoction of the inner 
bark of the gum in a quart of milk, or a tea made with boiling 
water is one of the most valuable and useful mucilaginous 
astringents that we possess. It can be employed with advan- 
tage in eases of diarrhfjca and dysentery'. Dr. C. W. Wright, of 
Louisville, Ky., states that the bark of the tree is used with 
great advantage in the Western States in the diarrhoea and 
dysentery of summer, especially in children. A syrup from the 
bark is prepared in the same manner as the syrup of wild 
cherry bark. The dose is a fluid ounce for an adult, repeated 
after each stool. Am. J. Med. Sc. N. S. xxxii, 126. The editor 
of the Va. Med. J., August, 1856, says that the use of a decoc- 
tion of the bark in milk is common in many parts of Virginia 
as a remedy in the diarrhoea of children. U. S. Disp., 12th 
Ed. In Georgia, also, a common domestic remedy for diar- 
rhoeas is made by boiling in water equal parts of the barks of 
the rod oak and sweet gum — a small proportion of spirits may 


often be added with advantage. Dr. Wright claims that the 
syrup is retained by an iri-itable stomach when almost every 
other form of astringent medicine is rejected. See, also, Par- 
rish Pract. Pharm., p. 230. 

Leaves of native trees for Tanning Leather recommended in 
place of Oak bark. — During the months of October and Novem- 
ber, 1861, 1 had the leisure to make some experiments upon the 
relative amount of the astringent principles in the leaves of 
several of our most abundant native trees. The reputed power 
of the dogfennel and other plants for the rapid tanning of 
leather attracted my attention to the subject. I publish the 
following, that the green leaves may be collected and used 
before they fall. They can be much more readily obtained than 
oak bark. I made two series of experiments, with a solution of 
each leaf in boiling water, in separate test-glasses. After the}'- 
had remained a sufficient time for the coloring matters and the 
astringent principles to be extracted, I subjected each to the 
appropriate reagents. Solutions of iron as well as gelatine 
were employed, which responded perfectly, and gave delicate 
shades of difference. The leaf, well chewed and tasted, also 
gives a very good idea of its astringency, and consequently 
affords an approximation to the tannin and gallic acid it con- 
tains. It will be seen that the leaves of the sumach, sweet-gum, 
myrtle, blackberr}', Clethra tomentosa and Andromeda nitida, 
(both abundant in our damp pine barrens, along the margin of 
ponds,) and the fruit of the unripe persimmon, contain the 
largest amounts of tannin, and perhaps gallic acid. 

1 took special care to select trees, for the most part, which 
grew plentifully, and I particularly recommend those just men- 
tioned to be used in lieu of oak bark for tanning leather, on 
account of their abundance and the ease with which the fresh 
leaves can be gathered, and because of the scarcity of the oak, 
and the injury to these valuable timber trees. If the oak is 
deprived of its bark the wood should always be converted into 

The dogfennel, (^Eupatorium fieniculaceum (f) see Eupato- 
riutn,) occupied a very inferior position as a tanniniferous plant, 
and I have since learned that its reputed value was only illu- 



{Relative amount of Astringency (tannia) expressed by numerals.) 
1. Clethra abiifolia, L. (C. tomentosa, Lam.) Diffused in 
damp pine lands. 
1. Andromeda nitida. 

1. Fruit of unripe Persimmon, {Diospyros Virginiana; ) color 
of solution, bluish black. 

2. Sweet-Gum, {JJiquidambar styraciflua.') 
2^. Swamp Myrtle, (Myrica cerifera.) 

3. Sweet Swamp Bay, or Laurel, {Magnolia glauca.) All the 
above rich in tannin. 

4. Oak Leaves, Black Jack, (Quercus nigra, L.) 

5. Leaves of Persimmon. 

6. Sassafras, {Laurus Sassafras,) a trace. 

7. Prinos Glaber, (ink-berry.) Tannin not very evident. 


1. Sumach, (Rhus copallina, L. and R. Glabra.) 

2. Blackberry, {Ruhus villosus and trivialis,) both very rich in 

3. Sweet leaf, {Hopea tinctoria,) tannin slightly present. 

4. Dogfennel, {Eupatorium foiniculaceum,) a trace. 

5. Sassafras, a trace. 

6. Gall of the earth, {Erenanthes alba,) very bitter; tannin, 

Both the leaves and the excrescences on the leaves of the 
smooth Sumach, {Rhus glabra,) growing along streams in the 
upper districts, are very rich in tannin and should be used. 
The Alder, {Alnus serrulata,) abundant along watercourses, is 
also astringent. The reader can find a list of the plants and 
trees yielding tannin in Ure's "Dictionary of Arts, Manufac- 
ture and Mines." See, also, Oak Q' Quercus") and Sumach 
(" Rhus ") in this volume. 

M. Dussauce, in " his New and Complete Treatise on the Arts 
of Tanning, Currying and Leather Dressing, Philadelphia and 
London, 1847," states that the foliage of very few trees are 
employed in the manufacture of leather. He does not refer 
to the Carolina myrtle or gum as tanniniferous plants. I will 
include under this section a list of those trees, the leaves of 


which he mentions as being used for tanning. Very few of the 
species cited by him grow in the South, but the plants belong 
to the genera Scdix, Sorbiis, {cmcvparia,) Pxinica, Fagus, Cornus, 
Betida, Bumex, Quercus, Prumis, Amygdalus, {.Persica,) Geranium, 
(Enothera, (biennis,') Tilia, Arbutus and Rubus. 

He cites the following, the flowers and flower tops of which 
may be used for tanning. I select only those which are in- 
digenous or naturalized within the limits I have prescribed to 

Agrimonia eupatoria, Hypericum perforatum, (St. John's-wort,) 
Polygonum persicaria, Plantago major, (Plantain,) Humulus lupu- 
lus, (Hop.) The seeds of the grape and the roots of Statice 
Carolijiiana, (Marsh Kosemary,) also contain tannin. 


STAE-WOET; WATER CHICKWEBD, {Callitriche verna, 
W., Callatriche heterophyUa, Ell. Sk.) Grows in shallow water ; 
collected in St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston. Fl. May. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 326. It is considered by the planters a 
valuable diuretic remedy in dropsy. The tincture of the whole 
plant in spii'its is employed. A decoction is given to horses 
when diuresis is desired. 


GUM, {Nyssa aquatica, L. The roots are immersed in inun- 
dated soils ; collected in St. John's; observed in Fairfield Dis- 
trict; vicinity of Charleston; Newbern. 

The roots are white, spongy and light, and ai"e sometimes 
used in the Southern States as a substitute for cork ; I am in- 
formed by a fi'iend who has had bottle corks cut from them 
that they answer perfectly, and the floats for the nets of fisher- 
men are generally made of the tupelo. 

The genus exhibits a constant peculiarity of organization, 
(" the fibres are united in bundles and interwoven like a braided 
cord,") hence the wood is extremely difficult to split, unless cut 
into billets — much used for hubs of wheels ; also preferred for 
the sideboards of carts. Am. Sylva. Trays, bowls, dippers, 


mortars, and other utensils arc manufactured from it. I had 
recommended it as a suitable material during the war for shoes 
in ni}^ article in DeBow's Eeview, August, 1861, and have since 
had a number made from the wood of the roots for negi'oes 
residing on plantations in South Carolina. It is recommended 
that only the sole of the shoe be made of wood, an inch in 
thickness, cowskin, with the hair turned inside, being nailed on 
this over a last; the hardness of this which is an objection, 
may be diminished by soaking in salt and water. I have used 
sheepskin, though canvas is next best to leather. The wood 
should be well seasoned, or it will crack ; boiling will prevent 
this if the fresh wood is used. It is advised that when the 
black-gum is used in the manufacture of shoes, "for complete 
protection against moisture, a slip or inner sole and lining of 
any water-proof material may be added." 

I iu^'odiice the following from the "Farmer and Planter," as 
not inappropriate. Every one who has visited Europe has seen 
the sabot worn by the peasantry : 

It cannot be denied that a number of diseases must result 
from the wearing of leather shoes by laborers, when engaged 
in out-door operations during cold weather, or in wet situations. 
In Germany, Belgium and France, in order to prevent those 
evils, at least to some extent, the use of wooden shoes has long 
since been introduced, and they are extensively worn by the 
whole farming and laboring population. 

The governments of Europe have very much encouraged the 
manufacture of the same, and their preference over leather 
shoes is much recommended by all boards of agriculture and of 
health. There is hardl3^an operation on the farm and about the 
farm-houses, the garden, etc., in which they could not be most 
profitably used. They are perfectly secure against the pene- 
tration of water, and being always dry, will keep the feet warm 
and thereby prevent many diseases. They are light and easy 
to wear, of a pleasant appearance, may be blackened or var- 
nished. They can be worn with or without stockings; and, 
with many other advantages, they combine such durability as 
to last almost a lifetime, at a cost of from twenty-five to thirty- 
seven cents. They are certainly entitled to the attention of 
the farmers and laboring population of the South. The wood 


for theii* manufacture is to be had in great abundance in most 
of our Southern States. 

The following is on the same subject : 

Shoes without Leather. — Messrs. Howes, Hyatt & Co., shoe and 
leather dealers, in the City of New York, manufacture a planta- 
tion brogan, differing from the old shoe, in having soles of some 
light, tough wood — probably the root of the swamp poplar. 
They patented the invention and warrant the brogan to outlast 
the best of the leather-soled. Planters on the Mississippi had 
tried them, and found that they were warmer, more durable, 
and more impervious to water than the leatber-soled. The soles 
were made by machinery. The upper leather was first securely 
tacked to the inner sole, and the under sole securely fastened to 
the upper by about a dozen iron screws, securing the upper 
leather between the two soles. With soles of wood and uppers 
of canvas we can be independent of leather in times of war and 

Mr. W. Gilmore Simms suggests to me the use of the tupelo, 
on account of its lightness, for making cartridge boxes. Surg. 
Carrington, Med. Director late C. S. A., Eichmond, Va., em- 
ployed the tupelo to test its advantages as a material for the 
manufacture of artificial limbs, and Gen. Walker informs me, 
1866, that he uses a leg made of the white tupelo, and that it 
surpasses every other for lightness. 

It is necessary to distinguish between the wood of these trees. 
The roots of the white tupelo furnishes a material so light as to 
resemble cork yqvj closely. The body of the tree also furnishes 
a very light wood. It always grows in ponds. The Black tu- 
pelo or black gum, sometimes grows on highlands — the wood is 
also very light, but it possesses a firmer texture, by the inter- 
lacement of the fibres, as I have observed — hence the adapta- 
bility of the wood of the root for making bowls, shoes, naves of 
carts, etc. The wood of the root is in each lighter than that of 
the body of the ti'ee. 

The N. capitata, of Walt., the Ogeechee Lime, growing in the 
swamps of Florida and Georgia, near the coast, has a fruit which 
is agreeably acid. Dr. J. H. Mellichamp writes me : "A very 
delightful acid preserve is made from the large drupes of this 

Birds are fond of the fruit of this p-enus. 


THYMELACBiE. {The Mezereiim Tribe.) 

According to Lindley, the great feature of this tribe is the 
causticity of tlie bark, which acts upon the skin as a vesicatory 
and causes excessive pain in the mouth when chewed. 

histris, L.) Diffused; grows near Augusta at Colleton's Neck, 
(Ell.) Bartram found it near Savannah ; N. C. Fl. Feb. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 659; U. S. Disp. 1253; 
Coxe's Am. Disp. 259; Shec. Flora Carol. 513; Big. Am. Med. 
Bot. ii, 157 ; Barton's Collec. 32 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 563 ; Raf. 
Med. Fl. i, 158. The berries are said to be narcotic and poi- 
sonous, and the bark has a nauseous odor and acrid taste, 
yielding its virtues to alcohol ; eight grains of the powdered 
bark will produce violent vomiting, followed by purging. When 
applied to the skin, it blisters like mezereon. The juice has been 
applie(^to the nerve of a painful tooth with relief, and in dis- 
eases where acrid masticatories are serviceable. Bigelow says 
the decoction is sudorific and expectorant, and he considers it a 
good substitute for senega. The bark is also uncommonly tough, 
and was used by the Indians for cordage ; the wood is very 
hard and pliant. 

Its twigs are remarkable for toughness, are as strong and pli- 
able as those of the lime tree, and are employed in America for 
the manufacture of various small articles Its bark, also, has a 
homogeneous character with the twigs, and is used for making 
ropes and baskets ; and both, but especially the twigs, occasion 
the plant to be popularly called in Canada leatherwood. This 
plant is an excessive favorite with snails! Wilson's Rural Cyc. 

LAURACE.E, {The Cinnamon Tribe.) 
The qualities of the species of this order are uniform, being 
universally aromatic, warm and stomachic. 

SASSAFRAS, {Sassafras officinale^ Nees. Laurus sassafras of 
Ell. Sk.) Diffused. Fl. March. 

Bell's Pract. Diet. 411; Eberle, Mat. Med. ii, 320; Drayton's 
View, 68; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 341; U. S. Disp. 640; Royle, 
Mat. Med. 518; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 253; CuUen's 
Mat. Med. ii, 200 and 579 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 142 ; Murray's 
Apparat. iv, 835; Kalm's Travels, 11; Hoffman's Obs. Phys. 
Chem. 31; Clayton's Phil. Trans, viii, 332; Bremaine, "Sassa- 


fralogia," in 1627 ; Woodv. Med. Bot.; Griffith's Med. Bot. 552 ; 
Thornton's Fam. Herb. The phmt contains an essential oil, ob- 
tained by distillation, which is heating, sudorific and diuretic, 
and which is used to disguise the taste of medicines. In the 
Supplcm. to Diet, de M. Med. 426, 1846, it is reported that the 
essential oil, when placed in a temperature of 40° Fahr., will 
form crystals, which, being exposed lo heat, return to pure oil : 
from the Eeport in the Lond. Med. Journal vii, 2501, 831 ; lie- 
searches on the Ess. Oil of Sassafras, in the Comptes Rendus 
Hebd. des Sc. de I'Acad. des Sc. xviii, 705. After the conquest 
made by the Spaniards in Florida sassafras was used in the 
treatment of syphilis, the warm infusion being applicable in cu- 
taneous disease, by acting on the emunctories. The root is em- 
ployed in the Carolinas in combination with guaiac, sarsaparilla, 
and China briar, (S}nilax.') in the formation of diet drinks. It is 
diaphoretic and diuretic, useful in rheumatism, and Alibert 
speaks highly of it in gout. The pith of the young branches, 
according to Eberle, contains a great deal of mucilage ; which is 
" an exceedingly good application in acute ophthalmia, and no 
less useful in catarrhal and dysenteric affections;" it is not af- 
fected by alcohol ; Griffith (Med. Bot. 552) also speaks favorably 
of it as an application to inflamed eyes, being effectual in the re- 
moval of the irritation so constant in this complaint. It is ad- 
vantageously given as a demulcent drink in disorders of the res- 
piratory organs, bowels and bladder ; being more efficacious than 
that prepared from the leaves of Bene, (^Sesamum Indicum.') It 
might be used as a substitute for acacia. The oil extracted from 
this plant is one of the heaviest of the volatile oils. Dr. B. S. 
Barton states that it has been found an efficacious application to 
wens. Coll. i, 19. G. Velsch, "Lignum sassafras et radice di- 
versum," Miscel. Cur. Nat. 332, 1670; C.J. Trew, Brevis Hist. 
JNat.; Arboris Sassafras dicta), (Nova acta Acad. Nat. Cur. ii, 
271 ;) G. D. Ebret de Arboribus Sassafras dictis et Londini cultis, 
(Nova acta ii, 236;) Obs. on the Sassafras, in Obs. surla Phy- 
sique, xxiv, 63 ; Bonastre, Mem. sur I'Huile volatile de Sass. 
(Journal de Pharm. xiv. 645.) And, also, A. Buchner upon the 
Crystallization of the Oil of Sassafras. 

The roots yield a drab color with copperas; no doubt a much 
lighter shade ma}' be obtained by alum or vinegar as a mordant. 
I believe that any of our plants containing either tannin or 


colored juices may be used as dyes. Iron increases the shade 
by foi-ming tannate or gallate of iron. See " Rhus," etc. 

The leaves of sassafras contain an unusual proportion of mu- 
cilage, and two or three leaves, dissolved in water, yield a mu- 
cilaginous drink. I made great use of the tea prepared with 
sassafras root, gathered extemporaneously, while surgeon to the 
Holcombe Legion, S. C. Vols. It was given whenever a warm, 
aromatic, mucilaginous tea was required, in fever, pneumonia, 
bronchitis, catarrhs, mumps, etc. The nurse detailed for each 
company procured the materials upon the spot where the com- 
pany or regiment was posted. It served every purpose of the 
articles usually supplied by the medical purveyors of the army. 
I have also used it in lieu of gum arable and flaxseed, so largely 
required on onr plantations. The cotton seed is said to make 
an equally economical demulcent tea. 

In oump sassafras tea was often drunk daily by many of the 
officers and soldiers as a favorite substitute for green tea. It is 
thought to purify the blood, but the impression that it tends to 
impair the health and intellect if persisted in must be erroneous. 
The oil it contains is^diuretic. 

The Farmer's Enc3'clopoedia says of the sassafras: 

" The wood stripped of its bark is very durable, strong and 
resists worms, etc. It forms excellent posts for gates. Bed- 
steads made of it are never infested with bugs. It is, however, 
only occasionally employed for any useful purpose, and never 
found in the lumber-yards of large towns. The pith and dried 
leaves of the young branches of the sassafras contain much mu- 
cilage, resembling that of the okra plant, and are extensively 
used in New Orleans to thicken pottage, and make the cele- 
brated gumbo soup." 

A cheap and wholesome Beer for the use of soldiers, or as a 
table beer, is prepared from the sassafras, the ingredients being 
easily obtained. To eight bottles of water are added one quart 
of molasses, one pint of yeast, one tablespoonful of ginger, one 
and a half tablespoonful of cream of tartar, these ingredients 
being well stirred and mixed in an open vessel ; after standing 
twenty-four hours the beer may be bottled, and used immedi- 
ately. The reader interested in the manufacture of beer, ale, 
porter, etc., will find the methods detailed in Solly's Eural 
Chemistry, Ure's Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures, and in 
Wilson's Eural Cyclopcedia. 


I add the method of preparing 

The French Army Beer. — The following is the recipe of the 
beer that has been introduced into the French Army upon the 
recommendation of the Medical Board. It is described as a 
very wholesome beverage, of pleasant and refreshing taste, and 
promoting digestion in a remarkable degree. It may prove an 
agreeable beverage both in and outside of the army : 

"Water 100 litres about 100 quarts. 

Molasses 500 grammes about 1 pound. 

Hops - 100 grammes about 3 ounces. 

Marshmallow root 50 grammes about 1^ ounce. 

Yeast 60 grammes about li ounce. 

Make an infusion of the hops and marshmallow root with 
about twenty times their weight of the boiling water. Another 
part of the water is used to dilute the molasses, and another to 
dilute the yeast. All the fluids are then mixed, and put into a 
vessel for fermentation. After five or six days it will be ready 
for use. 

The following modification of the recipe may sometimes be 
preferable : 

Water 100 litres * 100 quarts. 

Honey 800 grammes 1 lb. 10 oz. 

Brown sugar 800 grammes 1 lb. 10 oz. 

Hops 300 grammes 9 oz. 

Yeast 50 grammes \\ oz. 

I have no doubt the mucilaginous leaves of the sassafras or 
the Bene would serve as a substitute for the marshmallow. See, 
also, "Persimmon," (Diospyros,) "Apple" and " Hop," in this 
volume for manufacture of domestic liquors. 

zoin odoriferum, Kees V. Ess. Lauriis benzoin, L., Ell. Sk.) Grows 
along rivulets. 

Collected in St. John's, Charleston District ; Eichland ; New- 
bern. Fl. April. 

Mer. and de L. Diet de M. Med. iv, 51 ; U. S. Disp. 1233 ; 
Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 201 ; Griffith's Med. Bot. 553; Barton, 295. 
This is another of our highly aromatic, indigenous shrubs; the 
bark is, besides, stimulant and tonic; "extensively used, in 
North America, in intermittent fevers." 

This tree contains a remarkable amount of aromatic property 
in every portion of it; it yields benzoin. Benzoin is also found 
in our grasses Anthoxanthum odoratum, (sweet scented vernal 


grass,) IIolcus odoratus and Mellllotus officinalis — the principle 
wliich appears to give fragrance to liay and pasture land, and 
which is communicated undecomposed to the urine of the cow. 
Wilson's Eural Cyc. The berries contain an aromatic oil, which 
is esteemed in some parts of the country as an application to 
bruises, rheumatic limbs, etc. It is said to have been employed 
during the Ecvolutionary war, as a substitute for allspice. B. 
S. Bai'ton states that an infusion of the twigs has been found 
eflficacious as a vermifuge ; the flowers are employed in the 
place of those of the sassafras. 

A decoction of the plant forms an excellent diaphoretic drink 
in pneumonias, colds, coughs, etc., and as such may be largely 
used among soldiers in service. 

The soldiers of the upper country of South Carolina, serving 
in the Holcombe Legion, of which I was Surgeon, came into 
cami>fully su])plied with the spice bush for making a fragrant, 
aromatic, diaphoretic tea. This, and a tea prepared from the 
sassafras, I used entirely as a substitute for gum arable and 
flaxseed in colds, coughs, pneumonias, etc. Soldiers may supply 
themselves with these, as they move camp, in any locality. 

POND SPICE, (Laurus, Walter. Tetranthera geniculata, 
Nees.) Grows around ponds; vicinit}' of Charleston ; Newbern ; 
Da. This, also, is aromatic. A species growing in China af- 
fords much tallow. 

AEISTOLOCIIIACEiE. (The Birthicort Tribe.) ■ 

SEKPBNTAKIA; SNAKEROOT, (Aristolochia serpentaria, 
L.) Diff'used. Kichland; vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. 

Bell's Pract. Diet. Mat. Med. 420; Trous, et Pid. Mat. Med. i, 
336 ; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med.- 249 ; Eberle, Mat. Med. i, 280 ; 
Le. Mat. Med. i, 163 ; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 520 ; Royle, Mat. 
Med. 532; U. S- Disp. 658; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. i, 231; 
Journal de Pharmacie, vi, 365 ; Journal de Chim. Med. vii, 493 ; 
Sydenham, Peechey's Trans. 4th edition, 33 ; Ball and Gar. Mat. 
Med. 375; Cullen, Mat. Med. ii, 85; Bergii, Mat. Med. ii, 765; 
Mer. and de L. Diet de M. Med. i, 415 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. iii, 
82 ; Murray, Apparat. Med. i, 348 ; Chap. Therap. and Mat. Med. 
ii, 411; Lind. on Hot Climates, 104, 254; Shec. Flora Carol. 
203; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 206; Bart. M. Bot. 251; Woodv. 


Med. Bot.; Griffith's Med. Bot. 829 ; Linn. Veg. M. Med. 166 ; 
Bull Plantes Ven de France, 83; Thornton's Fara. Herb. This 
plant, which yields a volatile oil, camphor, malate and phospi>ate 
of lime, is well known as a tonic, diuretic and diaphoretic, of 
great value in the low stages of fever, and in tj^phus, after re- 
mittent, in chlorosis, and in atonic affections of the intestinal 
canal ; indicated where we wish to stimulate and excite at the 
same time a free diaphoresis and diuresis. It is also useful in 
promoting the cutaneous excretions in exanthematous diseases, 
where the eruptions are tardy. Dr. Chapman recommended it 
in " bilious pleurisy." The infusion is serviceable in restraining 
vomiting; much use is made of this plant among the negi'oes 
in the South, particularly in the low stages of pneumonia, to 
which they are particularly liable. I have repeatedly observed 
the good effects of both this and the senega snakeroot, {Polygala 
senega,) in this affection. The dose of the powdered root is ten 
to thirty grains; of the infusion, of one ounce to one pint of 
boiling water, two ounces may be taken as often as occasion re- 
quires. Its effects are increased by combining it with camphor. 
Dr. Thornton, (Fara. Herb. cit. sup.,) used it in typhus fever ; 
two drachms of the tincture, combined with ten grains of the 
powder and five drachms of the tiuctm-e of opium, may be 
given every hour. It is said to add ranch to the efficacy of 
bark ; and it forms an ingredient of Huxam's Tr. of bark. 

Several vegetable infusions surpass even sea salt in anti-septic 
power. Sir John Pringle says that several bitters, such as ser- 
))entaria, chamomile, or Peruvian bark, exceed salt, he inferred, 
one hundred and twenty times — " flesh remaining long untainted 
when immersed in their infusions ; camphor is more powerful 
than anything else." Wilson's Kural Cyclop. This anti-septic 
power of certain vegetable substances should be compared with 
their medicinal effects when prescribed internally. All the arti- 
cles just mentioned are, it will be remembered, employed in ty- 
phoid and low fevers. Araong vegetable products, vinegar is 
also anti-septic, and in the latter stages of low forms of fever, 
dysentery, etc., is highly useful. Among the astringents pos- 
sessed of anti-septic properties, the tannin may be the potent 
agent, on account of its affinity for albumen and gelatine. 

Artstolochla hastata. Eich, shaded soils. Fl. June. 


U. S. Disp. 658; Am. Journal Pharm. xiv, 121. It is said to 
be similar in properties to the A. serpentaria. 

DUTCHMAN'S PIPE, {Aristolochia sipho.) Shec. Fl. Carol. 
205. Similar in properties to the others. 

Aristolochia tomentosa, Sims. Fla. to JVIts. of N. C. Similar 
in properties to the other species. 

EOOT, (Asarum Canadensis, L.) Eich soil ; collected in St. 
John's. Fl. April. 

U. S. Disp. 125 ; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 243 ; Frost's 
Elems. 220 ; Med. Journal Pharm. x, 186 ; Diet. Univ. des 
Drogues Simples, Ann. 1733 ; Cullen Mat. Med. ii, 473, 553 ; 
Mer. and de L. Diet de M. Med. i, 463 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. i, 149 ; 
Schoepf, Mat. Med. 72, in op. cit. ; Barton's Collection, 26, 48; 
Coxe, Am. Disp, 368; Liud. Nat. Syst. Bot. 206 ; Griffith's Med. 
But. 527. An aromatic, stimulant tonic and diaphoretic, "ap- 
plicable in similar cases with serpentaria.'^ It is employed in 
cases requiring a medicine of this class, and is used in cholic 
"where no inflammation exists. It is valuable in colds, coughs 
and female obstructions as a warm, diffusible stimulant and dia- 
phoretic; sometimes combined with snakeroot and puccoon 
root, {Sang ulnar ia.) Dr. Firth gave it with benefit in the 
tetanus of children arising from cold. The leaves, dried and 
powdered, have poAverful errhine properties. They were once 
considered actively emetic, (Shec. Fl. Carol. 219 ;) but this has 
been denied by Bigelow and Barton, op. cit. Dr. J. R. Black, of 
Indiana, has ascribed active diuretic properties to it, and has 
used it with extraordinary success in two cases of dropsy, con- 
nected with albuminous urine. He used a decoction made by 
boiling four ounces of the root in two pints of water for thirty 
minutes, and gave two tablespoon sful every four hours. N. Y. 
Journal Med. xxxii, 289; U.S. Disp., 12th Ed. The root is often 
used as a substitute for ginger, to which it is said to be fully 
equal. According to Bigelow's examination, it contains a pun- 
gent, volatile oil, and a resin which communicate to alcohol the 
virtues of the plant, fecula, a gum, mucus, etc., op. cit. 153, 1. 
By the Anal, of Mr. Rushton, quoted in Griffith's work from the 
Am. Journal Pharm. x, 81, and more recently of Mr. Proctor, 
ibid, xii, 177, it is shown that the active principle is an aromatic 
essential oil, and that it contains neither asarin nor camphor. 


This plant may be given either in powder, tincture or infu- 
sion ; dose of the powder, thirty grains. It may be boiled in 
milk and drunk freely. A syrup may also be made. 

HEAET SNAKEKOOT, {Asaru7n Virginicum.) Grows in 
rocky soils. Fl. July. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 218; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 219; "a 
stimulating diaphoretic, fully equal to the Arist. Serp." Proba- 
bly possessed of similar properties to the other. Milne, in his 
Ind. Bot. 73, alludes to this species as one of the strongest of 
the vegetable errhines — the roots and leaves being used. "The 
fresh leaves applied to the nostrils speedily terminate attacks of 
slight cold by the discharge which they induce." Those who 
snuff find it a valuable addition to tobacco — the dried leaves 
being powdered and mixed with it. The decoction and infusion 
of this were considered emetic, and great relief was said to have 
been afforded by it in periodical headaches, vertigo, etc.; one 
scruple of the fresh or one drachm of the dried root and leaves 
was employed as an emetic and cathartic. 

Asa}-um arifolium, Mich. Grows in shaded, rich soils ; col- 
lected in St. John's Berkeley, near Whitehall PL; vicinity of 
Charleston. Fl. May. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 217. This, no doubt, partakes of the prop- 
erties of the others, if it is not identical; Linnaeus proposes it 
as a substitute for ipecac ; and Dr. Cutler says that the 
powdered root, in moderate doses, acts as a gentle emetic, one 
and a half drachm given in substance. The "tincture possesses 
both emetic and cathartic virtues." This, like the farmer, is a 
very powerful sternutatory ; when the powdered leaves are used, 
the discharge from the nose will sometimes last for three days, 
hence it has been applied in this way with great advantage in 
stubborn disorders of the head, palsies, etc. "A case in which 
there was paralysis of the mouth and tongue was cured by one 
application of it." 

AMAEANTACEiE. (The Amaranth .Tribe.) 

The leaves of many of the species are wholesome and mucila- 

FORTY-KNOT, (Achyranthes repens, Ell.) Diffused; grows 
in tlic streets of Charleston. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, i, 311. It is possessed of well marked 


diuretic properties, and is employed in ischury and dysury, and 
in the gravelly complaints of old persons. In Fairtield District, 
S. C, it has lately been employed with decided success in several 
cases of dropsy, but sharing the fate of all other diuretics in 
being sometimes inefficient in cases depending upon organic 
changes, or produced by causes other than those connected with 
the circulation. It is given in decoction — a handful of the herb 
to a pint of water — of which a wineglassful is taken three times 
a day. I have used this plant as a diureticin the City Hospi- 
tal, Charleston, under my care 1867, and find it to be possessed 
of decidedly diuretic properties. 

SALTWOET, (Salsola kali.) Sandy shores; Georgia and 

Among the plants used in procuring soda in Spain, are " the 
different species of Salsola, Salicornia, and Batis maritima. The 
ZosterM maritima is burnt in some places on the borders of the 
Baltic. In this country (Scotland, see Thornton's Fam. Her- 
bal.) we burn the various species of fuci, and in France they 
burn the Chenopodium maritimum. In order to obtain it the 
carbonate must be treated like potash of commerce, with lime 
and ardent spirits as described before." Within the limits of 
the Southern States we have all the above plants, save C. mari- 
timum. Little doubt, however, exists in my mind that our 
several species of worm seed, {Chenopodium,') will be found to 
contain potash or soda in large amount. Some plants, " which 
in their native soil yield only potash, afford also soda if they 
are cultivated in the neighborhood of the sea." " The soda is 
more or less pure according to the nature of the particular 
plant from which it is obtained," (Thornton.) The species of 
Salicornia are found on the coast of Florida and northward. 
Batis maritima, L. "Salt marshes, Apalachicola, and north- 
ward." Zostera marina, L. West Florida and northward. 
(Chapman's So. Flora.) See ^^ Sapindus" and " Saponaiia," in 
this volume, p. 159, where the salsola has been treated of in 
connection with the "soap wort." 

Wilson says also of the Salsola kali that it is the best of our 
native plants for yielding "kelp, barilla, potash and soda, and 
was formerly collected in considerable quantities on our western 
coasts, and burned to yield soda for the manufacture of glass, 
and for other purposes. It grows freely from seed, and does 


not require any great nicety of management, yet never has, been 
carefully cultivated." Rural Cyc. See, also, " Fiicus," in this 
volume, for method of prepai'ing barilla and soda from sea 

I introduce the following brief process for the manufacture of 
soda, as we have several plants in the Southern States which 
furnish it: Far the best mode now adopted is to procure it 
from sea water, but this may not always be attainable. " For 
the manufacture of soda, the marine plants are gathered at the 
season when their vegetation has terminated, and they are left 
to dry. A pit four feet square and three feet deep is dug in the 
earth ; this is heated with split wood, and the saline plants are 
afterward thrown gradually in. Combustion is continued dur- 
ing seven or eight days ; the ashes become fused in the pit, and 
remain in this state till the end of the process, when the com- 
bustion is completed; the whole is allowed to cool, and then the 
block of soda is divided into large pieces for the market." " In 
order that soda may possess all the requisite strength, it is 
necessary to separate it from the carbonic acid with which it is 
always united, and by which its properties are weakened. This 
is easily done by mixing quick-lime with a solution of soda ; the 
acid has so strong an affinity for lime as to quit the soda to 
combine with it. The lye procured from this mixture is caustic, 
and leaves a burning impression upon the tongue ; the soda thus 
purified acts more readily upon the bodies with which it com- 
bines. This mode of preparation is indispensable when soda is 
to be employed with oil in the manufacture of hard soap ; it is 
useless when it is to be combined at a strong heat with earthy 
bodies, as is the case in glass works." Ohaptal also copies from 
M. DeSaussure's Treatise on Vegetation a very extensive table, 
giving the constituents of a great many plants, trees, etc., which 
the reader may consult. Among the plants used in preparing 
soda on the Mediten-anean are the Salicornia Europea, the Sal- 
sola tragus, the Statics limonium, the Atriplex j^ojiulacoides, the 
Salsola kali. "We have growing in South Carolina and Georgia 
the Salsola kali, and the Stgtice Carolinana, Walt., which should 
be tested, the Atriplex hastata, and the two species of Salicornia, 
mentioned above, which also grow on our coast. To show the 
alliance of the natural families in physical resemblances and 
natural properties, I find Chenopodium, Atriplex, Salicornia and 


Salsola all in one tribe, and each rich in potash or soda. The 
fumitory (Famaria) is one of the plants richer in potash than 
the wormwood, {Ghenopodium.) 

GLASSWOET, (Salico)-nia herbacea, L.) Salt marshes along 
the coast of Georgia and Carolina. 

We have two species of this genus, which is celebrated, com- 
mercially, for the production of alkaline salts. Wilson states of 
S. herbacea that the whole plant abounds in saline juices, and 
possesses a saline taste ; and that it was formerly burned in 
common with the richly alkaline fuel in the manufacture of 
kelp ; that it is greedily eaten by sheep and cattle, and that it is 
sometimes gathered and used as a substitute for rock samphire 
in Scotland. See " Salsola." 

CHENOPODIACB.E. (The Goose-foot Tribe.) 

Some are wholesome, others possess an essential oil, which is 
tonic and anti-spasmodic. The beet and spinach, cultivated in 
the Southern States, belong to this order. 

JAGGED S^A-OHACH., (Atriplexlaciniata, L.) Grows along 
salt streams. Fl. July. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 247. The expressed juice, in doses of four 
to eight grains, is said to act as a powerful purgative. Accord- 
ing to Schoepf, it is used as a substitute for gamboge in dropsy 
and asthma. 

JEEUSALEM OAK; WOUMSE^D, (Chenopodiim anthel- 
minticum, L.) Diffused ; collected in St. John's ; vicinity of 
Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. July. 

Linnteus, Veg. M. Med.; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 274; 
Ebcrle, Mat. Med. 218 ; Ell. Bot. i, 331 ; Chap. Therap. and Mat. 
Med. ii, 71; Drayton's View of South Carolina, 65; Frost's 
Eleras. Mat. Met. 191 ; U. .S. Disp. 206 ; Bart. M. Bot. ii, 183 ; 
Am. Journal Pharm. v, 180 ; Bergii, Mat. Med. i, 183 ; Griffiih's 
Med. Bot. 538. It is well known as "one of our most efficient 
indigenous anthelmintics," adapted to the expulsion of lumbrici 
in children. Eberle employed the oil of the seeds with success 
in these cases, after every other remedy had failed. The dose 
to a child under five years is two drops ; to an adult thirty 
drops, given on sugar grated in water. The expressed juice may 
he used, or a decoction of the leaves in milk, a wineglassful at a 
dose, for the oil impregnates the whole plant. The dose of the 


seed, for a child two years old, is from one to two scruples, 
mixed with syrup or bruised in castor oil. The distilled water 
may also be used. These plants are much employed on the 
plantations in South Carolina and Georgia for their anthelmin- 
tic properties, the seeds being collected in the fall. Dr. Wood 
states that the plant is cultivated in Maryland. 

The wormwood, (Artemisia,) of which there is a species (A. 
caudata) growing in West Florida and northward, is said to be 
rich in potash. This plant should also be examined for the 
active principle santonine, and for an essential oil. The Chenopo- 
dium, of which we have several species, although not belonging 
to the same natural family, is perhaps equally rich in potash. 
The " wormwood is highly recommended to be converted into 
charcoal, to be used in the manufacture of gunpowder." See 
" Salix." In fact, all the Chenojpodiums are also rich in alkaline 
salts, potash, etc., and may be used for its manufacture. The 
Persian insect powder, a species o£ Pyrethrum, (or Persian cham- 
omile,) destroys insects with great certainty. I think it likely 
that some of the plants just mentioned, the milfoil, (^Achillea 
millefolium,) the tansy, (Tanacetum vulgare,) or ox-eye daisy, 
{Leucanthemum vulgare, L.,) all growing in the Southern States, 
may possibly be found to answer the purpose of destroying 
insects, caterpillars, etc., on plants and animals. They contain a 
pungent oil. There is a notice of the Pyrethrum (roseum, jJur- 
piireum and carneum) in Patent Office Eeports, 1857, 129. 

See, also, Dasistoma for plant hostile to insects. 

I have several times stated that the allied Artemisia, worm- 
wood, was exceedingly rich in potash. The natural affinities 
are here borne out, for the family Chenipodiaceoi contains many 
plants furnishing soda in large proportion. Such are Salsola, 
Salicornia, Atriplex and salt-marsh Chenopodiums ; a notice of 
species of all these genera is included in this volume. They 
should receive the attention of the nitre manufacturers, Nitrate 
of potash " is found in the common horseradish, in the nettle, 
and the sunflower." Farmer's Bncyc. 

JERUSALEM OAK OF SOME, {Chenopodium botrys, Ph.) 
Grows near Columbia. Fl. August. 

U. S. Disp. 206 ; Le. Mat. Med. 235 ; Ed. and Yav. Mat. Med. 
304 ; Bergii, Mat. Med. i, 181 ; Mer. and de L. Pict. de M. Med. 
ii, 225 ; Shec. Flora. Carol. 388 ; Dem. Elem. de Bot. 250. The 


juice of this is also carminative, pectoi*al, emmenagogiie and 
vermifuge ; the essential oil is anti-spasmodic, tonic and vermi- 
fuge. An infusion, as a tea, is resolutive and expectorant, and 
is useful in flatulent colic, spasmodic cough, humoral asthma, 
and in hysteria. The expressed juice of this species is given 
in doses of a tablespoonful, in molass